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Video: Diseases And Pests Of Gladioli. Care. Control Measures. Photo
2023 Author: Ava Durham | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 07:13
Reduce decorativeness, in some cases, various pests lead to the complete death of plants. The leaves, buds and flowers of gladioli are gnawed by scoops of cabbage and bitterness, naked slugs. The roots and corms of gladioli damage clickers, beetles, winter moths, rootworm nematodes. As a result of damage by these pests, plants stagnate, turn yellow, wither and die.
Pests of gladioli
Damages all varieties of gladioli, iris, calendula, daffodil, cloves. The adult insect is small, 1-1.5 mm in size, brown, elongated, with fringed wings, and a black head. The larva is light yellow, with red eyes, reaches a length of 1 mm, there is a tubular process at the end of the body.
Adult thrips hibernate under corm scales in storage facilities, where they reproduce continuously at temperatures above 10 ° C. The female lays eggs in plant tissue. The larvae suck the juices from the leaves and flowers. Mass proliferation of thrips is observed after planting the bulbs during the flowering period. One generation develops within 2-3 weeks. During the season, the pest manages to give several generations. As a result of damage by larvae and adult insects, spots and silvery-white dots appear on the leaves, yellowish streaks are traces of rupture of the skin during oviposition and black dots are insect secretions.
During the period when the flower arrow is thrown, thrips are concentrated around it. When buds appear, they penetrate inside, damage the flowers, which fade, discolor and dry out. In autumn, when the temperature drops, thrips migrate to the lower parts of the plant.
Before harvesting the corms, the bulk of the pests is on the "hemp". Later they go under the scales of the corms. They feed on juice from corm scales. The damaged areas of tissue dry up and form brown crusty spots. Corms become light, sticky, and by the end of storage they darken, shrivel, dry out. In addition to direct harm, thrips carry the pathogens of gladioli diseases. The pest multiplies in hot dry weather.
- with a high number of thrips, early cutting of plants, until the pests have moved to the lower part of the stems,
- destruction of tops and all plant residues after harvesting gladioli, digging up the soil,
- disinfection of corms inhabited by thrips by immersing them in hot water (50 ° C) for 5 minutes or spraying with a solution of karbofos (2 g per 1 liter of water), then the bulbs are dried and stored,
- during the storage period, periodic viewing of corms, if a pest is detected, the planting material is sprinkled with chalk or fluff lime at the rate of 20-30 g per 1 kg of corms, placing the populated corms in a paper bag with naphthalene (for 10-15 pieces 3-5 g of the drug) on 1-1.5 months, then the corms are aired and stored as usual (you can use naphthalene only until sprouts appear),
- rejection of infected corms before planting,
- treatment several times after 7-10 days with 10% karbofos (75 g per 10 l of water) during the growing season when damaged plants appear (at the end of June),
- replanting gladioli in the same area after 3-4 years,
- sowing tagetes, calendula, onion, garlic to gladioli, which are not damaged by thrips.
Root onion mite
Damages bulbous plants: lily, hyacinth, tulip, narcissus, gladiolus corms and dahlia tubers. An adult tick up to 1.1 mm long, short-oval, light yellow, shiny.
Ticks live in the soil on plant debris and colonize the plants planted in the ground. They penetrate into the bulbs through the bottom or mechanical damage and settle between the scales. Females lay eggs on the bulbs. The larvae hatching after 4-7 days from the eggs suck the juice from the scales of the bulbs and develop within a month. As a result of the feeding of ticks, plant growth slows down, the leaves turn yellow and wither. The mite damages bulbs and tubers during storage, especially if they are not cleaned of old scales and roots.
During storage, if the bulbs are severely damaged, the outer surface of the scales is covered with brownish dust. The bulbs rot and dry out, become rotten. When the bulbs and tubers inhabited by the mite are planted in the ground, the soil and other plants are infected. The pest is very picky about high temperature (18 … 20 ° C) and humidity (over 60%).
- planting uninfected material in open ground and culling plants with yellowing leaves during the growing season;
- on areas infected with ticks, bulbous plants and dahlias should not be planted for 3-4 years;
- collection and destruction of plant residues after harvesting the bulbs;
- rejection of healthy bulbs and tubers before storage, cleaning them from old scales and roots, sprinkling with chalk or gray (20 g per 1 kg of planting material), regular bulkhead and removal of damaged bulbs, storage at a temperature of 2 … 5 ° C and air humidity not more than 60%;
- heat treatment for 5 minutes of infected bulbs in water heated to 50 ° C, or 5-7 days at a temperature of 35 … 40 ° C, disinfection for 30-50 minutes in solutions of celtan (3 g per 1 liter of water), 30 % karbofos (5 g per 1 liter of water);
- spraying with 10% karbofos (75 g per 10 l of water) or watering at the root with 20% celtan (20 g per 10 l of water) during the growing season of plants.
Diseases of gladioli
Shrinking, or yellowness, of gladioli
It develops with high harmfulness in all places where gladioli are cultivated and throughout the growing season. Roots and corms of gladioli are affected. In this case, there are 2 types of disease: wilting and rot of corms. When wilting, the plants turn yellow, starting from the top, twist and die due to browning and death of the roots.
With the second type of disease, light brown or dark depressed spots form on the corms. On the cross-section of the affected parts of the plants, the russet of the vascular system is visible. Infected corms do not tolerate long-term storage, they rot. When planted, they germinate poorly or do not germinate at all, rot in the soil. The infection is transmitted with planting material. The fungus overwinters in the affected corms and in the soil.
- destruction of diseased plants during the growing season and during the digging of corms;
- alternation of cultures with the return of gladioli to their original place after 3-4 years;
- sorting of corms before storage and before planting;
- storage in a well-ventilated place,
- feeding plants with magnesium during the growing season;
- digging holes in sick gladioli to corms and filling them with an infusion of garlic (30 g of infusion per 1 liter of water), filling the holes with earth, and after 5 days processing with a mustard solution;
- soaking before planting the corms of gladioli for 8-10 hours in the infusion of marigolds (chop dry plants, fill half of the enamel bucket with them, fill them with warm water and leave for two days), after discarding the peduncles and the beginning of flowering - watering three times with the same infusion.
Corms, leaves, stems, flower petals are affected. Small spots with a reddish-brown border are formed on the leaves. In the presence of a large number of spots, the entire leaf turns brown and dies prematurely.
On the affected stems, rounded spots of various sizes with a red-brown border are formed. On the petals of flowers, watery spots, merging, lead to the death of the whole flower. Brown spots are also formed on the peduncles. At high air humidity, spots on the leaves, stems, peduncles and flower petals are covered with a gray fluffy coating of the fungus. Sometimes the leaves without the formation of spots suddenly turn yellow and die off. This happens when the root collar of a plant is damaged.
The defeat of the corm begins from the stem end and is manifested in the browning of the core of the corm. Gradually, the entire inner part of the corms is covered with brown rot. Outwardly, there are no signs of the disease, and only by pressing on the bottom, it can be established that the corm has already rotted. The fungus hibernates in infected corms and on leaves near the soil surface.
- the return of gladioli to their original place no earlier than after 4 years;
- drying of corms at a temperature of 25 … 30 ° C and good ventilation (immediately after digging); rejection of sebaceous corms;
- storage of corms at a temperature of 6 ° C and a relative humidity of 75-80%;
- dressing of corms before planting in open ground in a solution of potassium permanganate (30 g per 10 l of water) for 1-2 hours, children are soaked in a solution of baking soda (50 g per 10 l of water);
- removal of yellowed and lagging plants (especially during flowering);
- spraying gladioli with a 1% Bordeaux mixture (100 g of copper sulfate with the addition of 100 g of lime per 10 l of water) after mass flowering or infusions of plants described in the measures to combat the desiccation of gladioli.
Dry rot of stems and corms
Roots, corms, leaves, stems are affected. The first signs appear in the yellowing and browning of the tops of the leaves. With the development of the disease, yellowing and death of the entire plant occur to a strong degree. On yellowed leaves, roots, corms, at the base of leaves, stems, rounded black nodules (sclerotia) are formed. Affected corms in warehouses are mummified. The fungus overwinters in the affected corms, on plant debris, in the soil, where it can remain viable for up to 4 years. Disease losses can range from 15 to 50%.
- rejection of diseased corms and planting healthy corms in areas where gladioli have not been planted in the last 4 years;
- drying the corms at a temperature of 25 … 30 ° C with good ventilation immediately after their digging, pickling the corms freed from the scales with a solution of potassium permanganate (15-30 g per 10 l of water) with exposure in the solution for 1-2 hours;
- spraying with a 1% Bordeaux mixture (100 g of copper sulfate with the addition of 100 g of lime per 10 liters of water) after mass flowering;
- digging the soil with a turnover in the fall;
- improvement of corms: diseased bulbs, without cutting out the lesions, plant in horse manure; transplanted sprouted into beds without adding manure to the grooves (some of it is transferred along with the corms on the roots, watering and loosening is carried out every other day).
Leaves, corms are affected. On the leaves, rounded light brown spots with dark edging are formed, on which black dots subsequently appear - pycnidia containing fungal spores. On corms, the disease develops in the fall in the form of small watery, more or less rounded reddish-brown spots. Gradually the spots increase, and their central part becomes submerged, acquires an almost black color and more definite angular outlines. Separate spots merge with each other.
Affected tissues harden and mummify during storage, which is why the disease is called hard rot. The infection persists in the soil, on the affected corms for up to 4 years. Plants are infected through the soil. During the growing season, from plant to plant, the fungus is spread by spores, which are carried by wind, rain, insects.
The disease is especially harmful in damp cool years on poor soils.
the same as with dry rot of gladioli
The disease is dangerous for dahlias, roses, carnations, gladioli, peonies. The root system of plants is affected. When digging corms in places where children are formed, or on formed children, rough growths of irregular shape are clearly visible.
- destruction of diseased corms;
- disinfection of the soil in the fall after digging up the plants with dry bleach (150-200 g / m2) and covering it with a rake,
- when caring for plants, avoid damage, especially to the root system and root collar,
- planting of corms of gladioli is not carried out for 2-3 years in areas where foci of cancer are found.
Viral disease. Leaves and flowers are affected. Spots and circular or angular stripes of yellowish-green and grayish color are formed on the leaves, located between the leaf veins. Sometimes spots are presented as closed rings. On flowers, spots are yellowish-green and gray, and may be in the form of strokes. Because of spots and strokes, the flowers acquire a variegated color; their petals sometimes curl.
In diseased plants, flowers are small, and flower arrows are greatly increased in length. The development process before the formation of a flower arrow in diseased plants is delayed. Sick corms from year to year become smaller, stop giving a flower arrow. The disease is transmitted by thrips, aphids. During the growing season, the virus is transmitted from the corms to children.
- removal and burning of diseased plants along with corms;
- timely destruction of insects - carriers of the virus (aphids, thrips);
- creating optimal conditions for growing gladioli: timely loosening of the soil, weeding, fertilization;
- planting corms in well-ventilated areas.
Plant protection in household plots - Zhemchuzhina A. A., Stepanina N. P., Tarasova V. P.
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