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Video: Asparagus Beans - Variety Of Varieties And Cultivation Characteristics. Description, Photo
Later, the French, having appreciated the taste of the shoulder blades (another common name for green beans), began to create varieties intended for whole consumption in an unripe form. Since the taste and appearance of such beans when cooked resembled young shoots of asparagus, these varieties came to be called "asparagus". In the future, asparagus beans have found many fans around the world.
In cooking, green beans can be used as an independent dish, stewed or fried. But most often the vegetable is used as a component of various stews or soups. Usually when peeling beans, the ends are cut off. In some varieties, it is additionally necessary to remove the central vein, which stretches in the form of a thread when trimming the upper end.
Of course, cooking from such beans will take longer, and if the shoulder blades are poorly cleaned, the hard fibers will spoil the whole experience of the dish.
The key to success in growing and using asparagus beans lies in choosing the right variety. The best green beans are devoid of hard fiber, high-yielding, and unpretentious. You will learn how these varieties are called from our article.
- Varietal variety of asparagus beans
- Features of growing asparagus beans
Varietal variety of asparagus beans
Numerous varieties of green beans are divided into groups according to height, ripening time, and color of the pods. Let's take a look at the main advantages and disadvantages of typical representatives of each group.
Vegetable beans can also be referred to as "sugar" and "semi-sugar". Sugar green beans are characterized by a round section of the beans in the section, and such blades are very fleshy and have a lot of jelly inside. In semi-sugar varieties, the pod is oval or flat in section, and the pulp (jelly) in them is much less. Such varieties are usually called universal, since they are suitable both for grain and for preparation in an unripe form (on a shoulder).
Curly asparagus beans
Varieties of this type form flexible curly lashes, which independently climb onto a support to a height of up to three meters. The positive aspects of the climbing varieties of green beans, first of all, is that it is not only a vegetable, but also a very ornamental plant. It can be successfully used for vertical landscaping, aiming at arches, trellises and "huts" made of bamboo sticks.
Of course, the flowering of beans is inconspicuous, but in many varieties the main decoration is long yellow or purple pods, hanging like fashionable earrings. And in varieties with purple beans, the foliage and petioles have a slight purple tint. Other annual lianas can also be planted with beans, for example, morning glory, sweet peas, dolichos (hyacinth beans and others).
Also, liana-like varieties, as a rule, are distinguished by high yields, despite the fact that they take up a minimum of space in the garden due to vertical growth. In addition, the pods of the climbing varieties are usually longer than those of the bush. These beans are not afraid of a drop in temperature around zero degrees and light frost on the soil. She continues to give crops until late autumn.
Curly asparagus beans also have drawbacks. Not all types of green beans are completely devoid of solid fibers. They usually appear with age as the bean ripens. It can often be difficult to distinguish between ideal beans for culinary use and those that have already begun to harden.
It has been noticed that coarse fibers are most often found in varieties with flat semi-sugar pods. These include most varieties of curly beans, as opposed to bush varieties.
Also, beans that grow in the form of vines are often late in maturity and have to wait longer for their harvest.
And another small disadvantage is the need to install supports that can shade adjacent beds.
The best varieties of curly green beans
Beans "Bluhilda". A German variety of asparagus beans, which is famous for its high yield and visual appeal. This variety grows in the form of a liana, reaching a height of three meters.
"Bluhilda" looks very decorative not only because of its bright purple pods, but also decorated with dark purple stems and purple inflorescences.
The main advantage of the variety is a very high yield, due to the fertility of each plant, as well as the possibility of compact planting of vines. Hard fibers and veins in this variety appear only before the seeds ripen, and at a young age the shoulder blades are very tender.
Producers designate this variety as early. However, when grown in the middle lane, Bluhilda shows itself as a mid-season variety, and the crop can be harvested in about 70-80 days. When grown, it is best to pair these beans with earlier varieties.
Beans "Golden Necklace". An early maturing variety of asparagus beans, which yields a harvest 65-70 days after germination. The height of the lianas reaches 1.5-2 meters. The pods have a wavy edge, which makes it seem from a distance that the bush is decorated with golden beads.
Due to its golden yellow color, the plant is pleasing to the eyes, in addition, the light pods are clearly visible, which is very convenient for harvesting. The length of the shoulder blades is 18-20 centimeters, with a width of about two centimeters. The pods are flat in cross section. This variety can be used as a universal one. Ripe seeds are large, white in color and also very tasty.
Beans "Garland". A sugar variety of curly asparagus beans. The plant forms long lashes up to three meters high. This cultivar is famous for its excellent yield. This is ensured by both the high fertility of the bushes and the fantastic size of the pods, which, with proper care, can reach 33 centimeters.
The color of the shoulder blades is emerald green. Another advantage of the variety is early ripening. The first crop can be harvested as early as 65 days after germination. Also bean pods "Garland" are suitable for freezing, as they retain their taste well.
Other varieties of curly asparagus beans: "Snow Queen" (also suitable for freezing), "Yellow Waterfall", "Green Waterfall", "Jimenez" (with variegated pods), "Rumba".
Bush green beans
In most cases, there are low-growing cultivars on sale, which form low bushes 30-40 centimeters high, although there are also medium-sized varieties reaching a height of 50-60 centimeters.
Among the bush asparagus beans, there are early-maturing, mid-maturing and early varieties, but in general, most varieties are characterized by earlier ripening periods compared to curly beans.
If you plant all three types of varieties with different ripening periods, then you can provide yourself with an uninterrupted harvest for a long time. Nevertheless, most often gardeners give preference to early-maturing varieties that can be sown in several periods.
Shrub plants are very compact, and their seeds are sown at a minimum distance from each other, due to which a very rich harvest is obtained from a small garden bed. Among the varieties of bush beans, most often there are the most delicate sugar-type beans, completely devoid of tough fibers and parchment layer.
Of the disadvantages of bush beans, it should be noted that its beans are significantly shorter compared to curly varieties. In addition, thin stems tend to lie under the weight of the crop, resulting in the shoulder blades on the ground and getting dirty.
Also, slugs love to feast on the beans of young beans, and therefore the pods of low-height varieties are often eaten at the tips, since it is not difficult for pests to get to the fruits.
Like curly asparagus beans, bush beans have a palette of colors: green, light yellow, dark purple, and variegated.
Bushy asparagus beans with green pods
The green bean varieties are most in demand as they have a familiar classic look. Simply put, these beans look exactly as we are used to seeing them in store windows.
Most green beans have no parchment layer at all, even if you delay picking the pods. In most cases, these varieties have a rounded cross-section and a fleshy, jelly-like flesh.
Beans "Sachs 615". The classic variety of asparagus beans, which was bred during the Great Patriotic War, and still does not lose its popularity among gardeners. This is an early ripening variety - 50-60 days pass from germination to the beginning of the collection of beans. The length of the pods is 10-12 centimeters. The height of the bush is from 25 to 40 centimeters. The main advantages of the variety are the complete absence of the parchment layer of the valves and filamentary veins, as well as good yield, ease of care and resistance to diseases.
Beans "Chef". Asparagus beans, belonging to the type of "sugar" varieties with a very tender flesh. The variety is early maturing, the first harvest of young shoulder blades can be harvested in 52-55 days. The length of the pod reaches 11 centimeters. The color of the valves is emerald green, the pod has a rounded cross-section.
The pods lack parchment and fibers, so you can even eat overripe fruits. This variety is resistant to bacterial and viral diseases.
Other popular varieties of bush green beans: Nota, Nagano, Anisya, Serengeti.
Bush asparagus beans with yellow pods
First of all, beans with yellow pods are more appetizing and unusual in appearance. After cooking, the beans turn slightly pale, but retain a slight yellowish tint. Dishes made from such beans look more exotic.
However, the most important advantage is that such pods are very easy to collect, as they stand out well against the background of foliage. In terms of taste, green and yellow asparagus beans have no significant differences between themselves. Dishes with the addition of asparagus beans of different colors look very festive and unusual.
Beans "Golden Saxon". A variety of popular asparagus beans "Saksa 615", characterized by golden yellow pods. Like its closest relative with green pods, this bean is devoid of tough fibers and parchment layer, the pod section is rounded - a sugar-type variety.
The cultivar belongs to early maturing (50-60 days from the moment of seed germination). The length of the beans is 15-17 centimeters. The main advantages of the variety are friendly yield and high taste.
Beans "Butter King". An early ripening bush variety, reaching a height of 40 centimeters. The most delicate taste and thick fleshy "oily" partitions are noted as the main feature of this variety. The beans are completely devoid of the parchment layer and hard fiber, they can be stored in the refrigerator for a long time after harvesting or wait for harvesting on the bush.
Beans "Butter King" also have an impressive pod length, which with good care can be 25-30 centimeters, which is very rare for bush asparagus beans.
Other varieties of bushy asparagus beans with yellow pods: Laura, Claudia, Black Diamond (yellow pods with purple seeds), Yellow Neck, Housewife's Dream.
Shrub asparagus beans with purple pods
Like most purple-colored vegetables, the purple-colored asparagus beans are rich in anthocyanins, known for their antioxidant properties, which slow down the aging process in the body. According to the researchers, these substances can also be used to prevent cancer.
The dark purple pods against the background of emerald green look very attractive, and most importantly, they make it easier to harvest every single pod. Unlike green beans, which often blend into the leaves, these blades are very noticeable.
Unfortunately, during heat treatment, the expressive purple color of the shoulder blades disappears and changes to a brownish green.
Beans "Purple Baby". An early maturing variety that gives high yields in the middle lane. The first crop can be harvested 55-60 days after sowing the seeds. On average, 15-20 pods 10-14 centimeters long and about one centimeter wide can be collected from one bush.
"Purple baby" forms compact bushes 30-40 centimeters high. The color of the pod is dark purple, in the context - green. The variety is highly resistant to diseases, in particular to bean mosaic virus, anthracnose and bacteriosis.
Beans "Purple Queen". Bushy asparagus beans, early ripening. Shoulders in technical ripeness are suitable for harvesting after 55-60 days from germination. The bushes reach a height of 40 centimeters, while they are very compact and stable. The deep purple, almost black shoulder blades are 12-15 centimeters long. The flowers of this variety are two-tone white-violet color. Leaves with purple petioles.
Variegated asparagus beans
The variegated green bean varieties are distinguished by very elegant pods, on which chaotic splashes of purple-red are located on a pale yellow background. As they mature, the distance between the bright stripes and spots shrinks and the pods turn redder. Both pod valves and mature seeds have a painted color.
On the garden bed, such decorated beans looks very picturesque, but after cooking, the drawing disappears. In most cases, variegated asparagus beans are found among the climbing varieties ("Jimenez", "Egyptian strength", "Pippi Longstocking").
Bush-type asparagus beans are represented by medium-sized varieties up to 60 centimeters high.
Vegetable beans "Flamingo". An early ripe universal variety that uses both unripe beans and ripe grains for food. Technical ripeness occurs 50-66 days after germination. Bean leaves without coarse parchment and fibers. The height of the bushes is 60 centimeters. The variety is distinguished by a high yield, 50-60 pods 15 centimeters long are tied on one plant.
Features of growing asparagus beans
Asparagus beans are one of the easiest vegetable crops, which, as a rule, even succeeds in novice gardeners. The main condition is to set up a garden bed in a sunny place, since you should not expect high yields in partial shade.
Beans do not require particularly fertile soils, moreover, with excessive nutrition, the green mass will develop too actively to the detriment of flowering. This plant grows best on soils with an average level of fertility, with a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction. On acidic soils, beans will not be able to fully develop, in this case, a deoxidizer (ash or dolomite flour) must be added to the garden bed.
When growing early and mid-season varieties, which are most often on sale, growing seedlings is not required, and sowing is carried out directly into the ground. Usually in the middle lane, asparagus beans are sown in mid-May.
The main thing is that the average daily temperature is not lower than +15 degrees, otherwise the seeds can germinate very slowly or rot at all without germinating.
Beans do not require prior germination and sowing is most often carried out with dry seeds. However, for added stimulation and protection from disease, the seeds can be soaked for 15-20 minutes in a bright pink potassium permanganate solution. In this case, the water temperature should be 60-70 degrees.
Sowing distance - 10-20 centimeters, seeding depth - 5 centimeters. It should be borne in mind that the further the bushes grow from each other, the larger the pods will be. There is also a nesting method of sowing, in which 5-6 seeds are placed in one hole. The distance between the nests is 50-60 centimeters.
From germination to flowering, asparagus beans are watered once a week. With excessive watering at this time, seedlings can begin to intensively build up green mass to the detriment of flower formation.
To stimulate bud formation, you can even temporarily stop watering the beans after the plants have formed five true leaves. During mass flowering, they are watered more often and more abundantly (10-12 liters per 1m 2), otherwise flowers or young ovaries may crumble (especially if the weather is hot, dry).
To obtain a high yield, beans are fed at least three times per season. The first feeding is carried out at the stage of appearance of two true leaves, while it is better to use fertilizers with a high phosphorus content.
The second feeding is carried out at the beginning of flowering, and in this case the plant needs potassium most of all.
For the third time, asparagus beans are fertilized during the mass formation of pods, for this they use complex or phosphorus-potassium fertilizers (for example, "Potassium monophosphate").
Nitrogen fertilizers for beans in high doses are not recommended. Fresh manure is especially harmful to this culture. This fertilizer is applied to the beds no earlier than two to three years before sowing beans.