How To Propagate Garden Violets?

Table of contents:

How To Propagate Garden Violets?
How To Propagate Garden Violets?

Video: How To Propagate Garden Violets?

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Video: easy How to Propagate African Violets 2023, January
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Self-sowing, touching, wild, charming, perennial, biennial or annual violets never go out of garden fashion. Even the best species and varieties that have passed a careful selection, still remain a little "untamed" plants, bring the natural charm of the wild to any garden. Violets in any quality and any role are a great decoration for the spring season. Their beauty is surprisingly combined with the ease of growing (any violets are so easy to propagate).

Fragrant violet (Viola odorata)
Fragrant violet (Viola odorata)

Content:

  • Description of garden violets
  • Reproduction of annual and biennial violets
  • Reproduction methods of perennial violets
  • Planting plots and seedlings of violets

Description of garden violets

Garden violets are the conventional name for all types of violets that are grown in open soil. Representatives of the genus Viola are one-, two- and perennials of compact size, developing in the form of lush or spreading bushes, sometimes forming whole carpets. Violet leaves are cordate or kidney-shaped, collected in a basal rosette or arranged alternately. The height of the bushes is from 15 to 40 cm.

Smaller flowers in perennial violets, and larger and more striking in color (in annuals), reach from 1.5 to 7 cm in diameter, always solitary, with a spur or saccular formation at the base of the larger lower petals and marigolds on the rest. Violets bloom in April-May, perennial species often have the ability to re-bloom in autumn, and in one and two-year-old violets, the flowering period directly depends on care and can literally last until frost.

The color palette of violets is unique. From "violet" shades of violet, blue and cyan to white, yellow, red, almost black, purple; various monochromatic, two-color, watercolor and variegated multicolor variations - there really is plenty to choose from.

From the most beloved perennial fragrant violet to the legendary "pansies" of Wittrock violets or tricolor violets - all these violets are irreplaceable and invariably popular. Compact, bright or delicate, seasonal or blooming relentlessly, they occupy a special niche in landscape design. Without violets, it is difficult to imagine flower beds and alpine slides, rockeries and natural plantings, meadows of ground covers from them, borders, mixborders, flower girls and containers, potted gardens and compositions. These amazing plants are even used for forcing and as living bouquets in indoor culture!

Without exception, all violets reproduce easily. It is possible to create new species and varieties without much experience. The most popular option for all violets is seed propagation, but perennial species may offer other options. In addition, if the seed pods are not collected in a timely manner, then any violets give abundant self-seeding, which can be used both as planting material and for seedlings: with timely planting, seedlings will in no way yield to those specially grown.

Violet Wittrock, or garden pansies (Viola × wittrockiana)
Violet Wittrock, or garden pansies (Viola × wittrockiana)

Reproduction of annual and biennial violets

Species that are classified as seasonal summer accents are propagated mainly by seeds. Growing through seedlings is considered the optimal strategy for annual species that bloom in the year of sowing. But biennial, blooming only the next year, violets are sown directly into the soil, either in a permanent place, or in seedling beds.

For seedlings of annual violets tricolor, Vittroka and Co. are sown in March. There is nothing complicated in the process of growing seedlings:

  1. Prepare shallow containers and bowls and a universal high-quality substrate.
  2. The soil is carefully leveled and watered abundantly.
  3. Not too dense sowing is carried out on the surface of the soil.
  4. The seeds cover 2-3 mm of soil.
  5. Crops are moistened with a spray bottle and covered with foil or glass.
  6. The containers are placed in a bright place with an air temperature above 10 degrees (normal room temperature is also suitable).

Biennial violets are sown in pre-prepared beds, in greenhouses or in prepared soil in a permanent place. The optimal dates are June and July. Young seedlings, which will appear in a few weeks, need more careful care.

After the emergence of shoots, care for both annual and biennial violets is similar. Plants dive in the phase of development of two full leaves. The yearlings are transferred to a permanent place as soon as the weather permits and the frost has passed, and biennials - at the end of August or the beginning of September (you can leave them in seedling beds or dive with a long distance, wait until next spring and transfer to a new place for the second year, after all, they tolerate a transplant even in a flowering state). The optimum landing distance is 15 to 20 cm.

Another method - rooting of green cuttings - in annuals and biennials is used to preserve the best varieties and hybrids of violets that do not retain their characteristics during seed propagation or are too valuable to risk losing their favorite variety. Cuttings are carried out from May to July (late cuttings will not allow plants to bloom in the same year, but next year it will be much more luxuriant). 2-3 knots are left on the shoots, using strong branches. The apical cuttings are rooted in a loose substrate under a hood.

Violet Wittrock, or garden pansies (Viola × wittrockiana)
Violet Wittrock, or garden pansies (Viola × wittrockiana)

Reproduction methods of perennial violets

1. Separation of bushes and rugs

Separating bushes is the simplest method for breeding perennial species. In summer, after the end of flowering or at the beginning of autumn (the third decade of August – September), the bushes of violets are carefully dug up and divided into 2-3 large parts. Perennial violets are recommended to be divided with a frequency of 1 every 3-4 years, since without regular rejuvenation these plants lose their ability to bloom abundantly, and their compactness, and density, and even the beauty of bushes and carpets.

2. Root suckers or root cuttings, green cuttings

Cutting violets is a method that allows you to get a lot of planting material with minimal effort and cost. Unlike propagation from seeds, when propagating by cuttings, plants are usually able to bloom already in the current year.

The most popular option is cutting the top cuttings from young shoots. Cutting can be carried out from May to July, choosing strong shoots and cutting off the tops with 2 - 3 internodes. Cuttings are planted directly into the soil, under a hood, with shading. Rooting of cuttings of violets takes only 2-3 weeks, at the beginning of autumn the plants can be transferred to a permanent place.

Sometimes, along the edge of the violet bushes, separate small offspring are separated, the bushes are divided into small single divisions, which will not take root without special conditions. Such cuttings obtained from cuttings are rooted in the same way as ordinary ones.

3. Seeds

Most often, even perennial violets are obtained from seeds. Plants are able to bloom in the second year, are actively developing and quickly achieve high decorativeness.

The traditional option is to sow directly into the soil in the fall. Freshly harvested violet seeds are sown at a shallow depth, on top of the crops are mulched with peat or dry leaves. Seedlings appear in the spring as soon as the soil warms up, they develop quite quickly.

Seeds of perennial species are sown for seedlings, in mid-summer - late June or early July. Sowing can be carried out both on seedlings in boxes and containers, and on a separate bed. For these violets, any universal, high-quality loose substrate is suitable.

Sowing the seeds of perennial violets is carried out on moist soil, lightly sprinkling the seeds with soil or sand. Seedlings will appear very quickly, provided a stable humidity is maintained, but if you sowed in containers, then it is still better to cover the crops with foil or glass. The seedlings are allowed to grow stronger within 2 - 3 weeks, after which they are dived onto the seedling beds for growing. In late August or early September, young plants are planted in a permanent place.

Fragrant violet (Viola odorata)
Fragrant violet (Viola odorata)

Planting plots and seedlings of violets

In a permanent place, violets need to be provided with comfortable conditions. Without exception, all species prefer high-quality, loose, moist, nutritious soil from loam and sandy loam. Violets do not like fresh organic matter. The landing site is selected so that the risk of waterlogging, especially in winter or spring when snow melts, is minimal. Annual and biennial violets are light-requiring, perennials grow equally well in the sun and in partial shade places.

Planting any violets is a fairly simple process. For plants, shallow individual planting holes are prepared, an earthen lump around the roots is kept as far as possible. For perennial violets, the optimal distance to neighboring plants is from 20 to 25 cm.

Caring for young plants is similar to caring for adult violets:

  1. Immediately after planting, it is advisable to mulch the soil, further renewing the protective layer every spring after the snow melts.
  2. In dry weather, young violets are provided with maintenance watering.
  3. In the first and subsequent winters, to protect violets from thaws and snowless periods, it is better to protect violets with a light cover - mulching from peat or humus, spruce branches, dry leaves.

Violets bloom, with the exception of annuals, mainly in the second year. Then a few more procedures are added to the standard care. At the budding stage, at the peak of flowering, violets are fed with full or intended for flowering crops fertilizers, and annual or potted violets are fed with a frequency of 1 time per 2 weeks. Flowers are removed from the bushes after they wither, preventing the seeds from setting in the first year.

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