Table of contents:
- Description of peas
- Planting peas
- Pea care
- Pea varieties and their characteristics
- Diseases and pests of peas
Video: Peas - Planting, Care, Varieties. Diseases And Pests. A Photo
Peas are everyone's favorite plant and this is understandable. Peas are not only tasty, but also very healthy. Peas are prized mainly for their high protein content. There is almost as much protein in peas as in beef. But unlike meat protein, it is much easier to digest. Peas are rich in carbohydrates and trace elements. Green peas contain B vitamins, carotene (provitamin A), vitamins C and PP. Peas contain salts of potassium, manganese, iron and phosphorus. Peas are a source of one of the deficient amino acids - lysine. Peas are present in any medical food. It must be present in the diet of cardiovascular patients.
- Description of peas
- Planting peas
- Pea care
- Pea varieties and their characteristics
- Diseases and pests of peas
Description of peas
Peas, Latin - Pisum. An annual, self-pollinating herb of the Legume family, a cereal legume.
The homeland of peas is considered to be South-West Asia, where it was cultivated in the Stone Age; peas have been known in Russia since time immemorial.
The root system of peas is rod-like, well branched and penetrates deep into the soil.
Peas, like all legumes, enrich the soil with nitrogen. Beneficial microorganisms develop on its roots and in the root zone (rhizosphere): nitrogen-fixing bacteria, nodule bacteria, azotobacter, etc. - capable of assimilating atmospheric nitrogen and having a significant effect on the accumulation of nitrogen in the soil, which is necessary for plant nutrition.
The stem of peas is herbaceous, simple or branching, reaching a length of up to 250 cm. It can be 50-100 cm long or standard (bush) - which has an unbranched stem 15-60 cm high, with short internodes and crowded flowers in the axils of the apical leaves.
Leaves are compound, pinnate. The leaf petioles end with tendrils that cling to the support and hold the plant upright.
The flowers are mainly white or purple of various shades, moth type, located 1-2 in the leaf axils. Standard forms have peduncles with 3-7 flowers, often collected in inflorescences. Flowering begins 30-55 days after sowing. In early ripening varieties, the first peduncle appears in the axil of 6-8 leaves (counting from the root), and in later ripening varieties - 12-24. The following peduncles appear every 1-2 days. Peas are a self-pollinating plant, but partial cross-pollination is possible.
Pea fruit is a bean, depending on the variety, it has a different shape, size and color. Each bean contains 4-10 seeds in a row. The shape and color of seeds are varied, their surface is smooth or wrinkled. The color of the seed coat corresponds to the color of the flowers of this plant.
Peas are sown in early spring and the soil is prepared for them in the fall. The earth is dug up to a depth of 20-30 cm, brought in 1 sq. m 4–6 kg of compost or humus, 15–20 g of potassium salt, 20–40 g of superphosphate. In the spring, during loosening, ash is added.
A particularly large yield of peas can be obtained if the soil has been well fertilized for the previous crop. Only rotted manure can be used under peas, fresh manure cannot be used - it causes excessive growth of green mass to the detriment of the formation of flowers and fruits.
The best precursors for peas are early potatoes, cabbage, tomatoes, pumpkin seeds. Peas themselves, like other legumes, are the best precursor for all crops. You can return peas to their old place no earlier than after four years.
Almost any soil is suitable for peas, its mechanical composition is not so important, it can be clay, and loamy, and sandy. Acidic soils should be preliminarily calcified (300–400 g of lime per 1 sq. M).
A sunny place should be allocated for peas, avoiding the close occurrence of groundwater, since the roots of the plant penetrate deeply into the soil - a meter or more.
Peas are grown in a seedless way. The seeds are pre-soaked - they are poured with water at room temperature so that it covers them completely, and kept for 12-18 hours, changing every 3-4 hours. You can treat peas with growth regulators (for 2-3 hours) or warm them up in hot water for 5 minutes, dissolving microfertilizers in it. If there are few seeds, they are kept in a damp cloth until they begin to germinate. The prepared seeds are sown in moist soil.
Sowing begins very early, from the end of April. As a cold-resistant culture, peas germinate even at 4–7 ° C, seedlings can withstand frosts down to -6 ° C, but nevertheless, with early sowing, it is better to cover the bed with a film. Peas are sown at several times with a shift of 10 days. The last time it is better to do this at the end of May, since the plant can successfully bloom and bear fruit only during the period of long daylight hours.
Usually peas are sown in rows with a distance of 15–20 cm between them, between plants in a row - 5–6 cm. Grooves are made and peas are laid in them. The soil is leveled and slightly compacted. The planting depth is 3-4 cm. If the planting is too shallow, the birds can peck out the seeds, so in order to avoid misunderstandings it is better to cover the crops with non-woven material. Shoots appear in a week and a half.
If in the beds where peas are planted, make wide (40–45 cm) aisles, then lettuce or radishes can be sown in them. Peas are also grown in apple tree trunks if there is enough light. To do this, you need to add fertile soil to a height of 10–12 cm.
Peas are a moisture-loving culture. With a lack of moisture, flowers and ovaries fall off. Before flowering, the plant is watered once a week, and during flowering, when the soil should not dry out at all, it is watered twice. Do not forget to loosen the aisles, especially if a crust has formed on the soil after heavy watering or heavy rain.
In order for peas to bring a large harvest, you need to provide the plant with a solid support. This is especially true for tall varieties. It is most convenient to make a support in the form of a wire mesh fixed on stakes 2 m high. Vegetable peas, of course, are not as decorative as a rank and sweet peas, but they are also able to decorate a gazebo, balcony or terrace and create green curtains and trellises.
If the spring was cold, then nitrogen fertilizers are applied to the soil. Legumes enrich the soil with nitrogen - nodules develop on their roots, in which nitrogen-fixing bacteria live. But nodules form when the soil is already warmed up enough. So the peas still have to help a little. To do this, use a mullein solution: 1 kg per 10 liters of water with the addition of 1 tbsp. l. nitrophosphate.
After about a month after the mass flowering, you can harvest. Peas belong to the so-called multi-harvest crops. The fruiting period lasts 35–40 days. Pea blades are harvested in a day or two. The bottom beans are the first to ripen. For the season (under suitable conditions and appropriate care), you can collect up to 4 kg from 1 sq. m.
When the crop is harvested, the tops are cut and laid in a compost heap, and the roots are plowed in or simply chopped up the remaining green mass and buried in the ground. This green fertilizer can replace manure and compost, it increases soil fertility and improves its structure.
Pea varieties and their characteristics
There are two main groups of peas: shelling and sugar.
Peeling varieties differ from sugar varieties by the presence of a parchment layer on the inside of the bean valves, which makes them inedible. These peas are grown to produce green peas for canning.
Sugar varieties have no partitions (parchment layer) and are grown for the sake of immature beans (shoulder blades). Unripe, tender beans whole, without hulling seeds, are eaten. There is also a semi-sugar type of vegetable peas, where the parchment layer is poorly expressed and is noticeable only in dried beans.
Within each of these groups, there are varieties with rounded smooth grains and wrinkled grains (brain varieties). The best seeds are brain seeds. They are angular-square in shape, with a wrinkled surface and produce sweet, high quality polka dots.
Characteristics of some varieties of peas
Avola 9908469. The pea variety is included in the State Register for the North Caucasian region. Peeling. The pea variety is recommended for fresh use, freezing and canning. Early maturing (56-57 days). Ripening of pea beans is friendly. The stem is simple. The common leaf is green. The pea flower is medium-sized, white. Pods of medium length with 6-9 seeds, green in technical ripeness. The attachment height of the lower pea beans is 33-43 cm. The yield of green peas from the beans is 45-51%. Fresh and canned peas taste good.
Adagumsky is a mid-season variety of canned peas and shelling beans with high taste. Semi-dwarf pea plant, stem length 70-80 cm. Pea beans 6-8 cm long, aligned in color and size. Ripe pea seeds are cerebral, yellow-green in color, overripe - yellow.
Alexandra is a variety of sugar peas for fresh consumption and after cooking. Pea beans lack parchment and veins.
Altai Emerald is an early ripening (53-55 days) variety of shell peas. Plants are 35-45 cm high. The pea bush is compact. The pea pod is slightly curved. Green peas with a high protein and sugar content.
Ambrosia is a variety of sugar peas. Early ripening, the period from germination to technical ripeness of pea beans is 54-56 days. The height of the stems is 60-70 cm, requires a support or trellis. Young shoulder blades with embryonic seeds are used for food. Seeds of the pea variety are sown in early spring to a depth of 5-6 cm according to the 15x15 cm scheme.
Vega is a hulling, medium-sized, mid-early pea variety. Pods are straight or slightly curved, pointed, 7-9 cm long, contain 6-9 peas. Pea seeds are round, angular, cerebral. The pea variety is used for fresh consumption and canning.
Vera is an early variety of peas. A pea variety for fresh use and processing. The growing season is 48-63 days. Pea stalk 55-65 cm high, white flowers, straight or slightly curved pod, 6-8 seeds, 6-9 cm long, with a strong parchment layer. Pea seeds are wrinkled, yellow-green. The mass of 1000 pea seeds is 180-200 g. The dry matter content is 21.8%, sugar 3.6%, starch 6.7%. The pea variety is susceptible to ascochitosis; it is slightly damaged by the moth. The value of the pea variety is stable yield, amicable ripening, resistance to lodging, suitability for mechanical harvesting.
Viola is a mid-season variety of canned peas with shelling beans. Ripens in 57-62 days. Peas taste good when fresh and canned. The plant is semi-dwarf, the stem length is 60-80 cm. Pea pods with a highly developed parchment layer, straight, obtuse. Peas are even in size, mature seeds are cerebral, gray-green in color. Pea pod straight, blunt-pointed, 6-8 cm long, 6-9 grains in the pod.
Voskhod is a mid-late variety of canned peas with shelling beans. The pea plant is semi-dwarf, the stem length is 65-75 cm. Pea pods with a highly developed parchment layer, slightly curved, with a pointed tip. Ripe pea seeds are cerebral, gray-green in color.
The giant is a variety of sugar peas. High sugar pods! Pea plant 90-96 cm high. It begins to bloom at the 16th node, 1-2 pods appear from one node. Pea pods up to 2.8 cm wide and up to 13 cm long. Unusually large pea pods, dark green, soft, tend to take on the shape of a cup when ripe. Pea seeds are large, dark green and wrinkled, usually 8 seeds per pod.
Horn. Pea stem is simple, 60-70 cm long, weakly branching. Up to the first inflorescence 18-22 knots. The pea pod is straight, spiky, medium-sized, green, 7-9 cm long. Green peas are aligned in size, medium-sized, contain 21.5-22.1% dry matter, 5.5-6% sugars, 3% starch. Weight 1000 seeds. peas 170-176 g. Output of green peas 48-49%. The pea variety is resistant to root rot and downy mildew. Designed for canning. Zoned in Moldova, RF.
Emerald is a mid-season variety of shell peas. The stem is simple, 68-85 cm long. Up to the first inflorescence 11-13 nodes, but only 18-22. Pea flowers are white, 1-2 on the peduncle. The pea pod is slightly curved, pointed, large, there are 5-9 pods on the plant, 10-12 seeds in the pod. Green peas are dark green, contain 20.9-22.5% dry matter, 6.25% sugars, 2.48 starch. Pea seeds are small, light green. Weight 1000 seeds. peas 180-200 g. The output of green peas is 49.5-51.9%. The pea variety is resistant to root rot and downy mildew. Intended for fresh consumption and canning. Zoned in Moldova.
Zhegalova 112 is a mid-season pea variety, sugar, ripening in unison, eaten in the phase of milk ripeness. Pea stalk is simple, long (120-180 cm), needs support. Pea pods are straight or slightly curved, with a blunt apex, 10-15 cm long, with 5-7 grains. The yield of the pea variety is high. The pea pod harvest period lasts 15-20 days. Pea pod leaves are thickened, beans are fleshy, tasty and nutritious. The pea variety was bred at the Gribovskaya vegetable selection station 70 years ago.
Excellent 240 is a hulling, mid-ripening, medium-sized pea variety. Pea beans, curved with a pointed tip, 8-9 cm long, contain 6-9 seeds. Seeds of peas are cerebral, angularly square, compressed perpendicular to the scar, yellowish-green. The pea variety is suitable for fresh use and canning.
Premium - an early ripe variety of shell peas. The period from germination to the beginning of harvest is 55-60 days. The height of the pea plant is up to 80 cm. The pea pod is medium-curved, with a blunt top, 8 cm long, dark green. Up to 14 pods per plant. There are up to 9 green grains in a pea pod. Fresh and processed peas have excellent taste qualities. Used fresh, for freezing and preserving.
Early 301 is an early-ripening variety of canned peas and hulled beans with high taste. Ripens in 50-55 days. The stem of the pea plant is short, 35-40 cm long. The pea pods are 8-10 cm long, straight or slightly curved with a pointed tip. Ripe pea seeds are cerebral, yellow-green.
Early Gribovskiy 11 - early ripe pea variety (51-64 days). The plant is 40-70 cm high. The pea pod is large, dark green, 7-10 cm long, straight with 6-10 grains. Green peas are large, tender and sweet, high in vitamin C and protein. The pea variety is suitable for all types of processing. Pea seeds are cerebral, gray-green.
Sugar-2 is a mid-season pea variety. The stem of the pea plant is simple, medium-sized (70-80 cm). Sugar pea pod without parchment layer, 7-9 cm long, 7-9 seeds in a pod. Pea seeds are green cerebral. The pea variety is valued for the excellent quality of the beans, their good grain content, and resistance to lodging.
Soyuz-10 is a mid-season, amicably ripening variety of shell peas. The stem of the pea plant is simple, 60-80 cm long. Up to the first inflorescence 12-16 nodes. Pea pod is straight, narrow, blunt-pointed, green, 6-8 cm long. There are 6-7 pods on a plant, 4-10 seeds in a pod. Green peas are dark green, lined, medium in size. contains 21.6% dry matter, 6.8% sugars, 3.5% starch. Pea seeds are semi-cerebral, angular-square, wrinkled, yellow-gray-green. Weight 1000 seeds. peas 180-220 g. Output of green peas 46-50%. The pea variety is moderately resistant to root rot. Designed for canning. Zoned in Moldova.
Sphere is an early variety of shell peas. The stem of the pea plant is simple, 65-75 cm long. There are 7-9 nodes to the first inflorescence, and only 11-15. Pea flowers are white, 1-2 on the peduncle. The pea pod is straight, large, with a sharp, slightly curved apex, dark green, 6-10 cm long, 1.3-1.6 cm wide. Green peas, even in color and size, with good technological qualities, contains 17.7 % solids, 5% sugars, 2.1-2.7 starch. The duration of the technical ripeness of the pea variety is 5-6 days. Seeds of peas are semi-cerebral, round, medium, yellow-green. Weight 1000 seeds. peas 210-220 g. The pea variety is moderately resistant to root rot. Intended for fresh consumption and canning. Zoned in Moldova.
Tiras is a mid-early variety of shell peas. The stem of the pea plant is simple, slightly branching, 65-80 cm long. Up to the first inflorescence there are 8-10 nodes, and only 11-15. Pea flowers are white, on the peduncle there are 2 of them. Pea pod is curved, large, pointed, dark green, 6-10 cm long, each plant has 6-12 pods, 8-10 seeds in a pod. Green peas are dark green, medium-sized, contain 19.5-20.5% dry matter, 5.8-6.5% sugars, 1.7-2.3 starch, 2.7% protein. Pea seeds are angular-square, medium, light yellow. Weight 1000 seeds. peas 220-230 g. The pea variety is moderately resistant to root rot. Peas are intended for fresh consumption, freezing and canning.
Three is a late-ripening variety of shell peas, ripens in 80-90 days. Medium-sized pea variety - 70-80 cm. Pea pod 6-8 cm long with a sharp tip. The pods are 2-3 in the fruit bearing in the upper part of the stem, in the pod of 6-8 pea seeds. Seeds are brain, small, green. The pea variety is good for canning and fresh.
Khavsky pearls are a pea variety for fresh use and processing. The growing season of the pea variety is 54-70 days, the ripening of the beans is friendly. The stem of a pea plant is 78-97 cm high, dark green with a waxy bloom. The pea pod is slightly curved, 7-8 cm long, 5-9 seeds. The number of pods on a pea plant is 8-16. The height of attachment of the lower pod is 22-38 cm. Seeds of peas are wrinkled, yellow-green. The mass of 1000 pea seeds is 200-218 g. The peas are dark green, leveled in size, the yield is 39-52%. The taste is excellent. The dry matter content is 21.5%, sugar 3.2%, protein 6, starch 5.6%. The pea variety is moderately resistant to root rot. The value of the pea variety is high productivity and quality of peas.
Yuzhny-47 is an early variety of shell peas. The stem of the pea plant is simple, 70-85 cm long. Up to the first inflorescence there are 8-10 nodes, and only 11-15. Pea flowers are white, on the peduncle there are 2 each. Pea pod is straight with a blunt top, dark green. There are 7-8 pods on the plant, 7-9 pea seeds in a pod. The pods are located at a height of 40-43 cm, compact, ripen at the same time. Green peas in the phase of technical ripeness are green, large, leveled, contains 20.1% dry matter, 5.9% sugars, 2.1% starch. Pea seeds are semi-cerebral, round, medium, light green. Weight 1000 seeds. peas 235-248 g. Pod yield - 12.8-14, seeds 2-2.5 t / ha. The pea variety is moderately resistant to root rot. Peas are intended for fresh consumption, freezing and canning. Zoned in the Russian Federation.
Era is a mid-late variety of shell peas. The stem of the pea plant is simple, weakly branching. Up to the first inflorescence 16-19 knots. Pea flowers are white, 1-2 on the peduncle. Pea pod slightly curved, with a sharp tip, bright green, 7-9 cm long, 5-8 pods on a plant, 7-10 pea seeds in a pod. Green peas contain 20.2-21.8% dry matter, 6-7.5% sugars, 2.5-2.7 starch. Pea seeds are medium in size, gray-green, in the form of a drum. Weight 1000 seeds. peas 175-185, The pea variety is moderately resistant to downy mildew. Peas are intended for fresh consumption and canning. Zoned in Moldova, RF.
Diseases and pests of peas
One of the worst enemies of peas is the pea moth or leafworm. Caterpillars of this pest hibernate in the soil. The emergence of butterflies from the cocoon just coincides with the flowering of peas. Each butterfly can lay more than 200 eggs on the leaves, flowers, pods and stems of peas. After about 6-10 days, depending on weather conditions, caterpillars emerge from the testicles, which enter the pods and live there, feeding on young peas. Therefore, wormholes appear in the grains, and often the peas can be completely destroyed.
After about 16-20 days, leaving behind traces fastened with cobwebs, the caterpillars of the leafworm leave the pods through the gnawed holes and go down to the ground. By the time the peas are harvested, most of the caterpillars are buried in the soil to a depth of 2-2.5 cm. And the gardener is left with a hopelessly spoiled crop. It should be noted that the early varieties of peas are less damaged by the moth. Plants of early sowing also suffer less from this pest.
You can fight the pea moth by periodically spraying plants with broths of wormwood, tomato tops, infusions of burdock roots, celandine leaves, tobacco and garlic. An infusion of garlic, for example, is prepared as follows: 20 grams of garlic is passed through a meat grinder and poured with 10 liters of water. Insist for a day, then filter and spray the plants with this solution. It is advisable to spray in the late afternoon. It is better not to wait for the pea moth to rampage on plants, but to carry out preventive treatments in advance. Garlic infusion can also help with pea aphids.
Dusting plants with ash, tobacco, dry celandine powder can help in the fight against the moth.
Very effective means of protection against the moth are such as digging in the winter, early sowing of peas. Some experts advise warming seeds before sowing as a preventive measure.
A very common disease in peas is powdery mildew. It can be fought with the help of a sow thistle infusion - 300 grams of leaves are insisted in a bucket of water for 8 hours. Spraying should be done twice, at intervals of about a week.
Looking forward to your advice!