It is no secret that ground vegetables are tastier and healthier than greenhouse ones, which is why spring gifts from the garden are so desirable. And the first among them are perennial bows. Of course, we have paid attention to them before. But hardly anyone in the garden has any complete collection. Therefore, we decided to talk in detail about perennial bows.
The genus Allium (onion) includes half a million species, but only two hundred of them grow in Russia. Almost all of them have high nutritional, medicinal and decorative properties, but, unfortunately, they grow mainly garlic, onions, leeks and shallots. But batun, chives, slime, fragrant, multi-tiered, oblique, wild garlic are rarely seen in gardeners.
Perennial onions are rich in essential amino acids, vitamins, have a great effect on metabolism and immunity, their essential oils stimulate appetite and improve digestion. And everyone knows about volatile substances phytoncides with strong bactericidal properties.
Perennial onions also have other advantages: simple agricultural technology, winter and frost resistance (withstand temperatures up to minus 40 ° C), resistance to diseases, pests and a good harvest for 3-5 years even with repeated cutting.
Unlike onions, perennial onions form a false bulb, which, under favorable conditions, continuously produces leaves. And since the dormant period is short, they are suitable for growing in greenhouses or rooms.
A plot outside the main crop rotation is allocated for perennial onions - it will be used for 5-6 years. It is good if the onion corner does not flood water in autumn and spring. The roots of this plant are stringy and lie at a depth of 20-30 cm, so the soil should be very fertile, light texture, neutral or slightly acidic (pH = 6-7), without rhizome and root-sucking weeds. If horsetail or horse sorrel grow on the site, then liming is necessary first.
The soil is prepared in the same way as for onions: in the fall, manure, humus or compost (10 kg per square meter) and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are added for digging, and nitrogen fertilizers are added under the rake in the spring.
Perennial onions are propagated by divisions or sown. The seeds are small, especially in chives, and the germination rate is low. It is better to sow fresh, and if they lie down (germination rate is below 80%), then the seeding rate must be increased. Before sowing, they must be disinfected.
Depending on the type of soil, seeds are placed on a flat surface, ridges or ridges, the latter two methods are useful in lowlands and on cold ground. It is sown in open ground in April-May and must be mulched with peat or humus (0.5-1 kg per square meter). Seedlings and delenki are planted in the spring and summer.
In the second and subsequent years, regular feeding is necessary (in early spring and after each leaf cut - 10 g per square meter of potash and nitrogen fertilizers and 15 g of phosphorus fertilizers). In the first year, a plant with one to three branches is formed, and the next year, the same number of flower arrows with spherical inflorescences appear.
In late April - early May, chives, batun and multi-tiered grow earlier than others, later - slime and fragrant. Therefore, planting a set of perennial bows can create a green conveyor belt.
To get greens in winter, 3-4-year-old planting material is taken from autumn and dug up. Placed in boxes, sprinkled with earth or peat and stored at 0.. + 2 ° C until planting.
Chives (chives, skoroda) are valued for their decorative effect, high vitamin C content in early spring and good winter hardiness (they do not freeze even in the Far North). It has fistulous, hollow, subulate, green leaves with a waxy bloom up to 40 cm long. The plants grow strongly and give a powerful bush in the fourth year. Floral arrows are straight, thin, slightly longer than leaves. On them - small spherical inflorescences with flowers of various colors: from white to lilac-violet.
This onion has two varieties: Central Russian (it bushs strongly, leaves grow up to 25 cm quickly, but also quickly coarse) and Siberian (leaves are larger, up to 40 cm long, grow back more slowly and later, but persist up to two months). In our country, Medonos and Nemal are zoned everywhere, and Bohemia, Crocus grow better in areas with mild winters.
The honey plant is a mid-early variety. On its plants, dark green penis-sharp leaves grow together in spring. They can be harvested for a long time, the yield is 1.7-2.5 kg / sq.m.
Chemal is a highly bushy plant with sharp-tasting leaves up to half a meter long.
In the open ground, chives seeds (consumption 1-1.5 g per 1 square meter) are sown to a depth of 2 cm according to the scheme 5 × 25-30 cm, and the cuttings are planted in rows with distances of 30 × 30-50 cm.
In the second year, from the first decade of May to the end of September, the feather is cut off, and in an annual culture, they are completely removed when the leaves reach 30 cm.
Batun (Tatar, sand, butun, Chinese) looks very similar to young onions, but its leaves are more powerful and twice as rich in vitamin C.
The whole variety of batun forms is represented by three subspecies.
Russian plants have small, not more than 40 cm, dark green, spicy-tasting leaves. They branch strongly (in the third year they give 30-50 branches), do not freeze even in the most severe winters with frosts up to 50 ° C.
Russian winter is a new medium-early winter hardy highly branching variety. Its dark green, semi-sharp-tasting leaves do not coarse for a long time, and the bush does not shoot.
Medium in power, branching and winter hardiness, the Japanese subspecies batun. Several varieties belong to it.
Saladny 35 is an early ripe peninsular zoned variety. In the second year, it gives two or three branches. Each has five dark green, up to 45 cm long leaves. Plants shoot early, so the harvesting period is short.
April is an early ripening variety. The leaves are tender, juicy, semi-sharp in taste, bright green, up to 40 cm long. Late shoots.
Maisky is a strongly branching late-ripening variety. The leaves are dark green with a strong waxy coating, pungent taste and quickly coarse.
Parade is a variety for an annual crop with a high (up to 60 cm), powerful, erect leaf rosette. The leaves are tender, juicy, green with a bluish tinge, do not coarse for a long time.
The most heat-loving bows are from the Chinese subspecies. It gives only 3-5 branches, but very large (up to 130 cm tall) with juicy, pungent taste and large diameter leaves. There are no zoned varieties, but it is found in personal gardens.
With an annual culture of batun, seeds (consumption 1-1.5 g per square meter) are sealed in early spring and the whole plant is harvested the next spring. Usually sown with a line spacing of 25, and ribbons - 50-60 cm.
With perennial crops, sowing lasts from mid-June to August. The plots are planted in the middle of summer in an ordinary way according to the scheme 20-30 × 50 cm. The leaves are cut off after a year at a height of 25 cm. Up to three cuts per season, but the last one no later than August.
A slime (drooping onion) has flat leaves, up to 30-50 cm long and up to 2 cm wide. They are very fragile, but juicy, with a pleasant onion-garlic taste without strong pungency. Moreover, they do not coarse and retain their dignity until the fall.
The slime is resistant to peronosporosis and adverse conditions, is rich in ascorbic acid, bioactive polysaccharides and salts important for health. He is advised to eat for anemia and cardiovascular diseases.
This onion is grown only as a perennial. Branches all season and forms a squat plant with a cylindrical shortened "bulb". In the second year, it grows up to four branches and several flower arrows up to 60 cm high, each ending with a spherical umbrella-inflorescence.
Seeds (1 g per square meter) are sown in April-May on the ridges, and delenki are planted in June-August in rows of 30 × 40. Leaves are cut off at a length of 25 cm.
During the season, up to 7 kg of greenery per sq.m.
In Russia, only one Green variety is widely zoned. It is a semi-spreading or compact plant with a strong rhizome and large, succulent leaves. They are gentle, slightly pungent in taste, with a garlic smell.
Recently, breeders have created a new winter-hardy mid-season salad variety Shirokolistny. It has a squat false stem and long, wide, lanceolate leaves with a mildly pungent pleasant taste and smell. They are rich in ascorbic acid and remain tender until late autumn. During the season, 3 kg of greenery can be harvested from 1 square meter of broadleaf plantings.
Sweet onions are good because they are low in fiber and remain tender throughout the season. Its belt-like leaves, unlike the slime, are without pungency, are richer in vitamin C (up to 100 mg%) and grow continuously until late autumn.
In the first year, two shoots are formed, each with 3-6 leaves 30 cm long, and in the second year, flower arrows with white flowers, collected in a simple umbrella. The flowers give off a pleasant scent, like that of hyacinth or almond.
Of the aromatic onions, the Stargazer variety has been zoned (in all zones). Its dark green leaves quickly grow up to 60 cm long, leaf width 1.5 cm. The variety is distinguished by a semi-sharp weak garlic taste. A new promising mid-season variety Pikantny has been developed. It is more winter-hardy and richer in vitamin C.
As you can see, there are more and more perennial onions, including varietal ones, every year. Fresh, they are added to salads, as seasonings for first and second courses. They can be dried, salted and fermented, while the beneficial properties are perfectly preserved. We hope we have convinced you, dear readers, that it is time to think seriously about the onion corner!
Author: L. Agafonov, breeder