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Video: Asparagus Is An Early Vegetable. Growing From Seeds. Planting And Leaving. Photo
Asparagus (asparagus) is one of the most delicious, healthy and expensive vegetable crops. The first sprouts of asparagus, which are white, green, pinkish green or purple, are packed with vitamins, minerals and fiber. The color of the shoots depends on the growing method and the time of collection. Green asparagus grows like a common vegetable in the garden; sprouts of white asparagus are spud so that no light falls on them; and the sprouts become purple after "sunbathing" - they do not immediately spud it, allowing the tender shoots to soak up the sun.
Young, tender shoots can be eaten raw or quickly steamed, in water, in the oven or on the grill. Asparagus is one of the earliest vegetables in the new season: harvesting young shoots begins in April-May.
Asparagus, a genus of plants from the asparagus family. In total, up to 100 species of asparagus are known, scattered all over the world, mainly in dry climates. Some types of asparagus are herbs, others are semi-shrubs that develop underground rhizomes and aboveground more or less branched stems, in many species they are creeping. The most widespread species in the world is Asparagus officinalis, or Common Asparagus, or Pharmaceutical Asparagus, or Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis). The tops of asparagus sprouts (about 20 cm) are used as a delicacy all over the world.
- Growing asparagus seedlings
- Asparagus care
- Harvesting asparagus
- Diseases and pests of asparagus
Growing asparagus seedlings
Asparagus seedlings are grown from seed, sown in open ground or seedling pots.
Seedling care consists in timely watering, loosening the soil and removing weeds. With good care, healthy plants are formed by autumn with a powerful rhizome and 3-5 shoots 25-40 cm high. Before the onset of frost, in October, aerial asparagus shoots are cut 10 cm above the soil surface. In this form, the plants overwinter. In the spring, the seedlings are dug up and transplanted to a permanent place. When selecting a site, it must be borne in mind that this is a perennial plant. It is best to place the asparagus near a wall or along a fence.
The area chosen for asparagus is cleared of weeds in autumn. On the surface of the soil, 15-20 kg / m² of organic fertilizer is evenly scattered and dug deep into it. In the spring, seedlings are planted in rows on the site. Rows of asparagus are placed 70 cm apart. Holes 30 cm deep and 40 cm in diameter are dug in rows. A humus mound is poured onto the bottom of the hole, on which the seedlings are planted. The mound should reach the edge of the hole in height. If the soil in the fall was well filled with organic fertilizer, then humus can not be poured into the holes (although it will not interfere), but replaced with loose soil.
For asparagus seedlings, before planting, the roots are shortened, leaving them 3-4 cm long. The roots are evenly distributed over the mound, sprinkled with a layer of earth 5-7 cm thick, compacted and watered. When the water is absorbed, the hole is mulched with earth. During the summer, you can do one or two fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizer (25 g / m²). In the fall, the aisles are dug up, and the dried stems are cut 10 cm above the soil level. In the second year of the plant's life, caring for it is the same as in the first.
For the first two years of row spacing, asparagus can be planted with crops such as radishes, watercress, lettuce, and green beans.
As for the actual technology of growing seedlings, there are two ways.
Direct sowing of asparagus seeds into seedling beds
It is better to start sowing asparagus seeds in seedling beds in the third decade of May. So, we take the seeds and sow. But keep in mind: dry will rise only after 20-30 days. Are you willing to wait that long? No? Then it is better to soak them first. That is, pour water (30–35 ° C) for 5–6 days and change it daily. To maintain the desired temperature, a container of seeds (say, a small plastic bottle) can be placed next to a radiator or some other warm place.
After this period, the asparagus seeds are placed in a damp cloth or paper for 3-7 days - let them germinate. To prevent the fabric or paper from drying out, cover it with a plastic bag. Simply wetted seeds sprout on the 10-15th day, and those that hatch - already on the 7-8th.
While the asparagus seeds are sprouting, you can prepare a seedbed. That is, add 10 kg (bucket) of rotted manure or compost and 100 g / m² of complex fertilizer per 1 square meter of land. Dig up the soil, loosen and level. The distance between the beds should be from 25-30 to 40 cm. Seeds are sown to a depth of 2 cm and at a distance of 5-7 cm. And after 3-4 weeks it will be necessary to thin out the seedlings, leaving only the strongest shoots at a distance of 10-15 cm.
Asparagus seedlings grow slowly and after a month and a half they reach only 10-15 cm in height. Therefore, it remains on the seedbed for a long time, one or two seasons. All this time, it must be carefully looked after: regularly weed and watered, in June, feed it with nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, urea, 10 g / m²) or liquid manure diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 6 once or twice.
As a result, by the end of August, the plants will have 2–4 shoots and a small rhizome. It needs to be prepared for winter by feeding it in late August - early September with phosphorus and potassium (any autumn fertilizer according to the instructions on the package). And when the aboveground part of the asparagus dies off in October, cover the plantings with humus or peat with a layer of about 3 cm. You can cover them with spruce branches or fallen leaves.
Planting potted asparagus seedlings
Potted asparagus seedlings are good in that, unlike plants immediately sown into the ground, it allows you to win half a month or a month and by autumn get more developed young plants that are better prepared for winter.
The procedures are the same as for planting in seedling beds: soaking, germinating and sowing. Only sowing should be done early, in early - mid-May, and not in the ground, but in pots with a capacity of 100-200 ml or in seedling cassettes. For sowing asparagus, you can use barely hatched seeds with a 1–3 mm root. Seedlings with a 20–25 mm root are also suitable, but in order not to damage it, you will have to plant the seeds especially carefully.
The soil for the pots can be used the same as for the seedlings of cucumbers, or prepare "asparagus": mix garden soil, rotted manure, peat and sand in a ratio of 2: 1: 1: 1. Then there is only classic simple care: watering, loosening, turning to the light in different directions, gradual hardening.
You can plant seedlings in open ground in early June.
In the second year after planting asparagus seedlings, mineral fertilizers are applied, then the soil along the rows of plants should be loosened as early as possible, trying not to damage the roots.
In dry weather, make sure that the soil under the plants remains moist. In dry soil, asparagus shoots become fibrous and taste bitter.
In October, drying asparagus shoots should be carefully cut off near the ground, being careful not to damage the rhizome, and burned. In plants that are not affected by rust and asparagus flies, the tops can not be cut off, it will protect the roots from freezing in winter. Asparagus seedlings in a nursery in severe frosts in the absence of snow or light snow cover should be covered with leaves, straw or manure.
In the fall, annual, biennial plantings and fruiting plants should be fed with superphosphate (0.3-0.5 kg per 10 m²) and 40% potassium salt (0.25-0.35 kg). After fertilization, the soil between the rows is loosened deeply. This must be done carefully so as not to damage the roots and sprouts of the asparagus.
Good results are obtained in autumn mulching with peat with a layer of 8-10 cm for better wintering. In early spring, the mulch is loosened and embedded in the soil as top dressing. This operation is performed annually.
In April, the soil poured in the form of rolls on rows of fruiting asparagus should be carefully leveled and lightly tamped. This makes it easy to spot cracks in the soil above the asparagus seedlings (cracks indicate that the seedlings can be cut). The width of the rolls at the base in the first years of cultivation should be 40 cm, in the following years - 50-60 cm.
In the third year after planting, if the plants are strong and bushy enough, they start harvesting. If the plants are weak, the harvest is postponed until the next year and the asparagus is looked after in the same way as in the second year of growing.
Harvesting of asparagus shoots begins from the 3rd year. However, before harvesting, in early spring, the aisles are deeply loosened, and the plants are sprinkled high with soil and humus. In the II-III decade of April, shoots appear above the soil. When they reach technical ripeness (5-7 cm in height and 0.7-1.0 cm in diameter), the soil is carefully raked off and the asparagus shoots are cut off at the soil surface, then they are re-hilled.
Shoots are cut as they form every 3 days for 20-25 days. In the 3rd year of life, up to 5 shoots are removed from one plant. In subsequent years, you can harvest up to 15 shoots within 30-40 days. After the end of harvesting, each plant should have at least 3-5 shoots, which, while developing, form powerful stems with branches of the 2-5th order, covered with cladodes, thanks to which the plants accumulate plastic substances.
In the fourth year and thereafter, asparagus care is the same as in the third year.
Care for asparagus plants in the post-harvest period should be especially careful, since it is at this time that the foundation for the future harvest is laid. It is recommended to sprinkle humus, wood ash or fertilizer mixture into the aisles, embed them 5-7 cm into the soil, then water. The soil must be loosened after each watering or rain. In winter, asparagus can be harvested by forcing. For a family of three, it is enough to have 15-20 asparagus bushes on the garden plot.
Diseases and pests of asparagus
Red rot of asparagus roots is caused by the fungus Helicobasidium purpureum.
In diseased plants, the root collar and roots die off. The death of the roots leads to the death of the aerial part of the plant. As the disease spreads, a bald patch forms on the site.
If the infection is not very strong, then the place of accumulation of infection must be treated with "Fundazol" and isolated with a thick plastic wrap. In case of severe infection, the plants are destroyed and a new plantation is established.
The asparagus leaf beetle appears on plants in mid-summer. Small yellow and black bugs, their black larvae destroy foliage. For pest control use special insecticides - "Aktellik", "Fitoverm", "Fufanon", etc., be sure to follow the instructions.
Asparagus and polyphagous pests damage asparagus - the familiar bears, slugs, beetles, wireworms, etc.
The wonderful taste of asparagus and its unpretentiousness make this plant a popular "inhabitant" of many vegetable gardens! How do you grow asparagus?