Growing Almonds. Description, Landing, Care, Formation. Photo

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Growing Almonds. Description, Landing, Care, Formation. Photo
Growing Almonds. Description, Landing, Care, Formation. Photo

Video: Growing Almonds. Description, Landing, Care, Formation. Photo

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Video: How Are Almonds Grown? Part 1 2023, January
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Almonds are a shrub or small tree up to 10 m high (depending on the variety) and a powerful root system reaching 4-5 m in depth. The crown of a tree can be round, pyramidal, spreading and even weeping. Almonds are widely cultivated in countries with warm climates, and in the territory of the former USSR they are grown in Central Asia, Transcaucasia, Crimea, in the Danube regions and southern zones.

Almond tree
Almond tree

Content:

  • Description of almonds
  • Conditions for growing almonds
  • Planting almonds
  • Almond propagation
  • Almond care

Description of almonds

There are two subspecies of common almond - bitter (wild) and cultured sweet. The seed (core) of bitter contains up to 4% amygdalin, which gives it a bitter taste and a characteristic "almond" smell, in cultural forms, the core is sweet with a filmy skin. In terms of nutritional value, the almond kernel is not inferior to bread, milk and meat taken together. Depending on the variety and place of growth, it contains 54-62% fatty oils, 22-34% protein, 4-7% sugars, vitamins B1, B2, etc. Almond oil does not burn. Thanks to their properties, nuts can be stored and eaten for many years.

Almond flowers are large, white or pink (ornamental almonds can be double), fragrant. Flowering almond trees (March-April) are also valued as an early honey plant, producing up to 40 kg of honey per hectare.

Almond trees begin to bear fruit in the 4-5th year after planting, and enter full fruiting in the 10-12th year. The average yield, depending on the variety, is from 6 to 12 kg of peeled walnut per tree, and the life of the tree itself is 60-100 years.

The almond fruit is a drupe, similar in shape and appearance to a green peach fruit, with a pubescent pericarp, cracking after ripening (in August-September) into two leaves along the seam, freeing the stone.

According to the hardness of the shell, almond fruits, depending on the variety, can be hard-shell, standard - and soft-shell. The thinner the shell, the higher the kernel yield. For example, if the kernel content in a nut is more than 40%, then the hardness of the shell decreases from soft brittle to papery, which can be easily broken with your fingers.

In appearance and shape, the almond kernel is similar to the apricot kernel, but much larger - its mass is from 0.9 to 2.2 g.

Unripe almonds
Unripe almonds

Conditions for growing almonds

Almonds are photophilous, drought-resistant, heat-tolerant, relatively winter-hardy: they withstand frosts down to minus 25 ° C, but spring frosts can be detrimental to flowers.

For planting almonds, you should choose elevated areas of large beams or other slopes, protected from the direct influence of cold northwestern, northern and northeastern winds. For almonds, elevated wide "amphitheaters" open to the south are preferred.

Soils. Almonds grow well and bear fruit on light clays and loams, as well as on ordinary, carbonate and leached chernozems. High lime content in the soil or subsoil indicates its suitability for the almond garden. They all need to be well aerated, so moist, acidic and saline clay soils are completely unsuitable.

Fruit and seed ("nut") of almonds
Fruit and seed ("nut") of almonds

Planting almonds

Planting is carried out with annual seedlings in autumn or early spring according to the 7 × 5 or 7 × 4 scheme with a slight deepening of the grafting site. All almond varieties require cross-pollination, so the main varieties should be planted with 4-6 pollinator varieties, alternating (when planting gardens) 4-5 rows of the main variety with one pollinator row.

In other words, for an almond tree to bear fruit after flowering, trees of at least three other varieties must grow nearby. Almonds are exclusively insect pollinated, with bees as the main pollen carrier. Therefore, before flowering in the garden, it is advisable to place 3-4 beehives per hectare.

Almond propagation

Reproduction of almonds is mainly vegetative - by budding (grafting), as well as by seeds. The rootstocks are seedlings of bitter or sweet almonds, peaches, cherry plums or plums, which are grafted at the age of two.

Almond tree (Prunus dulcis)
Almond tree (Prunus dulcis)

Immediately after planting in the spring, annual almond seedlings are shortened at a height of 80-120 cm, forming a bole with a height of 60-80 cm, and a crown of 30-40 cm.All branches on the bole are cut into a ring, and in the crown they are shortened by 2-3 eyes … Of the regrown shoots, 3-4 of the strongest are left (skeletal branches of the 1st order). For 3-4 years, they form a crown like a bowl, similar to a peach.

Pruning almond trees in the 4-5th year after planting consists in thinning - branches thickening the crown, fatty shoots and competitors are removed. Annual growths longer than 60 cm are shortened, and semi-skeletal branches over 4-5 years old rejuvenate up to three-year-old wood.

Old or damaged almond trees can be easily restored after rejuvenating pruning. If the trees are not cut for a long time, then a lot of fatty branches are formed on them, the semi-skeletal branches are greatly lengthened, and the fruit formations become short-lived.

Almond care

The soil during the growing season in almond orchards should be kept under black steam, loosened regularly, and, if possible, watered. In late autumn, fertilizers should be applied - organic matter (manure, compost, bird droppings), phosphorus and potassium salts. Nitrogen-containing fertilizers should be applied before June, but not later.

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