Lady With Camellias

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Lady With Camellias
Lady With Camellias

Video: Lady With Camellias

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Lady with Camellias by Valentina Turcu 2023, February
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The romantic beauty and antiquity of the origin of camellias have become the source of many myths and mysterious stories associated with this flower. According to legend, camellias are a beautiful, but soulless flower - an emblem of coldness and callousness of feelings, an emblem of beautiful but heartless women who, not loving, lure and destroy.

Japanese camellia
Japanese camellia

There is such a legend about the origin of camellia on earth.

Camellia (Latin Camellia) is a genus of evergreen trees or shrubs of the Tea family (Theaceae).

The genus camellia got its name in honor of the Moravian naturalist and priest Georg Josef Camelius (1661-1706), who first brought camellia to Europe from the Philippines.

Mountain camellia
Mountain camellia

In the genus Camellia (Camellia L.) there are about 80 species of plants of the tea families. Distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of Southeast and East Asia, on the peninsulas of Indochina, Korea, in Japan, on the islands of Java, Sulawesi, Philippine.

Representatives of the genus are evergreen shrubs or small trees. Leaves are simple, elliptical to broadly and oblong-ovate, leathery, glossy, pointed or obtuse, one at a time, sometimes 2-3; petals accreted at the base, pink, red, white or variegated, numerous stamens.

Some species are widespread as valuable decorative evergreens and flowering plants; they are widely used for landscaping interiors, creating expositions in the park during the summer period.

In a room, camellia grows, blooms, and even bears fruit if it is properly cared for. The main reasons for the failure of an amateur trying to grow camellia at home are: low air humidity, lack of light, high temperatures and soil that is not suitable in composition. It blooms in winter at temperatures no higher than 12 ° C. Duration of flowering camellia bush 1-3 months. One flower lasts up to a month. In room culture, camellia has two growth periods: in February, new leaves appear and young shoots begin to grow, in the summer, vegetative buds are formed, which will grow only after flowering, in the spring of next year.

Japanese camellia
Japanese camellia

Care

Camellia prefers bright diffused light, suitable for growing near windows of western and eastern exposure. At the windows of the southern exposure, the plant is provided with shading from direct sunlight. At the northern exposure windows, the plant may not have enough light for normal growth. To prevent the crown from being one-sided, the plant can be turned towards the light. But in no case do this during budding: by disturbing the plant during this period, you will achieve dropping of the buds.

In summer, the plant can be exposed to the open air, in a place protected from direct sunlight.

Camellia prefers air temperatures around 20-25 ° C in the spring-summer period. To set flower buds, a temperature of 18-20 ° C is required, and during flowering in December - February, on the contrary, 8-12 ° C. At a higher temperature, flowering occurs earlier, but the quality of flowers will be worse, there is a risk of bud falling. With a short daylight hours, budding can also occur at a temperature of 8-10 ° C.

Camellia needs fresh air.

Mountain camellia
Mountain camellia

In the summer, camellias are watered evenly, abundantly, after the top layer of the substrate dries up, do not pour camellias. When kept cool in winter, in order to avoid acidification of the soil, watered carefully. As a result of acidification of the soil, the leaves turn brown, and the flower buds fall off. From prolonged drying, the plants shed their leaves. The plant does not tolerate the high content of calcium in the water, so it should be watered with soft, settled water.

Camellia prefers high air humidity, it is advisable to regularly spray it with soft, settled water, put pots with plants on pallets with wet expanded clay or peat. During the flowering period, spray carefully, avoiding moisture on the flowers.

Once every three weeks, camellias are fed with a complete mineral fertilizer at the rate of 1 g / l. Top dressing is carried out all year round.

Camellias are short-day plants, and 12-14-hour daylight hours are optimal for the establishment and normal development of flower buds. Adult plants also need a temperature of 18-20 ° C to set flower buds; when growing in conditions of low positive temperature and in a shaded place, flower buds are not laid. During the flowering period (December-February), camellias are kept at a temperature of 8-10 ° C (12 ° C); at a higher temperature (18-20 ° C), there are premature flowering, while the quality of the flowers is worse, and the buds fall off; the latter is also noted when plants in the budding phase are moved to another place (a change in the light regime affects). In areas with short daylight hours, budding can occur at temperatures of 8-10 ° C.

In October-November, shoot pruning is done to stimulate the growth of axillary buds.

Japanese camellia
Japanese camellia

Young camellias are transplanted annually. Plants that bloom annually are replanted every 2 years. The transplant is carried out in the spring, while the tops of the shoots are pinched at the same time so that the plant branches better. For camellias, acidic soil (pH 4.5-5) is preferred. Of the many subtropical plants, camellias have a unique ability to grow on acidic soils with a pH of 4 or less. The composition of the substrate may be as follows: turf - 1 hour, peat - 2 hours, heather or leaf - 2 hours, sand - 1 hour. Tubular plants are rarely transplanted, but annual soil addition and top dressing are necessary. At the bottom, the containers provide good drainage.

Reproduction

The most effective way to propagate camellias is by seed.

Freshly harvested seeds must be sown immediately (they quickly lose their germination, since they contain a large amount of oil) in a mixture of high peat and sand (1: 1). High germination temperatures (20–22 ° C) can accelerate seedling growth, which lasts from several weeks to one year.

Plants obtained from seeds adapt more easily to adverse conditions and grow faster. Some species and forms are able to bloom as early as 2-3 years after sowing (usually this happens in the 5-7th year).

Varietal camellias are best propagated by semi-lignified cuttings, which are cut in the second half of summer. To make plants bloom faster, they are propagated by grafting onto plants obtained from seeds. Vaccinations are best done three weeks before the start of the spring growing season.

One of the least laborious ways to propagate varietal camellias is air layering, which allows you to get compact and healthy flowering plants in the second year.

Kinds

Mountain camellia (Camellia sasanqua)

Lives in mountain forests on the islands of Kyushu, Okinawa. Shrubs up to 3-4 (up to 5) m tall, with thin branches and reddish pubescent shoots. Leaves are elliptical or oblong-ovate, 3-7 cm long, 1.5-3 cm wide, bluntly pointed, serrate at the edges, glossy and dark green above, with a hairy pubescent midrib below. Flowers are single or collected in 2-3, up to 6-7 cm in diameter, simple, white, pink or red, fragrant. Blooms profusely in November-January. As evergreen and flowering plants, garden varieties are mainly bred in culture. Suitable for cool rooms.

Mountain camellia
Mountain camellia

Chinese Camellia (Camellia sinensis), or Tea bush (Thea sinensis)

Shrubs or trees up to 10-15 m tall. Leaves are ovoid or elliptical, 5-10 cm long and 2-4 cm wide, sharply serrate at the edges, dark green and glossy above; young white pubescent, then bare. Flowers are arranged one by one or collected in groups of 2-3, on short pedicels, axillary, usually white. The species is widely known in culture; ubiquitous in subtropical areas, especially in humid habitats. There are a number of forms. The tea drink contains tannin and caffeine and is tonic. Depending on the processing of freshly harvested young green leaves and the tops of the shoots, black, black tiled, green and green tiled teas are sold (green tea is processed without fermentation). Outside the subtropical regions, tea plants are grown in botanical gardens, in cold greenhouses.

Camellia chinese
Camellia chinese

Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica)

Found in forests in China, Japan, Korea. Shrubs or trees 10-12 (up to 15) meters high. Leaves are elliptical or ovate, 5-10 cm long, pointed, at the edges, serrate, leathery, glossy, dark green. The flowers are single or collected in several, 4 cm in diameter (in culture, mainly garden varieties with large, 7-12 cm in diameter, flowers are bred), simple, semi-double or double, pink, red, white, variegated, Seeds are large, almost rounded. Blooms profusely in December-April. Various forms are widespread in culture, but mainly garden varieties, which differ in the degree of terry, flower size, petal arrangement and color. Outside the subtropics, it is also a well-known plant in culture, grown in cool rooms as a pot, tub plant and in the ground; grows well and blooms in the rooms,requires no higher than 12 ° C in winter. It bears fruit in greenhouses.

Japanese camellia
Japanese camellia

Diseases and pests

Due to some fungal diseases, black-gray spots appear on the leaves and brownish spots on the petals, in case of severe damage, followed by the fall of the flowers. Fungicidal preparations can be used, but it is better to discard the infected plant. Excessive soil moisture causes root rot.

You can get rid of powdery mildew, which appears as grayish spots on the leaves, with sulfur or another fungicidal preparation. Camellia is susceptible to the cucumber mosaic virus, which causes yellowing of the leaf veins. Aphids and worms feed on plant juices and, in addition, secrete honeydew on which the rabble develops. These pests are disposed of by treatment with a cotton swab or a brush dipped in alcohol, or with special insecticides (against aphids and anticoccidal drugs). A big problem for camellias is Solitary Skosar, a species of weevils, the larvae of which destroy the roots, and adult beetles damage the root collar, which leads the plant to death. They get rid of this pest with the help of a solution of the appropriate drug, spraying it on the aerial part of the plants or moistening the soil with it.

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