Table of contents:
Video: Rootstock Meaning For A Rose. Reproduction Of Roses. Photo
When growing roses, two methods of reproduction are used: vegetative and seed. The most common is vegetative. It is performed by budding, grafting, cuttings, etc. Seed propagation, as a rule, is used to breed new varieties when crossing. Rosehips are propagated by seeds to obtain a stock for budding or grafting.
Almost all varieties of roses are grafted. Own-rooted rose plants are usually very weak, unstable to adverse environmental conditions. Rose hips most often serve as the stock of a rose. The stock is the foundation of the scion - the cultivated part of the plant. The longevity of the bush, its normal growth and development depends on the stock. The influence of the stock on the flowering time and crop yield in winter is especially important.
Choosing a rootstock for a rose
Rose rootstocks must have: frost resistance; resistance to fungal diseases, pests; durability; long growing season; good survival rate, branched root system deeply penetrating into the soil; long, smooth root collar; resistance to drought and excess moisture; good growth with the least requirements for soil and fertilizers; in addition, they must have no root and stem growth.
Each variety of rose hips has special properties inherent only to it and requires certain conditions for growth. The same varieties of roses, growing in the same conditions, but cultivated on different types of rose hips, behave differently: some grow and bloom well, others are depressed, are affected by diseases, the flowers on them are small. The suitability of the rosehip as a rootstock for a given variety of roses is established empirically.
The viability, longevity and resistance of the grafted plant mainly depend on the compatibility of the rootstock with the scion. Compatibility is the ability of a rootstock and a scion to grow firmly and further normal growth and development. Various manifestations of oppression of grafted plants, up to death, are usually called incompatibility. Simultaneous sap flow of the rootstock and the scion has a positive effect on the simultaneous development of the entire bush, especially when forcing in a greenhouse. With good compatibility, they complement each other and mutually stimulate growth.
In less compatible grafts or buds, the growth of the scion is weak or the scion may grow well in the first year and suddenly die off in the second. Due to the incompatibility of the rootstock and the scion, the phloem grows poorly. As a result, the movement of plastic substances and water to the roots, stems and leaves is slow. A large leaf area and a strong root system are not formed. The root system of the stock affects the grafted graft.
Even a rose as strong and resilient as Gloria Dei does not achieve its maximum beauty when inoculated on a rootstock with a weak root system. She will have weak short stems and a nondescript flowering. If you purchased a cutting of a fashionable rose variety, and after budding it did not grow, do not be disappointed. Re-cultivate it on a stronger rootstock. The graft, in turn, affects the placement of the rose roots in the soil. Thus, it can be expected that Gloria Dei, characterized by strong branching, cultivated on a good rootstock, will cause the formation of a more branched root system than a plant of the variety for which such branching is not typical.
There are many types of wild rose hips. Only in the North Caucasus there are more than 50 of them. Some of them are used as wild shrubs for hedges, landscaping slopes, ravines, others - for harvesting fruits rich in vitamins. Only a few forms of wild rose hips are promising as rootstocks. Forms with rounded fruits and dull foliage in budding are the worst. Their bark is rough, the sap flow ends earlier than others. The survival rate of buds on such forms is low, the eyes germinate and develop slowly.
You can often hear about oppressed roses. The reason for the oppression is the use of heterogeneous, untested, untested, random or not appropriate grafts.
As a rule, rose hips are harvested in the forest, on the edges of the forest, in the field, in ravines, along rivers, on the mountains. Wild rose hips are gradually disappearing in places of mass harvesting. It is becoming more and more difficult to pick fruits, while the need for them increases every year.
Unfortunately, in our country there are few standard, tested and recommended rootstocks of roses, and the existing ones are used only locally in individual farms. Most nurseries grow rootstocks from seeds that are harvested in a row from wild rose hips. After that it is difficult to expect quality products. It is appropriate to cite a popular saying here: "Don't expect a good tribe from a bad seed." Testing of rootstocks is also extremely slow.
Dog rose is the best rootstock for roses
All over the world, the dog rose (Rosa canina) is considered the best rootstock for roses. In our country, this species is widespread and is represented by many varieties that have different growth rates and resistance in different climatic zones. Specialists-flower growers V.N.Bylov and N.L. Mikhailov believe that the advantage of the dog rose as a rootstock in comparison with other species is sufficient resistance to pests and diseases, good winter hardiness, possessing a strong, but at the same time low-growing root system, successful growing together with almost all varieties of roses and ensuring their abundant flowering and durability. German rose growers Erik Noack and V.A. von Höting name 13 rootstocks on which roses of various types have been grown recently. Among them, preference is given to selected refined varieties derived from the dog's rose.
In greenhouses, the stock is exposed to different conditions than in the open field. In this case, he periodically must have winter rest and at any time of the year provide high-quality greenhouse material: with a high peduncle, goblet slender flowers, persistent in cut, graceful leaves.
I.V. Michurin noted that it is necessary to take all measures towards the tireless search for plants for culture, trying to use the accumulated experience of researchers on the one hand, and in every way to increase this experience by scientific research of mountains, forests, steppes, swamps of our vast outskirts, especially the mountainous Caucasus and Far Eastern regions of the country, concealing a great variety of unused valuable plant species. Indeed, perfect rootstocks for roses grow in the mountains of the Caucasus. We must master these treasures, and the sooner the better. Until the rootstock issue is resolved, good roses cannot be grown.
Many experts believe that selection selection of hybrid seedlings of wild rose should be carried out by research institutes, experimental stations, and state variety plots. It should be so, but in the rose growing in this process there is still stagnation.
Selection is one of the decisive moments in the work of the nursery. It solves the problem of standard seedlings and serves as an integral part of measures to solve the problem of increasing the yield of roses. The selection is based on the study of the characteristics of the growth and development of roses and their reaction to a complex of external conditions, including agricultural technology. The breeding of the main rootstocks of roses is based on the selection of hybrid seedlings of wild rose. The selection in natural thickets is considered random.
In the Caucasus, there is no need to wait for biologists to offer a rosehip variety suitable for grafting good roses on it. So, over the years, I have investigated a number of rootstocks of dog rose in the foothills of the Caucasus, which grows here in groups, whole plantations on several dozen hectares.
As a result, the dog rose C was selected and cultivated, which showed itself well both in the open and in protected ground.
The height of a dog rose is 3-4 m, its branches are almost straight, persistent, extend from the main stem, covered with brown bark. The thorns are insignificant in size, straight, At the base they are widened, do not interfere with budding:
Leaves on both sides are smooth, elliptical, with a pointed tip and rounded base, 2-4 cm long, 1-2 cm wide, sharply serrate along the edge. Flowers with a diameter of 4-5 cm, collected in corymbose inflorescences of three to five, less often - single. Pedicels glabrous and smooth, equal in length to mature fruit or somewhat longer. Sepals 20-25 mm long after flowering deviate downward and nestle on the fruit, by the beginning of fruit ripening they disappear. The flowers are pale pink. Fruits 25 mm long, oblong-rounded, orange when ripe with fleshy walls. Fruit yield from a bush up to 15 kg. The root system is fibrous, deeply embedded in the soil, branched. The plant is resistant to frost, heat and other adverse weather conditions, diseases and pests. Its viability and productivity persist up to 15 years.