Table of contents:
- Знакомимся поближе с безвременниками, цветущими осенью
- The best species and varieties of autumn crocus
- Conditions comfortable for kolkhikum
- Features of planting crocus
- Care necessary for the crocus
- Colchicum pests and diseases
- Reproduction of croplands
- Colchicum in garden design is used for
Video: Трогательная нежность безвременника осеннего. Виды, посадка и уход. Фото
Хрупкая красота цветков безвременника завораживает сочетанием светящихся текстур и идеальных форм. Но наибольший вклад в статус очаровательного фаворита у колхикума вносят все же нетипичные сроки цветения. Похожий то на крокусы, то на другие первоцветы, но по-особенному нежный безвременник не зря получил свое имя: большинство видов цветет осенью, причем достаточно поздно.
Среди садоводов колхикум больше известен под именем безвременника осеннего. И его любят и за универсальность, и за красоту, и за простоту ухода: даже крокусы не могут похвалиться такой неприхотливостью.
Знакомимся поближе с безвременниками, цветущими осенью
Цветение поздней осенью – отличительная черта большинства безвременников. Несмотря на то, что среди 70 видов этого растения есть и культуры, цветущие весной вместе с первоцветами, всеобщую любовь и популярность заслужили безвременники осенние. У них с началом весны просыпаются только листья, затем наступает период полного покоя, а осенью начинается главное «шоу» - когда сад уже почти скован дыханием холода, трогательными звездочками вспыхивают удивительно нежные цветки.
The foliage of colchicum is large, of a classic lanceolate shape, long and characteristic of bulbous. It dies off in early summer, and until autumn the plants show no signs of life. When the beauty of autumn crowns can be fully appreciated in the garden, and the chores of harvesting the leaves will take most of the time, single funnel-shaped flowers rise from the ground as if by magic.
At the same time, some species of colchicum wake up literally before the snow falls, when it is already very cold in the garden. Growing up to 20 cm in height, they also surprise with the fact that the perianth in the form of a narrow tube-stem is more than half hidden in the soil. After flowering, crock-crops have time to set three-nested boxes with seeds hidden in the ground, which will appear only together with leaves in spring.
The best species and varieties of autumn crocus
Among the crocus, there are many original species, and many plants today are represented by luxurious varieties. Let's get to know the autumn crocus better:
One of the most beloved colchicum in the magnificent spring produces leaves up to half a meter in height. But they appreciate it for blooming either alone or in mini-inflorescences of 2-3 pcs. large flowers. A long white tube and a cold lilac color of corolla lobes adorn flowers up to 15 cm in diameter. This colchicum blooms in September and is one of the main species for breeding varieties. The best subspecies of the most beautiful autumn crocus include:
- Turkish form with goblet purple flowers;
- red-colored crimson and red forms;
- hellebore form with folded leaves and huge purple flowers;
- colchicum the most beautiful giant with pale lilac cupped flowers with a white spot;
- variety "Premier" with very late flowering and pink flowers;
- variety "Huxley" with large leaves and flowers that change color from pink to purple;
- variety "Waterlily" with double purple flowers;
- variety "Atrorubens" with watercolor lilac flowers, in which the color is washed out towards the white middle;
- similar to the previous one, but with a colder tone "Lilac Bedder";
- lilac variety "Attlee" decorated with tongue-shaped petals.
Colchicum autumn has long become a symbol of all late-flowering colchicum trees. In spring, the plant develops to a height of 40 cm, rather large and beautiful. Autumn crop flowers reach 7 cm in diameter, while one corm produces up to 4 flowers. The elliptical perianth lobes with a pubescent inner surface give the flowers a special charm. The traditional palette of autumn colchicum is limited to white and light lilac. Today it has many decorative forms:
- snow-white autumn white crocus with a large number of flowers up to 15 cm long;
- double form with purple flowers up to 5 cm in diameter, consisting of 30-35 petals, blooming very late - from late October to frost, during thaws and after snow melts;
- a white terry shape, the flowers of which resemble graceful dahlias;
- atropurpureum with purple or dark red flowers;
- purple Beaconsfield flowers decorated with a white center;
- neddisté form with delicate pink flowers appearing in September;
The beauty of Colchicum variegated can be appreciated only at close range. This plant is modest and wild in appearance, but how luxurious it blooms! One bulb produces up to 3-6 flowers with pink color, decorated with checkerboard purple spots. The limb lobes are very narrow and graceful, reaching 5 cm in length. This crocus blooms in late autumn.
Colchicum dark purple
Colchicum dark purple, or purple, seems surprisingly quivering. Its leaves appear in spring and are unremarkable, but small flowers rise to a height of 10-15 cm from September to November. The delicate lilac color on the petals seems touching. But after a few weeks, such watercolor tenderness changes to rich fuchsia colors, and the flowers seem completely different - bright and expressive.
Bornmüller's Colchicum looks like a miniature lily. It is a watercolor plant with wide petals, an almost white throat with yellow spots, turning into a pink corolla. Large flowers reach 8 cm in diameter, fully open, surprisingly elegant. This crocus blooms from the end of September, while new flowers appear until frost. One of the largest-flowered colchicums also has an even larger-colored form with ten centimeter flowers of a lighter color.
Colchidium Sibthorp flaunts with anemone-shaped calyxes of flowers with very wide petals, lilac-white color and uneven spotting;
Colchicum variegated (Agrippa)
Colchicum variegated (Agrippa) is a fairly tall species, in spring it produces only 3-4 leaves with a slightly wavy edge, and in late summer and autumn it flaunts with lilac-pink flowers with a white tube, very narrow and "sharp" lobes of the limb and unusual checkerboard spots. The charm of this crocus is only added by orange spots at the base of each stamen.
Colchicum Stevin, Jerusalem and Trudy
Similar croppers of Stevin, Jerusalem and Trudy bloom only from October, they can wake up during thaws in winter. Funnel-shaped perianths with white-pink petals seem somewhat sloppy, the lobes are deeply dissected and elongated, unevenly bent.
Colchicum of Kochi blooms very profusely. The plant grows to a height of only about 5 cm, but the small and delicate flowers bloom in large quantities. A pale pink or white color only adds charm to the colchicum.
Colchicum shade blooms very early, in August and September. Pale, slightly pinking flowers up to 5 cm in diameter seem almost "wild".
Also early, with the arrival of autumn rains, the no less touching, with narrow petals, Fomin's purple crocus is blooming.
Columnar cheerful, or Columnar bright
Colchicum bright seems to be a solid color spot: clusters of bulbs grow rapidly and seem to create mini-carpets of lavender flowers up to 7 cm in diameter with a magnolia-shaped perianth shape. A distinctive feature of the species is the ability to open formed buds during thaws in the middle of winter.
A rare Byzantine crocus with large or broadly oval petals, touching and quivering stamens. The most delicate light lilac color, shining texture, very large flowers - these are its main differences. One bulb can produce up to 12 flowers, while flowering continues from August until frost.
Colchicum Cilician forms an even greater number of flowers, in which each bulb produces up to 25 flowers. Large, pink-lilac, with keeled petals, they seem unusually graceful. In addition to the basic form, the flowers of which reach 10 cm in diameter, the “Purpureum” form with purple flowers decorated with gray veins is also widespread.
- Autumn Queen with fragrant purple flowers decorated with a dark spot inside;
- Autumn Herald with amethyst outer and inner purple petals contrasting remarkably beautifully with the creamy spot in the center of the flower;
- "Disraeli" is a large-flowered variety with a fuchsia color and a light wash in the center;
- "Dick Trotter" with a blue-lilac color and a greenish star in the center of the flower;
- “Violet Queen” is a fragrant purple variety with an openwork pattern of white veins, in which the tips of the upper perianth lobes are beautifully bent outward;
- “The Giant” is a large-flowered variety with a large white spot in the center of purple flowers;
- "Rosy Down" - red-flowered colchicum with contrasting veins and a white center;
- "Zephir" - the variety flaunting with the largest lavender flowers;
- FA Bowles is a purple variety with a greenish-white star in the center of the flower;
- "Glory of Heemstede" - a red crocus with beautiful patterns and a spherical flower shape;
- "Lilac Wonder" is a delicate variety with lavender-lilac flowers;
- "William Dykes" - light lilac, very elegant variety;
- "Jochum-Hof" is a variety with very thin "legs", large purple flowers and a light green center.
Conditions comfortable for kolkhikum
Colchicum is one of the most unpretentious bulbous plants that can be purchased for your garden. They develop for a long time in one place, they are not afraid of the neighborhood even with large shrubs and trees (however, they can only be placed on the south side). The only thing they need to provide is good lighting, sunny or as bright location as possible and good soil. Colchicum does not degenerate. Its flowers do not shrink, nests and clusters spread out and independently regulate density (which does not prevent the use of daughter bulbs for reproduction). If there is not enough space, fewer flowers will signal the need for separation.
The soil for the crocus can be anything - if only it was high-quality garden soil. Pick up a nutritious, loose and light soil that is standard in terms of characteristics and feel free to plant an autumn crocus in this place. All problem soils for them can be improved by compensating for their shortcomings (for example, adding sand and compost on dense soils, fertilizers on depleted soils, etc.).
Features of planting crocus
Colchicum is grown according to the standard for all bulbous technology. Before planting, the bulbs are inspected again, and the soil is dug up or improved.
August is considered the optimal time for planting crocus. An earlier planting is associated with too hot conditions, a later one will lead to a violation of the cyclical development and death of corms.
Colchicums are planted in groups, but with a significant distance between the bulbs. If you want to create dense groups, then set the bulbs at a distance of about 15 cm, but for better development, leave all 20 cm between them.The planting depth should be equal to twice the height of the bulbs and varies depending on their size from 8 to 20 cm.
Care necessary for the crocus
The most important key to success in growing cropland is not to interfere with the plant itself with your care. Colchicum must be left alone in every sense. Never tie, let alone cut the leaves in the spring, no matter how sloppy they seem to you, and do not even touch them after wilting: the colchicum will do everything on its own.
If you can hold back and allow yourself to simply forget about the crocus, you can enjoy the beauty of its bloom at the end of the garden season. Without watering, feeding, pruning and any other worries! The only thing that can disrupt such a regime is slugs, but fighting them will not overload the gardener's schedule. They just require light loosening of the soil, weeding and mulching of the soil. To get the largest flowers, you can water the crocus during dry spring, but this is not at all necessary.
Colchicum wintering: colchicum does not need protection, including mulching.
Colchicum pests and diseases
Colchicum - persistent bulbous, which will not cause trouble. The only thing that threatens them is slugs, who adore not the leaves, but the flowers of the plant. If they appear in plantings, then the soil must be cleared of weeds, loosened and mulched with superphosphate. But an excellent and simpler method of struggle is setting traps or using special drugs.
Reproduction of croplands
Colchicums can be propagated by seed and by dividing bulb nests. The latter are sometimes formed in very large quantities and take away all the strength, which leads to a lack of flowering. If your croppers have not bloomed at the end of the season, this is a sure sign of the need for separation. The best time for it is July, immediately after the complete withering away of the aboveground part. The corms are slightly dried and do not put them away for storage, but are immediately planted.
Colchicum plants obtained from seeds bloom after 5-7 years. Seeds are sown after harvest, fresh, in June or July, while seedlings will appear only a year later in the spring. This method is only suitable for wild growing colchicum.
Colchicum in garden design is used for
- autumn flower beds and rabatka;
- decorating the foreground and edges of flower beds;
- landings along the tracks;
- creating curbs;
- colorful spots on the lawn, around water bodies;
- decoration of rock gardens and rockeries;
- growing in pots on terraces and balconies;
- as a seasonal accent.