Growing Autumn Radish. Planting And Leaving. Dates And Varieties. A Photo

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Growing Autumn Radish. Planting And Leaving. Dates And Varieties. A Photo
Growing Autumn Radish. Planting And Leaving. Dates And Varieties. A Photo

Video: Growing Autumn Radish. Planting And Leaving. Dates And Varieties. A Photo

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Video: How to Grow Full Size Radishes and Not Just Leaves: 4 Tips, Planting, Harvest & Proof 2023, February
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We are all accustomed to growing radishes in the spring, this is almost the very first vegetable root crop that comes to our salads, but not many people know that you can cultivate radishes no less successfully in autumn. However, the agricultural technology of growing vegetables during this period is somewhat different from the spring. Let's take our time to figure out what needs to be done correctly in order to achieve high yields of autumn radish.

Radish grown in autumn
Radish grown in autumn

Pros of growing radishes in the fall

Several advantages of growing autumn radish: firstly, root crops in the fall can last longer in the beds, therefore, they retain their commercial qualities longer. You can not rush to clean until the beginning of real cold weather. Secondly, even if you are a little late in harvesting, the radish, which is rightfully considered a very cold-resistant crop, will perfectly tolerate frosts even at a couple of degrees below zero. Therefore, due to the low temperatures that often occur in September and October, you don't need to worry too much. And another plus of the autumn planting is salvation from the cruciferous flea. As you know, this is almost the most terrible pest of radish, in this case, in the fall, due to the cold, it may not show itself (but not 100%, of course), therefore, the harvests will be intact, and chemistry will be used to protect against it not necessary.

Conditions for growing autumn radish

Naturally, in order to obtain a good and tasty autumn radish, it needs abundance of water in the soil, an abundance (or rather a moderate abundance) of light and, of course, food in the soil. As for the temperature, the radish is not picky and will grow at + 17-19 degrees is quite normal. Shine? It is also not particularly important: at this time the day is usually already short, this is even good for the radish, because with a day length of more than 13 hours, the radish seems to forget that it needs to grow a root crop, it grows an aboveground mass, instantly forms flower stalks and strives quickly form pods with seeds. Do not think that by hiding the radish from the sun, simply hiding it in the shade, you can save the situation, in the shade the radish will wither away and practically does not form root crops.

As for the soil, quite fertile and light loams with weakly acidic reactions, that is, when the pH is 5.5-7.0, are considered just ideal for autumn radish. On more acidic soils, radishes are almost always sick with keel.

A prerequisite for a good radish yield is sufficient soil moisture. It is clear that melted snow will provide moisture in early spring, but in summer you will have to water it yourself. If there is little moisture in the soil, then although the radish will form root crops that will be typical in shape and color, they will turn out to be completely unpleasant in terms of content: they will be coarse, with a lack of juice, bitter, and if there is very little moisture (which happens in summer cottages), then you may not get the typical "radish" form. Watering the soil in portions is also not worth it (it is thick, then empty), this will affect the root crops with ordinary constrictions, sometimes very noticeable.

When to sow autumn radishes?

Usually large-fruited varieties of radish, differing in mid-maturity and late maturity, are best sown at the very end of July or in the first half of August. Then you will form the root vegetables not only tasty and correct, but also quite mature. If you still have nowhere to store them, and you will eat them, as they say, "from the garden", then you can sow autumn radishes closer to the end of August or even when schoolchildren are flooding to schools, of course, if the autumn is warm and not will frighten with an early frost with snow.

Soil preparation

For autumn radish, not a single gardener will keep a clean and tidy bed for half the season, for sure something has already grown on it. Radish is like a secondary housing, so you need to remember what happened in this place before.

Autumn radishes will grow well in the garden, where garlic, cucumbers, early potatoes, peas and beans, as well as tomatoes grew before. As you can see, the set is large, in fact, after any crop that has managed to escape from the garden by this time, you can sow autumn radishes. However, there are also completely undesirable predecessors - these are radish, daikon, cabbage, horseradish and watercress, in general, all representatives of cruciferous plants, because they quickly accumulate common diseases and enemies, which are perfectly transmitted just through the soil.

Personally, I would not advise sowing autumn radish on the site where other root crops had grown before, there was such a negative experience.

As for soil preparation, you can't hesitate here, summer is fleeting, immediately after harvesting the previous crop, you need to dig up the soil, remove all weeds and plant residues, and add 25-35 g of ammonium nitrate, 25-35 g of superphosphate and 35 g of sulfate for digging potassium, I would recommend dissolved, and this, of course, per square meter of the garden.

If the soil on the site is very poor and depleted, then it is advisable to add humus or compost, usually a bucket per square meter is enough.

After digging with fertilization, the soil needs to be loosened very well, ideally, it should be loose to a depth of 18-22 cm, but this, of course, depends on the type of radish you will be using. If sowing of long-fruited varieties is planned, then the depth of processing (loosening) should be increased. After complete processing of the soil, it is necessary to water it and, better, by sprinkling.

Seedlings of autumn radish
Seedlings of autumn radish

Features of sowing autumn radish

Unlike spring sowing, summer-autumn sowing of radish is carried out a little more sparsely, necessarily taking into account the final dimensions of the root crops of the sown variety and counting on their maximum illumination by the sun during a short day.

Let's give an example: so, for varieties of large-fruited radish, it is desirable that the tape has from eight to ten lines, while the distance between the lines in the tape is better to make equal to 12-14 cm, between the seeds in the rows - 6-7 cm, and between the tapes themselves - 40-45 cm.

The standard seeding rate for autumn radish seeds is approximately one gram per square meter. You can have a little (10-15%) more (if not everyone knows, let's clarify: a gram of radish seeds contains up to 120-125 pieces, sometimes more).

The ideal time to plant radishes is when the weather is humid and rather cool, if it is drizzling, then the weather itself is helping you. Before sowing, while waiting for drizzle, soak the seeds for 12 hours (usually overnight), before planting them in the ground.

When everything is ready, we go out to the garden, after 12-14 centimeters we make grooves in it, slightly compact the bottom of the grooves with our fingers and then pour water, preferably from a spray bottle, then at a distance of about 5-7 cm (a lot depends on the type of radish) we place sprinkle the seeds with soil and carefully so that they do not move. It is such sowing that can protect the soil for a longer time from the formation of a soil crust, through which it will be difficult for a sprout to break through.

If we are not talking about a couple of hundred square meters, but about a large area that you want to occupy with autumn radishes, then it is better to calibrate the seeds before sowing them into the soil. Although this activity is not quick, it will still be more convenient to plant each faction separately later. Special sieves for seeds can speed up the situation, they divide seeds into fractions - about 3 mm, from two to 2.5 mm and less than two millimeters in diameter. By sowing each calibrated fraction separately, you will get both more friendly seedlings and much more aligned crops of autumn radish.

Naturally, everything does not end with the sowing of radishes into the soil, almost no less important work begins - this is caring for seedlings, for growing plants until the very harvest. This includes maintenance, usually watering, protection from disease and pests, harvesting and conservation.

Care of crops of autumn radish

In addition, do not forget about the periodic, at least once a week, loosening the soil between the rows of radish crops, about carrying out a number of dressings, about watering, thinning out the emerging seedlings, well, and, as we said, about the fight against pests and diseases.

So, even before the emergence of radish shoots, you need to be on your guard, you need to mercilessly fight the soil crust by any means to eliminate it. Typically, the soil crust appears after rain or watering, usually heavy. It is possible to somewhat reduce the risk of a soil crust if the beds after sowing radish seeds and watering the soil are mulched with very fine sawdust or river sand. The lightest loosening helps, when the soil layers remain in place, as well as watering from a spray bottle, it is great if with rainwater.

If all is well, then radish shoots usually appear within four days, in rare cases, you will have to wait a little longer - up to seven days. Be aware that the shoots may not be able to withstand the rays of the scorching sun, so at least for a couple of days, but shade them from the sun. They will not tolerate excessive soil moisture, therefore, watering for three days only from a spray bottle, and by about the same time, you can begin to normalize crops.

Thinning of radish crops

Do not skip seedling thinning, as this is very important when growing autumn radishes. Thinning improves the lighting of the plantation, increases the feeding area of ​​each individual plant, and accordingly increases the total yield from the site.

It is usually advisable to start thinning the root crops of autumn radish a week after sowing. If they are developing very actively, then a day or two early, but you should not rush too much. It is necessary to achieve the emergence of truly massive seedlings and quality plant development. Before thinning, the soil must be shed, it is better to do this from a spray bottle, moistening the soil by 2-3 cm.

Further, excess competing plants are simply pulled out of the ground carefully so as not to affect those that are located nearby. As a result, a distance of four or five centimeters should remain free between the radish seedlings, depending on the variety. Further (after a couple of days), housewives usually choose some radish for use in food and thereby increase the distance between plants to eight or even ten centimeters. Here it is important to carry out a uniform sample so that the distance between the plants is uniform.

For an example based on my own experience (we will definitely describe the radish varieties at the end), I can say that the optimal standing density, say, for the Dungansky radish variety is about one hundred pieces of plants per square meter, for the Red Giant and Zenith radish varieties - less. eighty or ninety pieces, and the more early-ripening varieties, of course, can be sown thicker.

It is clear that even after thinning, the area where the radish grows should be moist, loose, devoid of weeds. This can be partially achieved by mulching: with the same humus layer of one centimeter.

Thinning plantings of radish
Thinning plantings of radish

Watering and feeding radish

Having casually mentioned watering and fertilizing, let's talk about them in more detail. So, we all know well that radishes are demanding on moisture, especially when its roots begin to form. Hose watering is not an option - you can erode the soil, expose root crops and pests will attack them. The best thing is to arm yourself with a watering can with small nozzles, so you will not wash out the soil and damage the seedlings (do not break the foliage, do not press it to the ground, etc.).

If there is no natural moisture in the form of rain and it is hot outside, then you need to water it every three days, and if it was really hot, then every two days. On light and sandy soils, watering can be carried out at least every evening, the main thing is that the soil has time to dry out by the next evening. For those who love numbers, we can say that the watering rate for radishes is about 7-14 liters per square meter, depending on the type of plant, the composition of the soil, its nutritional value, the presence of moisture in the form of rain, etc.

Watering radishes should become a habit, become a regular, common thing, otherwise the root crops may grow, but they will be bitter, even to the point of being completely inedible. If there are drops with watering - for example, they have not been at the dacha for a long time, they came and poured all the radishes, turning the beds into a swamp, then in addition to the constrictions, which we wrote about above, the root crops can be corny to crack, start to rot (also not an option, you know …) …

Top dressing - this section is criticized in any article and, probably, will always be criticized. If you live well without fertilizers, well, do not add anything and … period. And those who understand that all living things, from humans to radishes, should be eaten, need to know more about feeding. So my personal suggestion is slurry. You need to dilute it every 8-10 with water, add 20-25 g of superphosphate and 10-15 g of potassium sulfate (not chloride and not potassium salt) to the solution (usually per bucket) - this is the norm for 2-3 square meters of the garden. In the event that it seems to you that your plants are developing significantly worse than those of your neighbor, then you can add one top dressing with ammonium nitrate. Just dissolve one gram of it in a bucket of water and pour every square meter of soil on the plot.

Of course, nitrogen fertilizers are not a panacea, I myself have always said, I say and will say that they cannot be abused, prohibited, contraindicated: in addition to the fact that instead of a root crop, they can stimulate the plant to form green mass, so also the radish will be inside as ping pong ball: kind of solid, but empty inside. After harvesting such root crops usually begin to deteriorate quickly, it is corny to rot. Well, yes, yes, yes (!): Nitrates - they accumulate and harm the human body (although, in my opinion, one walk along Tverskaya in rush hour is equal to a kilogram of eaten radish roots with a bunch of nitrates).

Fight against diseases and pests of radish

For watering, fertilizing and loosening the soil, which some individuals carry out even with combs and toothpicks, we forgot about diseases and pests, and a good neighbor did not try and exterminate them while we were arguing about the "benefits" of nitrates.

As we mentioned in this article, one of the most dangerous pests for radishes is the cruciferous flea. Yes, she is not so active during this period of time, but it cannot be said that she is inactive at all. There were times when you believe such promises, you go out to a site where only yesterday there were friendly and cheerful shoots of autumn radish, but they are not, I'll clean it up. Therefore, it is better to overdo it. Do you know what this flea does? She eats away a more sweet, nutritious and important, it seems, both for her and, of course, for the plants themselves, a growing point, and if the weather is dry and hot, then you need to be ready.

Fighting cruciferous fleas

No one recommends using chemistry to combat cruciferous fleas. We take the most terrible allergen, having previously put on protective gloves and a respirator - mustard and sprinkle radish aisles on a very tiny pinch. You can also use hot pepper, and mustard and pepper need a maximum of a teaspoon per square meter. After that, the crops must be covered with a non-woven covering material, creating something like a greenhouse with a chemical attack on flea beetles.

An original way to protect radishes from cruciferous fleas:

About seven days before sowing radishes in the ground, it is necessary to sow watercress, mustard, and after another seven days, sow radishes in the aisles of these crops. We act like Sherlock Holmes: the flea attacks the seedlings of competitors, we treat them with approved insecticides, strictly following the instructions on the package, and kill them, after which it remains to wait for the radish shoots and cut off the plants that we do not need, which serve as bait. This method may well help, you can try.

Cabbage fly

They say the cabbage fly is a terrible coward, and if you plant celery next to the garden bed (usually along its periphery), then it certainly will not come close to the areas of your radish.

Keela

As we already mentioned, acidic soils can be dangerous for radishes due to keel damage. If you are able to determine the pH of the soil or you know that it is definitely acidic, then we advise you to add 150-200 g of chalk, 250-300 g of lime or 250-350 g of dolomite flour to the soil before sowing, of course, in terms of per square meter and, ideally, for a year, but you can at least a month before sowing the radish. Wood ash is a good soil deoxidizer; in addition, it contains up to 5% potassium and a fairly large composition of trace elements, albeit in small quantities. Wood ash can be sprinkled with a millimeter layer directly into the base of the hole, and radish seeds can be sown on top.

Overgrown radish
Overgrown radish

Autumn radish varieties

Well, and of course, the key to success is determining the correct degree of ripeness of the radish root crop. To do this, you need to know what you are sowing on the site, that is, the variety and the duration of its ripening from the emergence of seedlings to the receipt of edible root crops. We have prepared for you a list of radish varieties that have shown themselves as well as possible, especially during autumn sowing.

Usually these varieties of radish are suitable for sowing in August, are ready for harvesting in a maximum of two months and produce rather large root crops, reaching hundreds of grams. In the cellar, such roots can be stored for up to six months.

  • Autumn giant - only 26-28 days pass before it is harvested, root crops reach a mass of 145 g, they are white, elliptical, with juicy pulp and excellent taste. Stored up to a hundred days.
  • Red giant - about 52 days pass before harvesting, root crops reach a length of 11-13 cm. The variety gives a yield of 3.3 kg per square meter. Delicious and can be stored for up to 120 days.
  • Dungan - about 55 days before harvest and almost the same average weight of root crops (35-45 g), with a yield of up to 3.5 kg per square meter. The root vegetable of this radish tastes great.
  • Zenith - from 31 to 39 days before harvest, the color of the root crop is pink-crimson, the shape is cylindrical, the length is up to 15 cm, and the diameter is about three centimeters. Maximum weight 75 g, sometimes slightly raised above the soil surface. The pulp is interesting - it is very dense, white and spicy in taste. Productivity up to three kilograms per square meter. Capable of long-term storage.
  • Sachs - 31 - 35 days pass before harvesting. The color of the root crop is red-crimson, oval in shape, up to four centimeters in diameter, weighing no more than 30 g. The pulp can be either snow-white or pinkish, very dense, slightly sharp. You can dig up to one and a half kilograms of this type of radish from a square meter.
  • Würzburg - usually 33-36 days pass before harvesting. The color of the root crop is red-raspberry, it has a rounded shape and a diameter of about four centimeters with a mass of 15-16 g. The flesh is usually snow-white, but it can be white-pink, the taste is weak. Up to two kilograms of harvest can be harvested from a square meter.
  • Heat - the first crop of this variety can be harvested within a month after germination. The color of the root crop of this radish is red-crimson, the shape is either round or oval, and the diameter reaches 3.5 cm with a mass of about three tens of grams. The pulp can be either snow-white or pinkish, rather dense with a slightly pungent taste. Up to 2.5 kg of crop can be harvested from a square meter.
  • Riesenbuter - this variety at an atypical time can be grown both in open ground, where it is ready for digging in 24-26 days, and in protected, it takes about the same amount of time. As a result, a red, rounded root crop is formed, with a diameter of about ten centimeters. The average weight of the root crop is about 35 g. The pulp of this radish variety is snow-white, very juicy and sweet.
  • Well, in conclusion, my favorite variety of Queen Margot radish - less than a month passes from germination to its digging, this variety forms rounded root crops, weighing a little more than 23 g. The pulp is white as snow, quite dense, crispy when consumed, very juicy and as they say scientists, "jam-packed" with vitamins. It is interesting that the germination rate of seeds of this variety is always close to 100%.

So, as you understand, growing an autumn radish is as easy as growing a spring one, and considering that it is stored quite well, you will enjoy its fresh roots for a long time.

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