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Video: Currant - Vitamin From The Bush
Currants are the berry of health! Did you know that a person's daily need for vitamin C can be satisfied by eating only 35-40 black currant berries? And that vitamin E, which is also rich in currants, is called the vitamin of youth? And also that strong phytoncides were found in currants that kill a number of viruses, in particular the influenza virus? It turns out that in our gardens there are not just bushes with delicious berries from which we make jam, but a whole natural pharmacy.
Currant, Latin - Ribes. A genus of plants from the monotypic family of Gooseberries (Grossulariaceae). Includes about 150 species. Up to 50 species are common in Europe, Asia and North America, and some descend to the south of the continent along the Andes to the Strait of Magellan.
In the plain of the European part of Russia, there are 3 wild-growing species, in the Caucasus - 6, a larger number of them grow in Siberia, especially Eastern.
Currant seedlings with an open root system can be planted both in spring and autumn, but it is better to do this in the fall (for the middle lane - in the first half of October). During the winter, the soil around the bushes will settle and compact, in the spring the plants will start growing early and take root well. When using seedlings in containers, there are practically no restrictions on the timing of planting.
Typically, currant bushes are planted at a distance of 1-1.25 m. To get a harvest for the 2-3rd year, plants in a row can be planted somewhat denser, at a distance of 0.7-0.8 m. But the yield from the bush will be less and life expectancy will be slightly reduced.
Currants are moisture-loving and relatively shade-tolerant, but they cannot stand strong shading. Therefore, it is better for it to take out low, humid, sufficiently illuminated and protected from the wind places (but not swampy lowlands with protruding groundwater!). The best of all are fertile light loams. On heavy acidic soils, black currant grows poorly.
At the chosen place, it is necessary to level the soil so that there are no deep depressions and holes. Then it is good to dig it up on the bayonet of a shovel, carefully removing the rhizomes of perennial weeds. A planting hole 35–40 cm deep and 50–60 cm in diameter is covered with fertile soil mixed with fertilizers - a bucket of compost, superphosphate (150–200 g), potassium sulfate (40–60 g) or wood ash (30-40 g). The root system of the seedling must be lignified, have 3–5 skeletal roots at least 15–20 cm long. Aboveground part - at least one or two branches 30–40 cm long. Damaged or dried roots are shortened, the seedling is buried 6–8 cm higher root collar. Before filling the hole, half a bucket of water is poured into it, and another half a bucket is poured into a circular hole around the landing site. And immediately mulch the surface with peat. The earth under the currants is loosened:near the root collar to a depth of 6–8 cm, at a distance from it - by 10–12 cm. When mulching, moisture is better preserved, and you can loosen it much less often.
In the fall, the heavy soil under the bushes is dug up shallowly and left lumpy for the winter to keep the moisture supply. If the soil is light and loose enough, you can restrict yourself to shallow loosening (up to 5–8 cm) near the bushes, and dig up the row spacing by 10–12 cm.
Gooseberries and currants are best planted in autumn. Such a feature.
We prepare the landing site in advance. To do this, choose a well-lit place. We dig a hole at least forty centimeters deep, add structuring materials (branches, leaves, waste paper, compost, wood ash) to the bottom, add organic and mineral fertilizers. We select a seedling with at least one long shoot and plant it in a hole at an angle of 30 degrees, and so that the top is directed to the sunniest place. Cut off the top, leaving 1-3 buds above the ground. Pruning stimulates the awakening and growth of dormant buds. We make the distance between the seedlings at least sixty centimeters.
In autumn, of all zero shoots that have grown over the summer (let's call it the first wave), we leave three or four strongest ones. With a sharp knife, we cut off their tops, which stimulates the appearance of branches of the first order on them next season. And we put the most powerful southernmost shoot in the groove - it will become the basis of the second wave. Leave the trimmed tip with two buds above the soil.
During the summer, branches of the first order will grow on the zero shoots of the first wave, from which we also remove the apical growth points in the fall. We thin out the weak shoots of the second wave, leaving only four, and the most powerful, as in the last year, bend down and pin into the groove. The third wave will be formed from it next year. There are few berries.
We get a good harvest on the branches of the first wave, remove growth points on the branches of the second wave and zero shoots of the third. We bend and pin down the extreme southern shoot for the next generation.
We get the second crop on the branches of the first wave and the first crop on the branches of the second. In the fall, we cut out the entire bush of the first wave under the root, remove the apical points of growth from the subsequent waves and bend the next shoot.
We get the second crop from the second wave and the first crop from the third. In the fall, we cut out the bush of the second wave under the root, remove the growth points on the fourth and fifth waves, and pin the next shoot. We dig the roots of the first wave, making room for other crops.
To create an optimal water regime, the soil should be kept in a loose, moist and weed-free state. Therefore, around the bushes, it is loosened as necessary (optimally once every 2-3 weeks), preventing the formation of a crust and the growth of weeds, which greatly dry up the soil.
The active root system of currants is located in the upper, loose nutrient layers of the soil. In order not to damage the roots, it is loosened carefully near the bushes, to a depth of no more than 6-8 cm.At a considerable distance from the bushes or between the rows, loosening or digging to a depth of 10-12 cm is possible. Moisture is well preserved if the earth around the bushes is mulched with organic material (peat). In this case, it can be loosened much less often.
In autumn, the heavy loamy soil is dug shallowly under the bushes and left lumpy for the winter so that moisture is better retained, dug up to a depth of 10-12 cm between the bushes and rows.If the soil is light and loose enough, you can limit yourself to shallow loosening (up to 5-8 cm) about bushes. To avoid root damage, use a pitchfork when digging.
Currant is a rather moisture-loving culture, which is associated with its biological characteristics. Lack of moisture causes a growth retardation in currant plants, and during the formation and filling of berries - their crushing and shedding. Dry weather in the post-harvest period can lead to freezing of bushes, especially during severe winters. Therefore, the currant must be provided with moisture in the decisive phases of its development - during the period of intensive growth and formation of the ovary (in late May - early June), during the formation of the ovary and berry filling (in the first half of June - in the first decade of July) and after harvesting (in August - September). Winter watering is also necessary, especially in dry autumn. The soil is moistened at the depth of the root layer, by about 40-60 cm. The water consumption is 30-50 liters per 1 square meter. m of soil surface.
Water by letting water in furrows or into grooves 10-15 cm deep, which are carried around the bushes at a distance of 30-40 cm from the branches of the bush.
The abundant and regular fruiting of currants depends to a large extent on the systematic pruning of the bush. This operation causes the growth of new, strong basal shoots from the underground part of the bush (these are called zero basal shoots, or renewal shoots). In the first 3-4 years, the ground mass grows in the bushes, 5-6 years after planting, they start pruning. 4-5 branches are left on the bush at the age of one to four years. On the bushes of red currants, 3-4 branches are left at the age of one to five years. The pruning and shaping of the bush is started after harvesting. Currants can also be pruned in late autumn and early spring.
On the sites of amateur gardeners, currants are best propagated by lignified cuttings or horizontal and vertical layers.
Lignified cuttings for propagation are harvested as early as possible: for red currants - at the end of August-first half of September, for black currants - at the end of September, using strong, well-developed annual shoots. The upper and lower parts with the weakest kidneys are removed. Cuttings 18-20 centimeters long are cut with pruning shears. Shoots infected with a kidney mite, with rounded swollen buds, are immersed in hot water at a temperature of 45-46 degrees for 15 minutes. Then they are taken out and placed in cold water for 5 minutes.
Cuttings are planted in a pre-prepared and well-watered trench, at the bottom of which a layer of loose earth mixed with humus or peat is placed. The planting depth of the cutting should be such that no more than two buds are above the soil surface, and the distance is from 10 to 15 centimeters. The earth around the currant cuttings is well compacted. If you need a lot of material, then at a distance of 50-60 centimeters from the first trench, they dig the second.
If the cuttings are planted on time, then even before the onset of constant cold weather, callus appears (tissue that forms in plants in places of damage in the form of an influx and promotes healing) and roots 0.5-2.0 centimeters long. Cuttings of red currants should be planted as early as possible, after keeping them for two weeks in a basement in wet sand or in a refrigerator at an appropriate temperature. About a week or two before the onset of frost, the cuttings are mulched with peat and spud with earth with a layer of no more than 2-3 centimeters. The next year, early in the spring, they get bored. Further care consists in watering, loosening, weeding. With proper care, good seedlings grow by autumn, which are dug up and used as planting material. You can plant cuttings immediately to a permanent place, having previously prepared them, preferably two cuttings,so that in the future a stronger bush will form faster.
Black currant reproduces well with horizontal layering. For these purposes, choose the young, most productive strong bushes. The soil under the bushes is well fertilized with humus. In the spring, the bushes are thinned out, 3-4 fertile branches are left, and the old and weak ones are removed. After removal in the same year, new strong basal shoots are formed in the bush. The next year, in the spring, before the buds bloom, they are laid in prepared grooves 10 centimeters deep and pinned with wooden pins so that the shoots are in close contact with the ground. Then the groove with the shoot is covered with moist loose earth, and sprinkled on top with humus, peat, grape pomace. For better growth of currant shoots, the tops of the branches are slightly shortened.
After some time, shoots appear on each laid branch. When they reach a height of 10-12 centimeters, after rain or watering, they are covered with earth mixed in half with humus.
As soon as young shoots grow another 10-12 centimeters, after 2-3 weeks, hilling is repeated. During the summer, the soil is watered, loosened and weeds removed as needed. In moist warm soil, roots form on the lower part of young growing shoots, covered with earth. By autumn, spud shoots have a good root system. At this time, the layers are dug out, cutting off the rooted branches at the base of the bush, dividing them into parts so that each cut has both roots and shoots. The seedlings obtained in this way are used as planting material. In order not to reduce the yield of berries from the bush, less cuttings are grown. From a young fruiting bush, you can get an average of 25-30 seedlings.
When propagating by vertical layers, the strongest bushes are selected. In the spring they are cut short. After pruning, young shoots grow, which at the end of May are spud up to half with loose, moist soil. It is better to mix the earth with humus or peat. After two weeks, hilling is repeated and after about the same time, the third hilling is carried out, in which the mound of earth should be at least 25 centimeters high. This mound is mulched. During the summer, the soil is watered, loosened, weeds removed and mulched again, if necessary.
In autumn, the ground around the bushes is raked, the rooted shoots are cut off and used for planting in a permanent place. Weak rooted shoots are planted for growing.
Diseases and pests
Currant glass jar damages currant and gooseberry shoots. If you see a butterfly with glassy transparent wings, at the ends of which there are transverse stripes and an orange border, then this is it.
They fly out in May-June and lay one testicle near the kidneys. The hatched caterpillars penetrate the shoots through the buds, feed on wood and core, and make moves inside. Damaged shoots dry up and wither. They overwinter in the stage of adult caterpillars inside the shoots, and pupate there.
Signs of infestation with glass: short growth, weak flowering, berries begin to ripen earlier If your currant bushes dry up at the end of flowering and at the beginning of fruit ripening, then this should alert you. Having cut off the shoot, you can find white caterpillars with a black head there. All drying branches must be cut and burned.
Kidney mite causes overgrowth and deformation of currant buds. Such buds swell, do not bloom and dry out. These mites crawl out of the soil when the air temperature reaches 12 degrees and invade the kidney (up to 1,000 in the kidney). In addition, the tick carries the double flower virus; there will be no fruit in this case either. Cut and burn infected branches, mulch the bushes with a thick layer of moss, grass, or other mulching material to keep the mites out.
The aphid also carries the double flower virus. It hibernates near the buds and the most important thing here is not to miss their mass reproduction. As soon as young shoots begin to grow, carefully examine the underside of the leaf and, when a small fly appears (this is a spreading uterus), rinse the tops with soapy water. After coarsening of the tissues, the aphids will no longer encroach on them (she loves only young and delicate tissues).
Ants, the main spawners of aphids, can be scared off by laying mint shoots in anthills or by constructing trapping belts with non-drying glue on tree trunks.
Powdery mildew also appears only on young tissues. Here, first of all, you need to rinse with soapy water (a piece of laundry soap on a bucket) or a soap-ash solution (1 kg of pure wood ash is stirred in 10 liters of slightly warmed water, infused for 7-10 days, stirring occasionally. 40-50 g is added before spraying laundry soap). You can simply sprinkle the bushes of diseased raspberries, gooseberries, black currants with ash. And here is another recipe: fresh manure is put in the middle of the bush in the spring, ammonia evaporates from it and protects it from the pathogen of powdery mildew (for reliability, also spray with slurry - pour water over the well-rotted manure (1: 3), leave for 3 days, dilute with water (1: 3)).
You can spray the bushes with hay infusion (1 kg of hay is poured with 3 liters of water and insisted for 3 days, then filtered and diluted with 1 liter of infusion with 3 liters of water, spraying is repeated several times after 5-7 days). Fitosporin, a preparation based on a bacterial culture that also protects against other fungal and bacterial diseases, also helps.
Another popular method: spraying with milk whey, bread kvass (1/3 of a three-liter can of rye bread is poured with water + 3 tablespoons of granulated sugar. 1 liter of such kvass is diluted in a bucket of water and used against powdery mildew).
The fungus, the causative agent of powdery mildew, hibernates on fallen berries, leaves and green shoots, so they must be removed. You will also have to cut off young shoots affected by powdery mildew in early spring.
Gooseberries, red and black currants are annoyed by the gooseberry moth. Yellowish-white, then grayish-green caterpillars up to 11 mm long eat up the pulp and seeds of berries, which turn red prematurely. Often, several leaves and berries are entangled in a web. Butterflies with dark gray front wings and transverse dark brown stripes fly out before gooseberry and currant flowering and lay their eggs inside the flowers.
In the fall, caterpillars go into the soil for pupation, so mulching under the bushes with a thick layer of mulch (at least 12 cm) helps here - they will not come out of the soil in spring. You also need to destroy diseased berries and spray the plants with a decoction of stepsons and tops of tomatoes (boil 4 kg of tops in 1 bucket of water over low heat, strain and add 40 g of soap to 3 liters of broth).
We will be glad to hear your advice on growing currants!