Spring Processing Of An Orchard From Pests

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Spring Processing Of An Orchard From Pests
Spring Processing Of An Orchard From Pests

Video: Spring Processing Of An Orchard From Pests

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Spring Pest Control for Apples and Pears 2023, February
Anonim

The day is lengthening, the sun is getting warmer. Spring is coming - the time of the most intensive work in the garden. People say: "You won't be in time in spring, you won't burst in winter." And this is true. Spring work on gardening equipment begins. And, perhaps, the main spring work in the garden is the implementation of preventive measures aimed at preventing the appearance of pests of fruit crops. In this article, we will tell you what exactly needs to be done in the garden in the spring so that no pests of fruit trees prevent you from harvesting a good harvest in the fall.

Spring whitewashing of garden trees to protect against pests
Spring whitewashing of garden trees to protect against pests

Content:

  • Spring agrotechnical events
  • Processing of trunks and skeletal branches of fruit crops
  • Brief description of pests
  • Fruit pest control methods
  • Sucking Pest Control
  • Control of gnawing pests
  • Folk remedies against pests

Spring agrotechnical events

We begin spring agrotechnical measures in the garden with preparation for the processing of fruit crops from diseases and pests:

  • We remove insulation on young seedlings and process them from possible pests. Dry. We put it in a dry place until autumn.
  • On fruiting crops, we remove the trapping belts and burn them.
  • At the onset of a stable temperature of -5..- 7 ° C, we prune the crown, clean the trunk and skeletal branches from the old peeled bark, which served as “winter quarters” for pests. We process the cuts and cuts with pitch, special compounds, or simply disinfect with 5% copper sulfate and paint over with oil paint.
  • The April sun is bright. You need to hide the trunks and skeletal tree branches from him, put on whitewash and paint in a spring outfit, and at the same time destroy some of the pests.
  • Adult pests (weevils, fruit sawflies) can simply be shaken off the tree. The technology for carrying out this procedure is simple, but up to 60-80% of pests that have overwintered in adult form will be destroyed. The procedure should be carried out at a temperature not higher than + 7 … + 8 ° C, early in the morning in cloudy weather, so that the beetles numb from the cold do not fly away. Remove any protruding weeds under the canopy. Spread the film evenly. Shake the branches with a long pole. Overwintered pests will fall from the crown of the tree. It remains to carefully roll up the film with beetles to take out and burn the pests.

Processing of trunks and skeletal branches of fruit crops

Before treating wood, cover a film under it. Examine the trunk and large branches again, remove the remnants of the old bark, clean the cracks, seal the hollows and wounds. The film is needed to protect the soil from pests and re-infection of plants.

The chemical industry offers ready-made compositions for whitewashing and even painting the trunks and main shoots of adult plants. The most popular whitewash dye is acrylic paint. On sale there are water-based and water-dispersion dyes marked "for garden trees". They stay on the bark of trees for a long time and are not washed away by rains. The dyes contain an antiseptic, so no additional toxic chemicals need to be added to the solution. Sometimes, if the composition is liquid, PVA glue is added to it. With a dense consistency, no glue is needed. If it is impossible to buy a ready-made whitewash solution, you can prepare it yourself.

Self-preparation of whitewash solutions

For young seedlings, the solution is prepared on a water emulsion or chalk basis. Lime can burn the tender bark of seedlings. BI-58 and copper sulfate are added to the solution as disinfectants. Other disinfectants can also be used. Do not use glue, especially wood glue. It clogs the pores in the young bark, as a result of which gas exchange decreases, the trunks thicken more slowly (they remain weak to support the crown).

In the garden, do not limit yourself to one whitewash a year. Whitewashing must be repeated as it rinses off.

For fruiting trees, the following mixtures are prepared, with which the trunk and all skeletal branches are treated. The solutions are prepared with freshly slaked lime. It burns out the eggs of many pests that have been laid since autumn.

Blend 1

Dilute slaked lime to a thick sour cream. For better adhesion to a bucket of solution, add 1-2 handfuls of clay, clerical glue (some gardeners use carpentry), copper sulfate and any strong-smelling toxic chemical BI-58, dichlorvos, etc.

Blend 2

Prepare a solution of freshly slaked lime of sour creamy density, add office glue, loose laundry soap, copper sulfate, home fungicide (30-40 g / bucket), you can oxyhom (20 g / bucket). This composition is good for use in gardens affected by fungal diseases, mosses and lichens.

Blend 3

In regions where nitrofen is allowed, you can add 200 g of the drug to a bucket of whitewash solution. It is effective against hibernating eggs of garden pests.

Finish the whitewashing work by installing trapping belts made of straw on the lower part of the trunk. Treat the tourniquet with any powdered toxic chemical (DDT, etc.), grease the bole with special anti-caterpillar garden glue and attach the trapping belt to the glue path. Animals from the soil, including "household" ants, will get stuck on the sticky path in the belt and die. During the spring, trapping belts are changed twice in 10-12 days. The old ones are necessarily burned.

The measures taken will partially destroy the pests, but with the onset of the warm period, other sucking and gnawing representatives of the negative world of harmful insects and beetles will wake up.

Brief description of pests

The pests of the green world can be divided into two groups according to the way they eat:

  • sucking,
  • gnawing.

In suckers, the oral apparatus is adapted to suck out plant juices. In this case, the normal nutrition of the culture is disrupted and, in case of epiphytotic damage, leads to the death of the plant. The main sucking pests of the garden are aphids, ticks, scale insects, leafhoppers, pennies, honeycloths and others. The adults remaining from wintering in a short time, actively multiplying, form huge colonies.

In the process of feeding, they secrete a sweetish liquid "honeydew", which is a breeding ground for fungi, bacteria, viruses and ants' favorite food. Eating honeydew affected by negative diseases, they spread disease across all visited cultures.

Gnawing pests gnaw at young vegetative (leaves, buds, young shoots, roots) and generative organs (flower buds, flowers, ovaries). They cause irreparable harm to the emerging crop and the tree itself. In some years, pests destroy the crop by 50-100%. They often cause the death of a culture. This group of pests includes caterpillars of various butterflies, longhorn beetles, click beetles, weevils, etc.

Garden treatment with special preparations from a spray bottle
Garden treatment with special preparations from a spray bottle

Fruit pest control methods

Pest control can be done in several ways:

  • Chemical, using pesticides.
  • Biological, with the use of biological products made on a living bacterial and fungal basis and the attraction of natural predators eating adult pests, their eggs, larvae. These include ladybugs, wasps, certain species of wasps and birds, including sparrows, warblers, titmouses, wagtails and others.
  • Folk broths, infusions, powders of the corresponding anti-insecticidal and anti-fungicidal herbs, fruits, seeds.

General approaches to chemical pest control

It is a shame to realize, but the most widespread method of pest control remains. A solution prepared in 5-10 minutes, especially in a tank mixture, will rid the garden of pests in 2-3 sprays.

When using pesticides, you need to remember:

  • all chemical preparations (solutions, powders) have a high degree of risk to human health, animals and beneficial insects;
  • the last treatment with chemicals ends a month or more before harvesting;
  • given their negative impact on health, it is better to process trees and shrubs with a tank mixture, having previously checked the preparations for compatibility. Mixtures of pesticides will reduce the number of treatments and expand the list of simultaneously destroyed pests and diseases.

When starting to work with a chemical, especially a new one, carefully study the recommendations and act strictly on them. An increase in the dose of the drug in solution, untimely use will not have a positive effect, but will adversely affect health and product quality.

Sucking Pest Control

Chemicals against sucking pests

  • Before bud break, fruit crops can be protected from pests by spraying with solutions of Nitrofen and DNOC. Nitrafen can be replaced with drugs Nisaran or Borneo, which destroy the eggs of pests, and at a later date and larvae.
  • In the bud swelling phase, before flowering and at the end, it is advisable to spray the trees with 1% Bordeaux liquid or use a tank mixture of HOM and fufanon preparations.
  • Of the chemical preparations of systemic action that destroy the gastrointestinal tract of sucking pests with poisonous juice, such as aphids, scale insects, false scutes, whitefly thrips, leaf flies, effective use according to the recommendations of Aktara, Confidor, Karbofos, Rovikurt, Benzophosphate. Karbofos and Actellik are successfully used against ticks, including spider mites.
  • Mospilan and Prestige are dual-acting drugs: systemic and contact. They successfully destroy eggs, larvae and adult pests.
  • Contact preparations (require re-spraying after rains and watering) Arrivo, Decis, Karate, Fastak, Fury, Tsimbush, Tsitkor, Sherpa (approximately the same in chemical composition) effectively destroy not only sucking aphids, mushroom mosquitoes, thrips, whiteflies, but also gnawing pests.
  • Thunder and Thunder-2 are successfully used against ants and bears.
  • Of the new drugs, Sunmight is recommended against ticks and whiteflies at all stages of crop development, especially on apple trees.
  • Stirrup with targeted destruction of the spider mite.

Biologicals against sucking pests

It is better to use biological preparations in your garden to obtain ecological products. Bioinsecticides do not affect human health. They do not harm animals and beneficial insects. They can be used for treatments before harvesting, and some (Planriz) and during harvesting.

The basis for the preparation of bioinsecticides are live beneficial fungi and bacteria (effective microflora). In the process of vital activity, in contact with a pest, the parasite penetrates into the body and destroys it.

Of the bioinsecticides, the most effective and often used are Boverin, Fitoverm, Aktofit, Bitoxibacillin, Lepidotsid, Bicol (see instructions). Verticillin especially quickly affects aphids and whiteflies, while Bitoxibacillin and Bicol affect aphids and spider mites.

Spring pruning of fruit trees
Spring pruning of fruit trees

Control of gnawing pests

While sucking pests suck out plant juices, the gnawing pests physically destroy the generative and vegetative organs of plants. The group of gnawing pests is made up of bud beetles, flower beetles, leaf beetles, weevils, click beetles, barbel beetles.

All types of moths damage fruits, and butterflies, passing through the stage of voracious caterpillars, in a short time are able to destroy the green dress of fruit and significantly reduce the yield. Adults gnawing pests hibernate in fallen fruits, leaves, cut branches and shoots, in tree hollows and cracks in the bark. Here they lay eggs, from which larvae and caterpillars hatch with the onset of heat, devouring the green crown of trees.

Chemicals against gnawing pests

  • Of the chemical preparations against gnawing, the same chemicals are used as for protection against sucking pests: Karbofos, Benzophosphate, Aktara, Decis, Fastak.
  • Against the leaf caterpillars of the ringed silkworm, winter moth, moths, before budding of fruit crops, treatment is carried out with DNOC or Nitrafen. At the beginning of bud break, a suspension of Gardona or (for younger individuals) Eptobacterin, Dendrobacillin is used.
  • To protect against flower beetles in the period from budding to budding, a suspension of Phosphamide is used, against glassy - an emulsion of Fozalon.
  • Fruit moths and sawflies are effectively destroyed by the Antio emulsion. Purposefully against the moth, you can use a suspension of Gordon, Rovikurt, Zolon.
  • Trichlormetaphos is recommended against sawflies and miner moths.

Biological products against gnawing pests

Of the biological products against gnawing pests, the bioinsecticide Aktofit (Akarin) is of the greatest interest. The widest range of pests is effectively destroyed by Aktofit without addiction of parasitic pests to the drug. Aktofit acts as a contact and intestinal bioinsecticide for most pests on almost all fruit crops. The drug quickly and effectively destroys the caterpillars of the moth, moth, leafworm, moth, arthropod pests, leaf beetles and flower beetles, sawflies, ticks, soil nematodes.

In practice, having only this biological product, it is possible, with timely processing, to keep the garden clean from most pests. The waiting period for processing with Aktofit is 2 days. The drug is easily washed off with water, which means that it can be eaten earlier than 2 days. For gardeners who want to get ecologically clean harvests of fruits, berries and vegetables Aktofit is a godsend.

Of other drugs, Bitoxibacillin, Boverin Verticill, Dachnik, Fitoverm, Lepidotsid are widely used. They effectively protect fruit crops from moths, thrips, whiteflies, moths, scoops, flower beetles and other pests. And their wide compatibility with other biological products and chemicals makes them indispensable in the manufacture of tank mixes. Biopreparations are especially convenient for multi-harvested berry-garden crops and vegetables.

Bioinsecticides combine systemic and contact action on pests. Acting in a neurotoxic manner, they cause paralysis and death of adult sucking and gnawing individuals. The duration of action of bioinsecticides is much shorter than chemical preparations, therefore, they require more frequent treatments (after 10-15 days).

The purchase of drugs and the time spent on processing are increasing, but … health is more expensive. The main condition for the effective use of biological products is a clear implementation of the instructions and recommendations for dilution and periods of use.

Folk remedies against pests

Methods for protecting fruit crops from pests with folk remedies involves the preparation of infusions, decoctions and powders of herbs-insecticides and herbs with anti-fungicidal properties. It should be noted that the prepared preparations are not as harmless as they seem. They are sometimes based on such potent alkaloid compounds that eating an unwashed apple or peach can result in severe poisoning.

Some gardeners offer decoctions of hemlock, black henbane, hogweed, aconite and other poisonous herbs. Judging by the rules of use, decoctions and infusions are the same chemical preparations, only at a lower concentration. When using popular advice, be careful.

Spring garden pest control
Spring garden pest control

Rules for the use of folk methods of pest control

  • Collect the aerial part of plants (stems, leaves, inflorescences) for the preparation of solutions should be at the time of the beginning or full flowering, and tubers, bulbs, roots and rhizomes - in early spring or late autumn. Dry naturally.
  • Given the toxicity of some plants, it is necessary to prepare preparations (dry and liquid) from them strictly according to the recipe and store in places inaccessible to children and animals.
  • For cooking, use special utensils that are not used for cooking.
  • Bury residues and waste from solutions in the ground. They must be inaccessible to animals and birds.
  • Plants are treated no more than 3 times during the growing season. In epiphytotic cases, the number of treatments is increased by 1-2 spraying or dusting.
  • Spraying and other treatments are carried out in the evening hours.
  • Stop processing plants 20-30 days before harvesting and only with absolutely non-poisonous plants for 5-7 days. During flowering and harvesting, solutions are not used.

Compositions of folk remedies

For the treatment of plants from pests, several compositions can be proposed:

  • To protect against spider mites, aphids, spraying with a decoction of healthy tops of potatoes and tomatoes works well.
  • Against aphids, honeydew, spider mites, you can prepare a solution of wood ash with laundry soap in hot water.
  • Infusion of onion peels is effective against caterpillars, aphids, spider mites.
  • Pour tobacco dust or makhorka with hot water. The daily infusion with the addition of soap is effective against aphids, moths, suckers, leaf-eating caterpillars, spider mites, slugs.
  • Fumigation with tobacco dust is used against apple and fruit moths (summer period of butterflies), honey plants (after flowering), aphids. It is poured onto small piles of slightly damp straw with debris or heaps of waste and set on fire.
  • An infusion of burdock leaves is used against whitefly caterpillars and scoops.

Now compare the proposals of other "folk solution lovers". For example, to combat caterpillars and larvae, it is proposed to spray trees with a mixture of solutions of aconite (fighter), hemlock leaves and inflorescences. How do you think, how harmless this folk method is, given that plants are among the most poisonous representatives of the plant world?

It is almost impossible to list all the recommended compositions of herbs, roots, bulbs and fruits, chemical and biochemical preparations and compositions. But, after reading the article, you can make your choice of measures to protect garden crops from pests.

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