So What Are Parthenocarpies, Hybrids And GMOs?

So What Are Parthenocarpies, Hybrids And GMOs?
So What Are Parthenocarpies, Hybrids And GMOs?
Video: So What Are Parthenocarpies, Hybrids And GMOs?
Video: The Difference Between Open Pollinated Seeds, Hybrids and GMOs 2023, February
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Agrofirma AELITA will help you understand these terms and answer frequently asked questions from our esteemed gardeners.

What is parthenocarp, hybrids and GMOs
What is parthenocarp, hybrids and GMOs

At the moment, a huge assortment of seeds of various crops is presented in shops and garden centers of your cities and towns. In such an abundance, it is often difficult to make the right choice. Moreover, the mysterious word "parthenocarpic" is more and more often found on packages with seeds. To understand this, let's first understand the very concept of parthenocarp …

So, PARTENOCARPIA is virgin fertilization, the formation of seedless fruits. Parthenocarpic fruits have empty seeds without embryos. Such plants are characterized by a female type of flowering, that is, they do not have male flowers, barren flowers. And often after the word " parthenocarpic " in brackets they write the word "self-pollinated", but this is not entirely true. It would be more correct - " does not need pollination."

Parthenocarpic cucumber varieties of the agrofirm Aelita
Parthenocarpic cucumber varieties of the agrofirm Aelita

Parthenocarp differs from self-pollination in that fertilization and subsequent development of fruits occurs without the participation of pollen. And this is one of the main advantages of parthenocarpic crops, since one of the main problems for all gardeners is the lack of a sufficient number of insects - pollinators. In addition, in cool cloudy weather, pollinating insects are inactive, therefore, fruits on plants of bee-pollinated varieties are sometimes poorly tied. In addition, for example, parthenocarpic cucumbers produce fruits of the same size and color, completely without bitterness, which do not turn yellow (since they do not need seeds ripening), are stored for a long time and are not damaged during transportation.

Continuing the topic of cucumbers, there is still a misconception that parthenocarpic cucumbers are intended only for growing in a greenhouse. And this is not entirely true. Modern breeders have developed parthenocarpic hybrids that are equally suitable for growing both in greenhouses and in the open field. You can read more about this in the description of the hybrids on the seed bag. Now there is a great variety of such hybrids. Hybrids with universal properties have been developed, suitable for pickling, pickling and, of course, for fresh consumption.

Cucumber hybrids with superbundled type of ovaries from the agrofirm Aelita
Cucumber hybrids with superbundled type of ovaries from the agrofirm Aelita

Теперь о гибридах. Гибрид первого поколения, обозначаемый F1, получают путем скрещивания двух и более линий. Это длительный и трудоемкий процесс. Работа по гибридизации всегда проводится вручную. Чтобы получить гибридные семена, у цветков одной из родительских линий проводят кастрацию – лишают их тычинок в момент роспуска цветка и вручную опыляют их пыльцой второй линии. В результате такого скрещивания получаются растения с большей жизненной силой, высокой урожайностью и рядом других полезных свойств. Это скрещивание вполне естественный процесс, который в природе происходит постоянно. Когда-то давно человек стал замечать, что при опылении одних сортов другими, поколение получается более урожайным и жизнестойким. И уже искусственно стал управлять этим процессом. Таким образом зародилась селекция.

So, hybridization is a natural process, and parthenocarp is a natural feature of plants.

There is also a frequently asked question - are parthenocarpic hybrids related to gene modification? The answer is negative!

Varieties and hybrids of non-GMO cucumbers from the agrofirm Aelita
Varieties and hybrids of non-GMO cucumbers from the agrofirm Aelita

Unfortunately, in the absence of detailed information about what GMO is, people have a misunderstanding of this term, and it seems to some that parthenocarp and hybrids are also the result of GMOs. But this is absolutely not true!

Since recently this is not just a frequently asked question, but also a subject of hot discussion in all the media, it is necessary to sort this out. Genetic modification is the artificial modification of the plant genome using genetic engineering, in which a gene from a foreign organism is artificially introduced into the plant genome. In nature, such modifications cannot naturally occur.

Yes, in nature in plants, natural mutations of genes can periodically appear, but again, these are mutations of the same genes in the same plants. When GMOs are obtained, a gene from a foreign other organism is “introduced” into the genome of a plant or animal. That is, this “alien” gene could not get into the plant in a natural way, which means that this is a purely artificial process. And since this is not only a complex artificial, but also a very expensive process, it is used only in crops that are produced in colossal quantities, amounting to thousands of tons, to recoup the costs. Therefore, in fact, there are very, very few GMO varieties all over the world. Well, what can we say about amateur varieties and hybrids, which, at best, are sold in tens of kilograms and no more.

In Europe and America, all GMO products are subject to mandatory registration. The originator of varieties and hybrids must indicate that the product they produce is a GMO product. If he does not do this, then if a forgery is discovered, the originator will spend a lot of money on paying fines and recovering damages. In our country, the circulation of GMO products is generally prohibited, therefore, when registering hybrids in the State Register, each of them undergoes a mandatory laboratory test for the presence of alien gene constructs. Thus, in our country, registration of GMOs is impossible, not to mention the price expediency.

Cucumber hybrids with super-bunchy type of ovaries from the agricultural company Aelita, Green Garland series
Cucumber hybrids with super-bunchy type of ovaries from the agricultural company Aelita, Green Garland series

As for parthenocarp, it must be said that this is a completely natural process of fruit formation without pollination. This trait is present in more than a hundred species and appeared in plants a long time ago, long before humans learned to artificially introduce alien genes. For evolution, this trait is, so to speak, "negative", since the main task of the plant is to obtain seeds and continue its "genus". And, as you know, parthenocarpic fruits do not have seeds. Therefore, when such plants appeared in their natural environment, they simply did not give offspring. The person noticed this sign, understood its advantages for himself and found ways to fix it and propagate such plants. So, parthenocarp is not the result of GMO manipulations, but a completely natural trait of plants, which, as a result of the simplest selection techniques, was fixed in the plant.

We wish you good health and a successful harvest !!!

Detailed information about varieties and hybrids, as well as addresses of retail stores in your city, can be found on the website: www.ailita.ru

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