Video: Sea Buckthorn. Planting, Growing, Care, Pruning. Properties. Diseases And Pests. Photo
Among the fruit and berry plants cultivated in our country, sea buckthorn attracts special attention. Its fruits contain a complex of biologically active substances: vitamin C (50-150 mg /%), P-active substances (50-100 mg /%), carotene (2.5 mg /%), vitamin K (0.8-1, 2 mg /%), E (8-16 mg /%). В, В2, В9, coumarins (1 - 2.4 mg /%) and oil (3-6%), which is valued as an effective remedy in the treatment of a number of diseases.
Sea buckthorn is a dioecious, deciduous, wind-pollinated shrub or tree up to 5 m high. The flowers are dioecious, male (staminate) and female (pistillate), located on different plants.
In the regions of the Central Non-Black Earth Region, sea buckthorn begins to bloom, depending on weather conditions, from May 3 to 18. Male plants bloom one to three days earlier than female plants.
Sea buckthorn begins fruiting in the fourth or fifth year. The beginning of fruit ripening may occur depending on weather conditions from July 26 to August 24.
The average yield per bush is about 4 kg for the wild-growing sea buckthorn, for the varieties bred by the Research Institute of Horticulture of Siberia named after M. A, Lisavenko - 16 kg, the maximum - 26 kg. Fruit weight from 0.2 to 0.85 g.
The main part of the roots lies in the soil layer up to 60 cm. On the skeletal roots located at the soil surface, root suckers are formed, as well as nodules in which nitrogen is fixed from the air.
Sea buckthorn is a frost-resistant crop. It successfully tolerates frosts down to -50 ° C. However, in some winters with thaws and strong daily fluctuations in temperature, as well as in strong winds, the branches dry out and the flower buds freeze, primarily in male plants.
The best soils for sea buckthorn are sandy-pebble with silty deposits, as well as light gray forest and meadow chernozem of light texture. On soils with a heavy texture, sea buckthorn grows poorly and bears poor fruit. Swampy, flooded areas are not at all suitable for it.
The best varieties of sea buckthorn are Dar Katuni, Golden cob, Olive.
- Gift of Katun. Average berry weight 0.4 g. Fruits are light orange, large. The taste is moderately sour, without bitterness. Productivity at the age of six to seven years from 14 to 16.7 kg per bush. The berries ripen at the end of August, contain sugars - 5.3%, acids - 1.66%, tannins - 0.042%, oils - 6.89%, vitamin C - 62 mg /%, carotene - more than 3 mg /%.
- A golden ear. The average weight of the berry is 0.4 g. The fruits are oval, light orange. Productivity at five to six years of age from 15.2 to 16.4 kg per bush. The berries ripen in early September, contain sugars - 4.76%, acids - 1.45%, tannins - 0.059%, oils - 7.4% vitamin C - 66 mg /%, carotene - 2 mg%.
- Oilseed. The average weight of the berries is 0.37 g. The fruits are brown-red. The yield at the age of four is 4.7 kg per bush. The berries ripen at the end of August, contain sugars - 4%, acids - 1.46%, tannins - 0.059%, oils - 5.8%, vitamin C - 64 mg%, carotene - 7.6 mg /%.
Soil preparation for planting begins with the introduction of organic (from 100 to 150 kg / 10 m2 of peat or humus) and 600-800 g / 1O m2 of phosphorus fertilizers. Instead of organic fertilizers, you can use mowed green mass (lupine, mustard, phacelia). Acidic soils must be limed. The liming period coincides with the productivity period of the sea buckthorn exploitation period and is 10-12 years.
Landing. In the Central Non-Black Earth Region, sea buckthorn is planted in spring or autumn according to a 4 × 2 m scheme.Pits are dug up to 40 cm deep and 30 to 60 cm wide.The root collar of seedlings can be buried up to 7-10 cm on sandy-pebble soils with silty deposits, on others soils - no more than 3-5 cm. In the case of deep planting, the aboveground part and root system will develop poorly. For planting, only high-quality, preferably two-year, planting material is used. The root system of the seedling should have at least three branches 30-40 cm long, the aerial part - 1 or 2 correctly spaced shoots 50-60 cm high. Before planting, the roots are dipped in a soil mash.
For normal pollination of female plants, 10% of the total male plants should be planted on the site.
Pruning sea buckthorn consists in the annual removal of dried, frozen, damaged branches. In seven-ten-year-old plants, rejuvenating pruning is carried out.
Pest and disease control is carried out as follows. In the fight against sea buckthorn green aphids, damaging young shoots and leaves, plants are treated with 0.2-0.3% karbofos.
In the fight against endomycosis affecting berries, nitrafen (3.0% by preparation) is used before bud break, as well as the collection and burning of affected berries and branches.
In the fight against fungal diseases that damage all parts of the plant, it is recommended to cut and burn damaged branches or uproot the plants.