Sea Buckthorn Is A Unique Berry. Planting, Growing, Reproduction. Photo

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Sea Buckthorn Is A Unique Berry. Planting, Growing, Reproduction. Photo
Sea Buckthorn Is A Unique Berry. Planting, Growing, Reproduction. Photo

Video: Sea Buckthorn Is A Unique Berry. Planting, Growing, Reproduction. Photo

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Video: Seaberry Plants Sea Buckthorn plants My thoughts 2023, January
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Sea buckthorn has long been one of the most common medicinal plants. In ancient Greece, its leaves and young branches were used to heal people and horses. But then they gradually forgot about her. And only in the last three to four decades, sea buckthorn has again been widely used.

Sea buckthorn
Sea buckthorn

Content:

  • Description of sea buckthorn
  • Useful properties of sea buckthorn
  • Application of sea buckthorn
  • Planting sea buckthorn
  • Growing sea buckthorn
  • Reproduction of sea buckthorn
  • Sea buckthorn pests
  • Diseases of sea buckthorn

Description of sea buckthorn

Sea buckthorn, Latin name for Hippophae.

The Latin name for sea buckthorn comes from the Greek name for the plant: hippophaes; from hippos - horse and phaos - shine. It was believed that horses fed with sea buckthorn leaves had a particularly shiny skin.

  • A genus of plants of the family Lokhovye (Elaeagnaceae).
  • Shrubs or trees, mostly thorny, from 0.1 to 3-6 m (rarely up to 15 m) in height.
  • Leaves are alternate, narrow and long, green in small dots above, grayish-white, silvery or rusty-golden on the underside of densely covering stellate scales.
  • Flowers appear before leaves.
  • False fruit (drupe), consisting of a nut, dressed with an overgrown, juicy and shiny receptacle. The fruits are orange or reddish, there are many of them, they are densely arranged and, as it were, "stick around" the branches (hence the Russian name of the plant).

Other names for sea buckthorn are: wax, dereza, ivothern.

Most often, when we talk about sea buckthorn, we mean sea ​​buckthorn, or buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) - a dioecious shrub or tree, a species of the genus Sea buckthorn, common in the temperate climate of Eurasia.

Useful properties of sea buckthorn

Sea buckthorn fruits are classified as multivitamins. They contain provitamins A, vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B6, C, E, K, etc.). Fruits contain 3-6% sugars (glucose and fructose), organic acids - malic, tartaric, etc., tannins. The alkaloid hippofain, ascorbic acid and up to 10 different tannins were found in the leaves and bark, in the bark - up to 3% fatty oil of a different composition than in fruits and seeds.

Fatty oil accumulates in fruits, which consists of triacylglycerols with saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, among the latter monounsaturated (palmitooleic, oleic) acids predominate; pectin substances, organic acids, tannins, flavonoids, nicotinic and folic acids, macro- and microelements (boron, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, potassium, calcium), sugars and some types of herbal antibiotics.

Oil from the pulp of the fruit has a bright orange color, from the seeds - yellowish. They differ somewhat in composition. Fruit pulp oil contains up to 0.350% carotene and carotenoids, thiamine and riboflavin, a fairly large amount (0.165%) tocopherol and a significant amount of essential fatty acids.

The plant is wind-pollinated, there is practically no nectar in its flowers. The so-called “sea buckthorn honey” in everyday life is a syrup made from sea buckthorn berries.

Application of sea buckthorn

Sea buckthorn fruits are used to obtain sea buckthorn oil used in medicine. Fruits are an important part of birds' winter food.

Sea buckthorn fruit is used to prepare sea buckthorn juice, mashed potatoes, jam, marmalade, preserves, and candy fillings. The juice is used to obtain and flavor wine, soft drinks, liqueurs, tinctures; fresh fruits after freezing lose some bitterness and are used to make jelly, tinctures and jellies.

In folk medicine, sea buckthorn oil is used internally for vitamin deficiencies (scurvy, night blindness), gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer. Leaves in Central Asia are used externally for rheumatism. The fruits and leaves of sea buckthorn are widely used in oriental medicine.

Sea buckthorn leaves accumulate tannins, which are the active principle of the drug - hyporamine, which has antiviral activity.

The oil has wound healing and analgesic properties, it is used to treat scaly lichen, Darier's disease, burns, frostbite, eczema, lupus ulcer, poorly healing wounds, cracks, etc.

The seeds are used as a mild laxative.

In cosmetics, sea buckthorn oil is used to prepare nourishing masks for the skin; a decoction of fruits and branches is used for baldness and hair loss.

Sea buckthorn is used to anchor sands, road slopes, ravines, and hedges. Sea buckthorn is also widely used as an ornamental plant.

Sea buckthorn
Sea buckthorn

Planting sea buckthorn

Choosing a landing site

Sea buckthorn should be planted as far as possible from the cultivation areas of the garden soil. For example, choose a suitable place for planting sea buckthorn seedlings at the edge of the plot, along the road, not far from garden buildings, next to the lawn.

The roots of sea buckthorn are several weakly branching cords extending to the sides for many meters from the plant. The roots of the sea buckthorn lie shallow (20-30 cm from the ground), so they are easily damaged when digging the soil in the garden. And injury to even one of the roots greatly weakens the plant. The gardener needs to know this feature of the structure of the sea buckthorn root system and be sure to take into account when choosing a planting site for seedlings.

Digging the soil next to sea buckthorn is the most common cause of poor fruiting or death of this plant. An additional negative consequence of such digging is the appearance of abundant growth in places of damage to the sea buckthorn roots.

The second important condition when choosing a favorable planting site for sea buckthorn seedlings is an open place. Sea buckthorn is photophilous and therefore should grow in an unshaded place in the garden.

Planting sea buckthorn seedlings

Planting sea buckthorn is no different from planting other fruit plants. Do not use fresh organic matter when planting sea buckthorn seedlings and do not abuse mineral fertilizers. You can limit yourself to a bucket of rotted compost, a handful of superphosphate (certainly double - in areas with acidic soil) and a glass of wood ash for each of the planted plants.

You can, of course, add a spoonful of good complex fertilizer when planting a sea buckthorn seedling.

If you are replanting sea buckthorn, try to dig up as many of its roots as possible (they are very long). However, if during the digging it was necessary to cut the roots strongly, then cut off the aerial part of the transplanted plant just as much. Practice shows that "overdoing" with pruning a sea buckthorn seedling is better than "pitying" the plant and preserving too much aerial part.

When transplanting large sea buckthorn plants, you can leave only the main trunk (1-1.5 m long) without any side branches at all.

Long roots of sea buckthorn quickly and far go to the sides outside the planting pit. Therefore, fertilization in the area of ​​the near-trunk circle one to two years after planting is not as important as for plants with a more compact root system.

Blooming sea buckthorn
Blooming sea buckthorn

Growing sea buckthorn

Sea buckthorn is quite winter-hardy, however, in winters with sharp temperature changes, wood and, especially, flowering rudiments of male plants freeze. Generative buds in sea buckthorn are laid on the growth of the current year. The yield is highly dependent on weather conditions. The seed offspring of sea buckthorn enter fruiting at 4-5 years, vegetative - at 3-4 years.

Sea buckthorn blooms simultaneously with the beginning of leaf growth, male and female flowers are inconspicuous, without aroma. The fruits ripen simultaneously 90-100 days after flowering. The shape of the fruit varies from spherical to oblong-oval, cylindrical, fruit weight from 0.07 to 1.1 g, color from light yellow to red.

The root system of sea buckthorn is located mainly in the upper horizons of the soil, which should be taken into account when growing it in the garden. In natural thickets, sea buckthorn spreads most often due to the offspring, which appear on the roots of the first order, lying at a depth of 5-15 cm. After 2-3 years, the offspring bear fruit, but their own root system develops weakly and the connection with the mother plant is preserved.

An interesting and important feature of the sea buckthorn root system is the presence of nodules. The works of many researchers have established the nitrogen-fixing role of sea buckthorn nodule formations. Sometimes, unknowingly, the nodules are mistaken for root cancer, they are cut off, which significantly reduces the survival rate of seedlings and impairs their growth.

Sea buckthorn belongs to light-loving plants. In thickened plantings, in the shade of tall plants and when densely standing in natural thickets, it grows upward and weakly branches. Young offspring plants die from lack of light.

Sea buckthorn
Sea buckthorn

Reproduction of sea buckthorn

In the conditions of amateur gardening, sea buckthorn is propagated only in a vegetative way: lignified or green cuttings, grafting, root suckers.

Propagation by lignified cuttings

Lignified cuttings with a thickness of at least 5 mm are harvested in November and stored in the snow. In the spring they are cut into a length of 15-20 cm, soaked in water for 2-3 days and kept with their lower ends in a solution of heteroauxin (200 ml per 1 l of water) for 24 hours. You can keep the cuttings in water for 10-12 days. During this time, buds will begin to bloom and root rudiments may appear.

The site for planting cuttings is prepared in advance. For autumn digging, 6-8 kg of humus (on heavy soils, in addition, 3-4 buckets of sand) and 80-100 g of superphosphate are introduced per 1 m.

In the spring, the soil is again dug up on half a shovel bayonet and carefully leveled. The width of the ridge should not be more than 1 m. It is not necessary to raise the ridge high, it is best to stomp along the sides of the path so that the ridge rises slightly above the rest of the territory.

At a soil temperature at a depth of 15 cm not lower than 5 degrees, the cuttings are planted in the beds. One or two buds are left above the soil surface. After planting, the cuttings are abundantly watered and mulch the soil with humus. For better rooting of cuttings, the ridge can be covered with a film before planting, or after planting, wire arcs can be installed and a film pulled over them. In the presence of film greenhouses, cold nurseries, frames, lignified cuttings 3-4 cm long can be planted (according to the 4x4 cm scheme).

After planting, it is necessary to monitor soil moisture: long cuttings are watered once every 3-4 days, short cuttings - daily. The temperature in film shelters should not exceed 27-30 ° C. By the end of the season, some of the seedlings reach standard sizes, in the spring of next year they can be transplanted to a permanent place. The rest of the seedlings grow for another season.

For transplanting, take only seedlings with a root length of 20 cm, a height of the aerial part of 50 cm and a diameter at the root collar of at least 8 mm.

Sea buckthorn
Sea buckthorn

Propagation by green cuttings

This method is leading in industrial production, but it can also be used by amateur gardeners. When propagating by green cuttings, you must have a small greenhouse, greenhouse or frame. By June 15-20, a ridge is prepared in a greenhouse or frame: a layer of gravel with a height of 10-15 cm is poured, then a layer of fertile soil 10-12 cm high and a mixture of peat with sand in a ratio of 1/3 of a height of 5 cm.The surface of the ridge is leveled, slightly compacted and watered abundantly.

In the second or third decade of June, cuttings are prepared. By this time, the shoots on mother plants should have a length of 12-15 cm. After cutting the cuttings, 2-3 lower leaves are removed. The cuttings are tied into bundles and dipped into a heteroauxin solution (150-200 mg per 1 L of water) with their lower ends. After 14-16 hours, they are taken out of the solution, washed and planted on the beds. Cuttings not treated with growth material can also be planted.

Rooting of green cuttings depends on the observance of the humidity and air temperature. Immediately after planting, a refreshing spraying of the cuttings should be carried out. In hot weather, in the first days after planting, spraying should be repeated after 0.5-1 hour, in cloudy weather - after 2-3 hours. The air humidity in the greenhouse should be at the level of 90-100%, and the temperature should not be lower than 30 ° С. Shading with draped shields gives a good effect when rooting cuttings.

Adventurous roots will begin to appear two weeks after planting. From this time on, cuttings are watered abundantly, but less often (1-2 times a day). Plants gradually accustom themselves to the outside air. About a month after the roots appear (early August), the film is removed. Every 6-7 days, phosphorus-potassium supplements are carried out at the rate of 40-50 g of superphosphate and 20-25 g of potassium salt per 10 liters of water.

After the soil freezes, seedlings in a greenhouse or frame are covered with a coniferous foot or straw. In winter they need to be covered with snow. After growing, they are transplanted to a permanent place only in the spring.

In an amateur garden, combined cuttings can also be rooted. In this case, the cuttings are cut with an annual growth of 12-15 cm, but with 12-15 cm of the previous year's growth (the total length of the cutting is 25-30 cm). If there are lateral ramifications, they are removed to the ring. Experience testifies to the high survival rate of such cuttings in a film greenhouse, even with rare watering.

When performing an oblique cut on the rootstock and scion, it is necessary to take into account that the sea buckthorn tissues are very loose, they crumble strongly and quickly turn black. These circumstances require a very careful point of the knife, the speed of the operations, the coincidence of the cambial layers of the rootstock and scion and tight tying. The upper cut of the cuttings is covered with petrolatum or plasticine.

In the presence of good growth, grafting with a cuttings can be performed on a male plant with a female and vice versa.

Sea buckthorn bush
Sea buckthorn bush

Budding

The leading method of reproduction of fruit plants - grafting with eyes is not very suitable for sea buckthorn, since the eyes do not take root well due to the low activity of dividing the cambial layers of the rootstock and scion. The best results can be obtained by grafting an eyelet into a tongue buttstock.

Sea buckthorn pests

Sea buckthorn moth

Found in Transbaikalia. During the swelling of the buds, the caterpillars penetrate inside and eat them away. In summer, they form nests, pulling together 4-6 leaves on the tops of the shoots with cobwebs. Caterpillars pupate in the upper soil layer. Butterflies fly out in late July-early August, and a month later they lay eggs on the bark in the lower part of the trunks and in the fallen leaves

Control measures: VV Dankov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, considers spraying 0.4-0.6% chlorophos at the beginning of bud opening as the most effective in the fight against sea buckthorn moth

Sea buckthorn fly

It is considered the most dangerous pest of sea buckthorn, capable of destroying the entire crop. Distributed in Altai. Fly begins in the second half of June and lasts until mid-August. The larvae of the pest hatch a week after laying, take root in the fruits and feed on their pulp. The berries shrivel, darken and fall off. After three weeks, the larvae go into the soil. There they pupate and winter.

Control measures: Experts consider spraying 0.2% chlorophos in mid-July as a highly effective control method

Sea buckthorn aphid

The pest and its larvae damage the sea buckthorn leaves. The sea buckthorn aphid hibernates in the egg stage near the buds. During bud opening, light green larvae suck the juice from young leaves, and then, after the leaves bloom, settle on their underside. Winged settler females give rise to new colonies of aphids. Damaged leaves turn yellow prematurely, curl and fall off.

Control measures: Experts recommend using decoctions and infusions of potato and tomato tops, tobacco leaves, onion husks and garlic bulbs in a backyard garden to control aphids, and add laundry soap to the solutions. As a chemical means of control, spraying in the leaf opening phase with 10% karbofos is recommended

Sea buckthorn gall mite

Damages sea buckthorn leaves. Hibernates in the axils of the kidneys. This is a very small pest of milky white color, and can only be seen under a magnifying glass. During bud break, mites suck juices from young leaves, and then from blossoming ones. Flat swellings are formed on the leaves - galls. Damaged deformed leaves fall off prematurely.

Control measures: the same as with sea buckthorn aphids

Sea buckthorn
Sea buckthorn

Diseases of sea buckthorn

Verticillary wilting

The most dangerous fungal disease of sea buckthorn. Distributed in all regions of its cultivation. Experts have found that the causative agent of the disease clogs the conductive system of the sea buckthorn, and the plant dies. In the affected plants, on some or on all branches, the leaves turn yellow and fall off in August, the fruits wrinkle, swellings appear on the bark and then crack. Plants die very quickly, literally the next year.

Control measures: Currently, this disease does not respond to treatment, and no control measures have been found. Experts advise not to harvest cuttings for propagation from sea buckthorn with signs of the disease, and dig up the affected plants, burn them and not plant sea buckthorn in this place for several years

Amateur gardeners have already appreciated sea buckthorn and accepted it into culture with pleasure. Little known in the recent past, the shrub has firmly become one of the best multivitamin plants.

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