Beans. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction. Varieties. Kinds. Vegetables. A Photo

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Beans. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction. Varieties. Kinds. Vegetables. A Photo
Beans. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction. Varieties. Kinds. Vegetables. A Photo

Video: Beans. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction. Varieties. Kinds. Vegetables. A Photo

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Video: The Different types of Beans - Type and Variety Comparisons 2023, February
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This plant has been known to mankind since very ancient times. The earliest mention of beans in ancient written records dates back to the 2nd millennium BC. e. It was eaten in ancient China. And the first bean seeds were found by archaeologists while working on excavations of pre-Inca culture monuments in Peru. This plant was widespread among the ancient Incas and Aztecs, and the ancient Greeks and Romans used beans not only for food, but also as a medicine. The Slavs got acquainted with beans around the 11th century.

Beans (Haricot)
Beans (Haricot)

© Carl E Lewis

Common beans are a plant from the legume family. Beans came to Europe from the New World in the 16th century, where they were called "Italian beans," and to Russia two centuries later, probably from Poland. They eat unripe beans, vegetable beans.

There are dozens of delicious and nutritious bean recipes, many of which are considered gourmet recipes. Salads and soups are prepared from beans and bean pods, they are served with fried meat, salted, dried, pickled.

Depending on the structure of the beans, bean varieties are divided into shelling (with a coarse thick parchment layer), semi-sugar (with a weak layer), sugar or asparagus (there is no parchment layer). The most valuable varieties, like peas, are sugar varieties. Beans are an important raw material for the canning industry. For canning whole beans (shoulder blades), sugar beans are used that do not have a leathery film in the wall of the bean valve.

Beans (Haricot)
Beans (Haricot)

©.Annna

Landing

The soil is prepared for sowing beans in the fall. During this period, it is necessary to add phosphorus (250-300 g of superphosphate per 10 m2) and potash (120-150 g per 10 m2) fertilizers. It is useful to add organic matter if necessary. After that, the soil is dug up. In the spring, they also apply on a cart or humus, phosphorus and potash fertilizers. Dig the soil once again deeply enough.

Curly bean varieties are good to grow with trellises. Methods for preparing trellises are very diverse, depending on the possibilities, but their height should be 2.5-3 m. Above the beds inside the frame, you can install arcs and cover the crops with foil if there is a danger of frost. Many amateur vegetable growers use buildings, fences, verandas, balconies, gazebos, etc. as trellises.

At early planting dates, beans are soaked in warm water. Then they sprout, putting them in gauze bags, for several days, until the seeds are nailed (the beginning of germination).

In our zone, beans are sown at the end of the first - beginning of the second decade of May. The seeds are planted to a depth of 3-4 cm, and the distance between the rows is 8-10 cm. The beans under the film emerge and develop much faster. The film is completely removed in the first decade of June, by this time lateral shoots (whips) are already developing in the beans.

Bush beans are even easier to grow. Pre-germinated bean seeds are sown in the prepared soil in a row method. The distance between the rows is set to 40-50 cm, and the plants are placed in the rows every 8-10 cm. It is also good to cover the beds with bush beans with a film. Moisture is retained under it and the soil warms up faster. In hot weather, if you do not want to remove the film, you can shade it by sprinkling with a chalk solution or a chatter box from the ground.

Beans (Haricot)
Beans (Haricot)

© Rasbak

Care

The undoubted advantage of beans is their amazing unpretentiousness.

This is a heat-loving and light-loving plant, but it is grown by directly sowing seeds in the ground in late May - early June. You can more accurately set the planting time for beans yourself, they are sown simultaneously with cucumbers, that is, when you can no longer be afraid of frost.

Beans grow best in light, fertile, well-drained soil. Before planting, humus or compost is introduced into the garden. Bush beans are grown on ridges in three rows and planted in a checkerboard pattern. When sowing, two previously soaked grains are placed in the hole to a depth of 3–6 cm (depending on the mechanical composition of the soil, deeper on the lungs). The distance between the holes is 20-30 cm, the rows are 30-45 cm.

Before sowing semi-curly and curly varieties of beans, it is necessary to install strong supports made of stakes or wooden slats (plastic and metal are not suitable, since the plant cannot “catch on” to them) 2–2.5 m high. A hole is made near each support, into which 2 grains are placed to a depth of 5 cm. The distance between the holes is 15 cm. To give stability to the stems, the sprouted sprouts are spud.

Seedlings appear in 5-7 days, they are very sensitive to frost. With the threat of cold snap, the seedlings are covered with spunbond or other covering material. Mature plants can withstand short-term light frosts. The optimum temperature for plant growth and development is 20–25 ° С.

Bean maintenance consists of regular weeding, watering (in hot, dry weather) and loosening the row spacing. To keep watering and weeding to a minimum, the soil can be mulched. Beans (shoulder blades) are harvested after two to three weeks from the beginning of flowering.

Beans (Haricot)
Beans (Haricot)

© Rasbak

Varieties

There are many varieties of beans, and all of them are suitable both for growing young pods and for grain. In the middle lane, the varieties Saksa 615, Zolotaya Gora, etc. are widespread. Of the original types of beans, Limskaya and Lobia can be called.

Among the early ripening bush sugar varieties of beans, experts note: Saks without fiber, Triumph Sugar, Dialogue, Vestochka, Sakharnaya 116. These varieties use young (8-10-day-old) spatula beans for food. They are completely stewed, canned, frozen.

Among the peeling varieties, the most interesting are Shchedraia, Gribovskaya 92, Belozernaya, Palevo-motley. In shelling varieties of beans, grains are used as food.

Characteristics of some varieties of beans

Curly Vegetable - An early ripening bean variety with curly stalks requires a mandatory garter. Bob (pod) in the phase of technical ripeness, yellow, 12 - 13 cm long, smooth, round cut. 8 - 9 beans (pods) are formed on the plant. The growing season is 67 - 72 days.

Harmony is a mid-season variety of curly beans. The period from germination to technical ripeness is 65 - 85 days. The plant, 3 - 3.5 m long, requires support for growth. Pods 20-25 cm long, round, slightly curved, without parchment layer, yellow. Mature seeds are elongated, kidney-shaped, white. Universal use.

Gribovskaya 92 - medium early grain variety of beans, the period from germination to biological ripeness is 90 - 110 days. The bean plant is medium branched, 20 - 45 cm high. The beans are xiphoid with a parchment layer, 12 - 15 cm long.

Zhuravushka 9906061. Fasali variety is included in the State Register of the Russian Federation for garden plots, home gardens and small farms. Recommended for use in home cooking and the canning industry.

Early ripe. Bush bean plant, 40 - 52 cm high. Leaves are green. The flower is medium-sized, white. The beans are slightly curved, elliptical to ovoid in cross-section, without parchment and fiber. The attachment height of the lower beans is 19 -21 cm. The taste of canned products is excellent. The yield of beans is 0.9 - 1.3 kg / m. Seeds are elliptical, white, white scar, 1000 seeds weight 290 - 320 g. The variety is resistant to bacteriosis.

Zoryushka - Bean bush compact, compressed, 27 - 33 cm high. Flowers are pale lilac. The pod is slightly curved, pointed, light green, 10 - 11 cm long, 0.8 - 0.9 cm wide, 0.7 - 0.9 cm thick, the distance from the tip of the lower pod to the soil is 1.3 cm. The mass of the bean is 5, 5 - 6 g. Beans contain 8.5 - 10% dry matter, 1.7 - 2% sugars, 18 - 21 mg% vitamin C, the taste of canned beans 4.3 - 4.6 points. Seeds in the phase of biological ripeness are light yellow, oval. Resistant to bacteriosis, as well as to low positive temperatures.

Container - early (45 - 50 days) variety of vegetable beans, bush plant up to 50 cm high, green beans with purple strokes, up to 20 cm long, light brown seeds.

Nomad is a variety of climbing beans obtained by selection in the Kaluga and Moscow regions from the Sukhum sample. Medium early variety, short bean of medium width, ovoid in cross section. The main color of the grain is ocher, the pattern is motley pale purple. The plant is slightly affected by anthracnose in the open field and medium gray rot when grown in a greenhouse. In the greenhouses of the Moscow region. bears fruit until the end of October.

Oily the earliest 273 - early ripening variety of beans (75 - 90 days). The bush is medium-branched, compact, erect, 25 - 30 cm high. The flowers are light purple, The beans are straight, flat-rounded, small. Seeds are round-elliptical, black. Relatively resistant to anthracnose and bacteriosis.

Fiery red (winner). A high-yielding, fiberless bean variety. Pods are dark green, flat, up to 30 cm long. Colored seeds.

Oran. Early maturing (79 - 90 days) variety of grain beans. Plants of bush form 35 - 54 cm high. The digestibility of the grain is uniform, the taste is excellent.

Rant - Forms a bean bush with 15 - 27 sugar beans, Resistant to anthracnose and ascochitosis. The beans are green without a parchment layer and fibers, 11 - 13 cm long, cylindrical with 5 - 6 grains. Seeds are pink with lilac streak. The beans are used in cooking and canning.

Rebus 99004000. The variety of beans is included in the State Register of the Russian Federation for garden plots, household and small farms. Recommended for home cooking. Early ripe. The plant is bushy, slightly leafy, 35 - 40 cm high. The leaves are green. Bean flowers are medium-sized, pink. Pods straight to slightly curved, xiphoid in cross section, elliptical to ovoid, without parchment and fibers. Canned food tastes good.

Pink. A high-yielding mid-season variety of climbing beans. A climbing plant, 3 - 3.5 m long, requires support for growth. The beans are long, marbled-pink, xiphoid, without a parchment layer and fibers, each with 6-10 grains. Ripe bean seeds are elongated, kidney-shaped, pink with purple streaks and streaks. Universal use.

Second - Bushy plant, compact. The stalk of the beans is green, 30 - 39 cm long. Unripe beans are cylindrical, without parchment layer and fibers, green, 10 - 12 cm long. In a bean there are 5 - 6 yellow-brown seeds. It is intended for use as food of beans in a green form after heat treatment.

Container is a bush vegetable variety of beans with a period of 60 - 72 days before the first harvest. Plant height 30 - 40 cm. Beans, without parchment layer and fibers. The variety was bred in Poland. Zoned in 1998 in the Central Region. For home cooking, canning and freezing applications.

Tiraspolskaya is a mid-season variety of asparagus beans bred by the Transnistrian Research Institute of Agriculture. Bush 30 - 35 cm high. Flowers are white. The pod is green, 11-13 cm long, 0.9-1 wide, rounded, without parchment layer and fibers, straight or slightly curved. the distance from the tip of the lower bean to the soil is 1 - 2 cm. The mass of the bean is 6 - 6.5 g. The beans contain 8.5 -10% dry matter, 2.2 - 2.5% sugars, 18 - 40 mg% vitamin C, bean flavor 3.9 - 4.2 points. Resistant to bacteriosis.

Jubilee 287. The plant is bushy, compact, 30 - 35 cm high. The bean is straight straw-yellow, juicy, fleshy. There is no parchment and fiber in the beans. There are 9 - 12 beans on a bean plant, 9 - 13 cm long. The taste is excellent. The seeds are white with pink strokes.

Esperanto - Bush 31 - 44 cm high. White flowers, 2 - 4 pairs per cluster. Pod slightly curved or straight, rounded in diameter, green, 8 - 12 cm long, 0.9 - 1 wide, without parchment layer and fibers, the distance from the tip of the lower pod to the soil is 4 - 5 cm. The weight of the pod is 6.5 g. the plant forms 9 - 13 beans. Beans contain 8 - 11% dry matter, 2 - 2.6% sugars, 19 - 31 mg% vitamin C, Protein 2.1 - 2.7%, fiber 0.8 - 1, canned bean flavor 4.1 - 4, 6 points. Resistant to bacteriosis, as well as to low positive temperatures.

Violet is a mid-season curly bean variety. The plant, 3 - 3.5 m long, requires support for growth. The beans are long, without a parchment layer, round-flat, slightly curved, purple, each with 6-10 grains. Mature beans are elongated, kidney-shaped, light brown. Universal use.

Beans (Haricot)
Beans (Haricot)

© Rasbak

Applications of beans

Beans are often used for dietary nutrition for diseases, diseases of the kidneys, liver, bladder, heart failure, diabetes. At the same time, the variability of the gastronomic consumption of beans is very wide - soups, cereals, side dishes are prepared from beans and other legumes, they are canned, ground for the production of flour.

There are highly nutritious salad beans. And in general, beans are a waste-free crop, the legumes themselves and straw from them are an excellent vitamin feed for livestock.

Traditional medicine has also used the healing properties of this culture for a long time. For example, a decoction of beans or bean pods is used as a diuretic for edema of renal origin or due to heart failure.

And yet, not everyone can eat bean dishes. It is better for older people to abstain from them, as beans cause bloating. Since it contains purines, it should not be eaten for gout and nephritis. Doctors advise not to include beans in the diet for gastritis, peptic ulcer, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, colitis.

However, beans reduce the risk of cancer. Scientists at the University of Colorado conducted an experiment in which they fed rats with beans of those varieties that can be bought in a regular supermarket. By the end of the experiment, they found that the incidence of cancer in the experimental animals had decreased by almost 30%. In addition, in those rats that nevertheless developed cancer, the number of tumors was less than the average by more than 2 times.

Beans are so useful and multi-tasking that they are used even for cosmetic purposes. Nourishing masks are made from beans. Boiled fruits, rubbed through a sieve, in combination with lemon juice and vegetable oil, give the skin the necessary nutrition, heal it, and eliminate wrinkles.

Beans (Haricot)
Beans (Haricot)

© Traumrune

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