Breeding Health And Longevity. Agroholding Search On Guard Of The Nation's Health

Breeding Health And Longevity. Agroholding Search On Guard Of The Nation's Health
Breeding Health And Longevity. Agroholding Search On Guard Of The Nation's Health

Video: Breeding Health And Longevity. Agroholding Search On Guard Of The Nation's Health

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Want to Live to a Healthy 100? 2023, February
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Health and longevity are the main values ​​of human life. It is important for us that these values ​​are directly related to the consumption of vegetables. It is an indisputable fact that the quantity and quality of vegetables consumed directly affect human health, longevity and quality of life. That is why the issues of proper nutrition and the culture of consuming vegetables are becoming more and more relevant all over the world.

Harvest of tomatoes of selection of POISK Agrofirm
Harvest of tomatoes of selection of POISK Agrofirm

Human nutrition is scientifically substantiated relatively recently. And every discovery here reveals the enormous importance of vegetable consumption. Globally, there is a constant increase in the production and consumption of vegetables in the developed countries of the world. At the same time, the associated increase in average life expectancy and an increase in its quality and tolerance to stressful situations can be clearly traced.

Vegetables are historically the oldest and most natural food source, which simultaneously performs several important functions. Vegetables contain accessible nutrients that don't require complex cooking techniques to digest. They provide basic human needs for carbohydrates, organic acids, many essential amino acids and minerals. Simultaneously with them, a person receives a significant part of all kinds of biologically active substances, many of which have not yet been fully studied and have not even been discovered yet. In addition to the well-known vitamins, in recent decades, dozens of new compounds have been discovered that promote the assimilation of other products, normalizing and correcting metabolic processes. With a minimum calorie content, the maximum positive effect is achieved, and even, it would seem,fiber and pectin ballast substances are very important for normal digestion and health, as well as structured water, which all vegetables are rich in.

The special composition of vegetables determines not only their nutritional value, but also their therapeutic effect. Since ancient times, many vegetables have been directly used as medicines. Their role in baby and diet nutrition is invaluable. The need to consume biologically active components of vegetables to reduce the risk of developing many diseases of the industrial era - overweight, obesity, diabetes mellitus, oncological and cardiovascular diseases, allergies, etc., increases with the deterioration of the environmental situation in the world, increasing tension and intensity labor processes, the introduction of indiscriminate methods of cooking and eating food into everyday life.

Tomato breeder Tereshonkova T.A. and Angelina Vovk at tomato tasting
Tomato breeder Tereshonkova T.A. and Angelina Vovk at tomato tasting

The biological value of vegetables is by no means absolute. Their chemical composition and useful qualities are subject to variability. An important role is played by the genetic characteristics inherent in individual crops and breeding varieties, the cultivation technologies used, especially methods of protection from harmful objects, methods of culinary preparation and the culture of consumption.

The Agroholding "Poisk" understands this well and, step by step, adjust the work of breeders to create the most useful breeding developments. We did not come to this right away. At the initial stage of selection (15-20 years ago), the company had the task of creating varieties of vegetable crops with traditional Russian taste and consumer qualities. Vegetables had to be tasty, crispy, aromatic, suitable for pickling, pickling, pickling, etc. This has been and remains an urgent task of our breeding as a response to the expansion of imported "rubber and plastic" vegetables. The mechanisms and tools for solving the problem are clear and well substantiated. When creating new varieties and hybrids, it was necessary to take all the best from imported analogues (attractive appearance, yield, marketability, keeping quality,transportability) while maintaining the traditional Russian taste, aroma, etc. And this task has been largely solved and will be solved further. A number of our varieties and hybrids have already become leaders on the Russian market. BeetThe mulatto yields high yields of marketable, long-term root crops, while having excellent taste. Octave radish has a special piquant taste. Cabbage hybrids Zestolny F1, Garant F1, Duchess F1 have excellent taste both fresh and sauerkraut. Cherry tomato Sweet fountain F1 is simply the standard of tomato taste. Atos F1 cucumber hybrid is grown outdoors and is excellently salted. And there are many such examples.

Several years ago, we came to the understanding that with the help of vegetable selection it is possible to seriously influence human health and life expectancy, and we formulated this direction as the main task in the work of a selection center. At the same time, we have identified three ways to achieve the task:

  1. Creation of varieties and hybrids of vegetable crops with a high content of nutrients and not accumulating harmful substances;
  2. Creation of varieties and hybrids that are resistant to several diseases and pests, which leads to a reduction or complete elimination of the use of pesticides;
  3. Creation of varieties and hybrids compatible with biological methods of plant protection.

Everyone knows that various vegetables contain certain useful substances. But not many people know that the amount of these substances depends on the variety or hybrid. The peculiarity of accumulating more or less substances in a plant is varietal, it is associated with the genetics of the plant. These traits are inherited, which means that with the help of selection it is possible to some extent control the mechanism of their quantitative accumulation, i.e. to do so that new varieties and hybrids accumulate as many useful substances as possible and do not accumulate harmful compounds.

Tomato Sweet Fountain F1
Tomato Sweet Fountain F1
Beetroot Mulatto
Beetroot Mulatto
White cabbage Table F1
White cabbage Table F1

Certain crops stand out for their nutritional value, which leads to an increased demand for them and a variety of uses. Solanaceous vegetables, such as tomatoes, peppers and eggplants, make a great contribution to a balanced diet. The success of breeding in our company allowed us to create a new assortment of these crops with a unique combination of biologically valuable substances. Thus, the new tomato variety Pomegranate Drop is capable of accumulating up to 18% of dry matter, and is also rich in carotenoids, primarily lycopene, and anthocyanins. Pink-fruited tomato hybrids Roseanne F1, Boyarin F1, Sudar F1 have an increased content of lycopene… The branded assortment of sweet peppers is represented by samples capable of accumulating a complex of vitamins in the fruits, which are preserved during the heat treatment of raw materials. This allows them to be used as a food additive to other foods, significantly increasing their nutritional value. The combination of tomato sauce with the addition of pepper increases the digestibility and biological value of canned products, and not only vegetables, but also meat and fish. The richest in vitamins are such varieties of sweet peppers as Dominator, Golden Miracle, Bulgarian, Solomon agro… Fresh vegetables are especially valuable, but there are crops that are mainly used in processed form. Eggplant is a typical example here. It is advisable to use your own assortment for each cooking method. For the preparation of caviar, varieties with violet-colored fruits of a dense consistency and with a small content of the alkaloid solanine, which impart a piquant bitterness to caviar (Donskoy 14, Black Opal, Dessert Goliath). But for grilling, the best are green-fruited forms containing more sugars, which, when caramelized on the grill, give a special taste to the product. Eggplants used for shashlik are preferred with white fruit color, which allows you to preserve the taste and aroma of other vegetables while maintaining the beneficial qualities of the final product. Fresh vegetables also have special preparation characteristics. Lettuce green crops, which include not only lettuce, but also other types of green, such as arugula, popular in recent years (Dikovina), it is advisable not to cut with a metal knife, but to tear it apart immediately before use, and use high-quality direct-pressed vegetable oils as a dressing. Many vegetables are hypoallergenic and should be included in the diet of allergy sufferers. Among tomatoes and peppers, these are varieties with a yellow fruit color that do not accumulate red pigments (cherry tomato Golden Stream, Golden Miracle pepper, Hercules), among root crops these are daikon (Diamond), radish (Hostess) and radish (Octave), turnip (Orbit) with white color of roots. For each case of allergy, vegetables can be selected, either devoid of allergenic properties, or preventing their manifestation. All yellow-green vegetables, in which leaves or roots rich in carotenoids are eaten, have a pronounced antitumor effect. But they should be consumed only freshly prepared, including in the form of juices or in combination with vegetable oils (Rusich salad, Borodinsky corianderetc.). For the treatment of peptic ulcer, it is necessary to consume fresh cabbage salads, varieties and hybrids suitable for pickling are best suited for this, since they have higher taste and accumulation of special bioprotectors that suppress the ulcerative process, and a lower fiber content. One of the leaders in the quality of sauerkraut is a hybrid of the Russian selection Zastolny F1. Cabbage increases the secretory activity of the thyroid gland with a lack of iodine. In carrots (Chantenay royal) accumulate organic acids that have a fungicidal effect (suppressing the development of fungal infection): chlorogenic, coffee, gallic, etc. Cucumbers, not having a high content of nutrients, are a good source of food iodine. Enzymes coming from fresh cucumber fruits play a significant role in digestion, having a pronounced peptolytic effect and, due to the presence of alkaline salts, contribute to the elimination of toxins from the body.

Radish Mercado
Radish Mercado
Tomato Pomegranate Drop
Tomato Pomegranate Drop
Bulgarian pepper Dominator
Bulgarian pepper Dominator

Thus, the nutritional value of vegetables should be combined with the development of a special culture of their consumption, the development of methods for their preparation and combination with other products.

Recently, the problem with the growing consumption of vegetables is their safety. On the one hand, vegetables are a source of the most valuable substances that prolong a person's life, preserve his working capacity and health, and on the other, they are able to accumulate large amounts of harmful and even hazardous substances during the cultivation process. Industrial production methods based on comprehensive chemicalization can lead to the accumulation of nitrates, residual amounts of pesticides, and is dangerous and contaminates areas near large cities and industrial facilities. The question naturally arises. Is it possible to exclude or minimize the accumulation of harmful substances in vegetables? And it turns out that this is quite possible, incl. and due to the correct assortment.

Evaluation of breeding material
Evaluation of breeding material

Plants, like any other living organism, can get sick or be affected by pests. Moreover, some diseases and pests are more affected (not resistant), others are less (tolerant), and the third are not affected at all (resistant). The mechanisms of resistance can be different: morphological, biochemical, etc., the main thing is that they can be inherited, and accordingly, with the help of selection, they can be deliberately introduced into the desired variety or hybrid. And if you make a variety or hybrid resistant to those pests and diseases that are especially common in this particular area, success is guaranteed. You can grow organic vegetables by reducing or eliminating the use of pesticides.

At first glance, a seemingly simple task, in fact, is very difficult from the point of view of implementation. It's all about the special mechanisms of inheritance and other complexities of genetics and plant breeding. Only a large, systematic and long enough work in this direction allowed us to reach the first practical results. Today we already have tomato hybrids with resistance to five diseases: fusarium wilting, tomato mosaic virus, rootworm nematode, cladosporium disease, powdery mildew. These are hybrids of cherry tomato Terek F1, Magic harp F1. We have cucumber hybrids Malachite Box F1, Carolina F1, Perseus F1 resistant to powdery mildew and tolerant to peronospora. White cabbage hybridsDuchess F1, Countess F1, Pilot F1 have resistance to fusarium and bacteriosis

The real masterpieces here are cherry tomatoes, which have a complex resistance to several diseases and, at the same time, are the most complete in terms of chemical composition. Cherry tomatoes are characterized by a combination of high taste, biological value and increased adaptability. Among our tomatoes of this group, the most popular are Sweet Fountain F1, Terek F1, Elf F1, Magic Harp F1 and Pomegranate Drop F1.

The combination of biological protection and genetic resistance is a guarantee of obtaining environmentally friendly products. The problem of nitrate accumulation is associated with the nutritional characteristics of individual crops. Green crops and root crops are most likely to accumulate nitrates. But here, too, a combination of agricultural techniques, the creation of optimal illumination conditions and a reduced tendency to accumulate nitrates makes it possible to obtain safe products. Beet varieties such as Creole, Khutoryanka and Mulatka, Carmelita radish variety, Pomegranate lace salad variety are not prone to accumulation of nitrates… The greatest effect in obtaining environmentally friendly vegetable products is possible with the development of biologized technologies that combine the genetic resistance of varieties and hybrids, the use of biological protection techniques and other agricultural techniques. Recently, we have been growing a number of hybrids in the first and spring-summer rotation without chemical treatments. This method is especially effective in greenhouses. Currently, a number of our hybrids are grown without the use of chemical remedies. For example: cucumber Pragmatic F1 in the first turn, Bastion F1, Fast and Furious F1, Novator F1, in the spring-summer turnover, tomato hybrids Scarlet Caravel F1, Fire F1,Ocean F1, Cherry Sweet Fountain F1, Elf F1, etc. also in the spring-summer turnover. This was made possible through the use of special insect traps. This work is being carried out jointly with the All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Quarantine, a trap developer. Currently, the preparation of recommendations for their use is being completed, and they will be offered to domestic vegetable growers.

These are the first practical results in this direction. There are great opportunities for combining our breeding developments with biological drugs, from growth stimulants to drugs for the destruction of certain pathogens.

Radish Octave
Radish Octave

In conclusion, we can say that already today, the selection of new varieties and hybrids of Agroholding Poisk gives the Russians the opportunity to grow tasty and healthy vegetables. We do this because we are not indifferent to the health and longevity of Russians.

Klimenko N.N. Director, Cand. s.-kh. Sci., Khovrin A.N. Head of the Selection Center of Agroholding Poisk, Cand. s.-kh. n,, Ognev V.V. Head of the Rostov Breeding Center., Cand. s.-kh. n.

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