Table of contents:
- Description of anemones
- Planting anemones
- Location of the anemone
- Soil for anemone
- Anemone transplant
- Anemone care
- Breeding anemones
- Types of anemones
- Diseases and pests of anemones
- Using anemones
Video: Anemone Is The Daughter Of The Winds. Anemone. Cultivation, Care, Reproduction. Diseases And Pests. Kinds. A Photo
Anemones, or anemone (Anemone) have many types. In the gardens, flower growers grow both wild and cultivated anemones. Three decorative types of anemones are popular in culture: crown anemone (A. coronaria), tender anemone (A. blanda), Japanese anemone (A. japonica).
- Description of anemones
- Planting anemones
- Location of the anemone
- Soil for anemone
- Anemone transplant
- Anemone care
- Breeding anemones
- Types of anemones
- Diseases and pests of anemones
- Using anemones
Description of anemones
Anemone, or Anemone (lat.Anemone) is a genus of perennial herbaceous plants, which includes about 120 species of flowering plants in the Ranunculaceae family. Found in the northern and southern temperature zones. Closely related to these flowers are the Pulsatilla and Hepatica. Some botanists include both of these genera in the genus Anemone.
The modern scientific name is derived from the Greek. Άνεμος - "wind". Perhaps the literal translation of the name may mean "daughter of the winds." Probably, the name was given to the plant because of its sensitivity to the wind, even with small gusts of which large flower petals begin to flutter, and flowers sway on long peduncles. Previously, it was mistakenly believed that the flowers of a plant under the influence of the wind can close or open.
Gardeners usually use tracing paper from Latin - Anemone to designate plants of the genus. Because of their physical resemblance, the marine animals Actiniaria are sometimes called sea anemones.
Leaves grow from the base and can be simple, complex, or attached with a leaf on a stem.
During the flowering period, inflorescences appear, covered with 2 to 9 umbrellas or single flowers, which, depending on the type of plant, can reach up to 60 centimeters in height. The flowers are bisexual and radially symmetrical. Anemone has bright colors, color is different in different species.
Fruit sepals are non-dropping and can be white, purple, blue, green, yellow, pink or red. The fruits are achenes
Spring anemones bloom even before the trees and bushes are covered with dense foliage. Therefore, anemones are planted in shady and semi-shady places. These, as a rule, forest plants under the crowns of trees and near shrubs feel great. Anemone looks beautiful against the background of dwarf barberries and spirits, emphasizing the beauty of their delicate spring foliage. They are also good in combination with pansies, primroses and small-bulbous ones.
All anemones prefer moist, light humus soils. Moreover, it is necessary to keep the ground under the anemones moist until the end of the season, even after the plant stems die off. Delicate, blue and rocky anemone periodically add dolomite flour or ash to the soil. They are inhabitants of mountains and mountain forests; in nature they grow on calcareous soils.
Spring anemone is a perennial herbaceous rhizome plant. Many of them grow rapidly, forming extensive dense or loose clumps. If such a curtain loses its decorative effect or begins to crowd out neighbors, you will have to think about a transplant. It is best to plant all species in the middle of the season, while the ephemeroid species have not yet lost their foliage. But if necessary, it is possible both at the beginning and during the flowering period.
At the same time, the plants do not have to be completely dug out of the ground - tender, blue, buttercup and oak grass anemone easily reproduce by pieces of rhizome with buds. When planting, the rhizome is placed at a depth of 8-10 cm. Oak and rock anemones can be propagated both by parts of a bush and by offspring. When planting these species, make sure that the root collar remains at the soil level. After planting, you need regular watering.
Plants easily take root in a new place. All these anemones reproduce by sowing seeds. It is best to sow them in the ground before winter, but it is also possible in spring, with preliminary cold stratification. Seeds usually germinate in 2–3 weeks. Seedlings develop rather quickly, bloom, as a rule, in the second year.
Location of the anemone
Shade -loving plants that grow well only in the shade include species of anemone associated with their origin with broad-leaved forests, under whose canopy semi-darkness, humidity and moderate temperatures reign.
All of them are ephemeroids, that is, early spring plants that bloom in spring, and at the beginning of summer they already end their growing season. These are Altai, Amur anemones, flexible, smooth, oak, buttercup, Radde, shady, Udi. They can be planted under closed tree crowns, on the north side of buildings.
Shade-tolerant species. In semi-shaded places, forked, Canadian, forest anemones grow beautifully. These are plants of light forests and forest glades. They grow well under the canopy of rare trees or trees with an openwork crown (rowan, cherry, plum, sea buckthorn), on the eastern side of buildings. Shade-tolerant and hybrid anemone, the parental forms of which are associated with the forests of East Asia. But in our north, it grows well both in sunny places and with light shading.
In the shade, long-rhizome anemones are grown, associated by their origin with deciduous forests: Altai, Amur, flexible. Here, on the northern side of the buildings, where the soil does not dry out or overheat, they grow best.
Light-loving species. These are anemones from the Mediterranean regions: Apennine, Caucasian, crown, tender anemones. In Central Russia, they do not have enough sunlight and heat, and therefore it is better to grow them on southern, light slopes. More actively grow in well-lit areas and anemone of alpine meadows: long-haired and daffodil.
All types of anemone require moderate moisture. They grow well in moist areas, but always with good drainage. Stagnant moisture is not well tolerated. The most drought-resistant are tuberous anemones: crown, Apennine, Caucasian and tender. The forest and long-haired anemone tolerates a temporary lack of moisture.
Soil for anemone
All anemones, except for the forest anemone, need for normal growth in loose, fertile soils. Moreover, Apennine, Caucasian, crown anemones prefer alkaline soils, and the rest grow well on weakly acidic and neutral soils (pH 5-8). The forest anemone is one of the few plants that grows normally and blooms on poor sandy soils. But it also blooms more abundantly and forms larger flowers on loose, fertile soils.
Root-sprouting anemones - forked, Canadian, forest - are more demanding than other anemones to the structure of the soil. They prefer light, sandy or peaty soils, but without stagnant moisture. To grow anemone with a tuberous rhizome, the soil is limed so that its acidity (pH) is about 7-8. For this purpose, you can also use wood ash, which is applied both before planting tubers and in the process of growing plants.
In this case, the soil is sprinkled with ash and the soil is slightly loosened. Anemone hybrid prefers loose soils, sandy, but richer. This species needs additional feeding, reacts well to the introduction of organic fertilizers: rotted manure, compost.
It is best to replant root suckers in spring. These are hybrid, fork, Canadian, forest anemones. At the time of the appearance of shoots on the surface of the soil, segments of roots with adventitious buds and a sprout are dug out and planted in the right place in loose, fertile soil. Transplantation is also possible in autumn, at the beginning of September, but it is less successful.
Remember that these types of transplants do not like and after it many anemones die. The hybrid anemone is especially bad at transplanting. At the same time, you can divide and transplant short-rhizome anemones - long-haired and daffodil. In spring you can plant anemone tubers after winter storage.
Summer is the only possible time for transplanting ephemeroid anemones. They finish flowering in May, and then their leaves die off in June and July. At this time, the bud of the next year's renewal has already been laid on the rhizome. If you take a section of rhizome with a bud and plant it in the right place, then you are guaranteed success. The planting depth of the rhizome is 2-5 cm.
When transplanting at this time, the plants do not need watering, and the dug rhizomes are not afraid of drying out. The main thing is not to miss the moment when the leaves are not completely dry and the plants can still be seen. It is difficult to find ephemeroids that have completed their growing season later. Plants planted in the previous summer bloom next spring.
Planting must be mulched with humus or loose peat. It is even better to mulch plantings with fallen foliage of broad-leaved trees: oak, linden, maple, apple. Such mulch is to some extent an imitation of forest litter, which is always present in the natural habitats of these plants. If you decide to grow crown anemone for a cut, fertilizers are applied at the time of the appearance of buds. It is best to use complex mineral fertilizers.
In ordinary years, anemone does not need watering. It is necessary to water only crown anemone at the time of flowering. Therefore, flower beds of anemone can be created even where it is difficult to water. Cover them with grass compost or stale manure in the fall. Growing anemone is not associated with great difficulties and costs and is quite affordable for many growers. The exception is thermophilic anemone with tuberous rhizome: Apennine, Caucasian, tender.
But the crown-shaped anemone is especially tender. For the winter, these anemones need careful cover with a leaf, preferably linden, oak, maple, apple. The tubers are best dug out after the end of the growing season. First, they are dried at a temperature of 20-25 ° C, and then placed in one layer in boxes and stored in a warm, ventilated room until autumn at a temperature of 15-20 ° C.
From winter to spring, the storage temperature should be 3-5 ° C. Tubers are planted in the ground either in autumn in October, or in early spring immediately after the snow melts. Planting is carried out with whole tubers or their segments, but always with an "eye". Before planting, especially after storage, the tubers are soaked in warm water for a day. Planting depth is 5 cm. The soils are fertile, even rotted manure is used, loose, moist.
For most anemones, seed reproduction is difficult, especially in culture. The embryo in the seeds of anemone is small, poorly developed, so they germinate slowly, often only for the 2-3rd year, since for full development the seeds need a change of warm and cold periods. If anemones are grown in conditions suitable for them, then many of them form self-seeding.
Abundant self-seeding appears in the conditions of Central Russia in almost all types of ephemeroids, except for the Apennine, Caucasian and tender anemone. But some gardeners of the Moscow region observed the emergence of self-seeding in these species. However, it is possible to obtain anemone seedlings if certain conditions are met. The main thing is to sow only with freshly harvested seeds. This should be done immediately after harvesting the seeds, in June-July, in early flowering species.
It is necessary to sow in boxes with loose, fertile soil. Bury the boxes in the ground in the shade to avoid drying out the soil. It is useful to cover the soil with cut branches.
You can sow seeds of anemone and before winter, also in buried boxes. Using boxes allows you not to lose single seedlings. When sown in summer and before winter, seedlings appear next spring. Seedlings of long-rooted anemone (Amur, Altai, oak) in the first year of life form a small rhizome with a bud of renewal at the top. In subsequent years, the rhizome grows, more and more resembles an adult clearly visible rhizome, branches.
After 5-9 years, the original rhizome dies off, the lateral shoots are isolated. This is how natural vegetative reproduction occurs. The decay of the rhizome occurs in the summer, after the death of the aerial part. The annual growth of such rhizomes is 3-4 cm. Its growth begins in May at the time of flowering, and by August a bud is formed at the top of the rhizome with the rudimentary shoot of the next year. The entire rhizome is covered with adventitious roots, going deep up to 10 cm. The depth of the rhizome is 3-5 cm. Anemone poorly tolerates drying out of the soil, its compaction, turf.
Seeds germinate the fastest in the forest anemone. Sown in July immediately after ripening, they sometimes form seedlings as early as September of the current year. Freshly harvested seeds of the crown anemone are sown in a loose moist substrate. After sowing, the substrate is covered with moss or covering material to maintain moisture. When the leaves of the seedlings that have appeared dry up, the nodules are dug up and stored in a ventilated room.
The seeds of the long-haired anemone and the narcissus-flowering anemone ripen in July-August. They also need to be sown in boxes before winter, that is, in October-November. Seedlings appear next spring.
In all species of anemone, seed germination is low - 5-25%, but the formed seedlings develop well with normal moisture, and most of them bloom in the 2-3rd year. Long-haired and daffodil anemone seedlings develop longer than others, which bloom in the 3-4th year.
Most often, anemones are propagated vegetatively: by segments of rhizomes, dividing a bush and a tuber, root suckers.
Anemone with a long branching clearly visible rhizome reproduce in segments. These are Altai, Amur anemones, flexible, smooth, oak, buttercup, Radde, shady, Udi. When the plants are dug up, after the end of flowering, the rhizomes disintegrate into separate segments. Each segment is an annual growth. Adventitious roots are formed on the segments and renewal buds are laid. In most of the described anemones, by July-August, the buds of renewal are already formed, which ensures normal growth and flowering of the transplanted plant next year.
By dividing the tuber, anemone with tuberous rhizomes reproduce. These are the Apennine, Caucasian, crown, tender anemone. Each part of the divided tuber should have a bud, preferably 2-3, with a piece of tuber. The division of tubers should be carried out during the period when the plants are at the end of the dormant state, that is, in July-August.
By dividing the bush, anemone with a vertical rhizome can multiply: long-haired and daffodil. The best dates for this are early spring, the beginning of the growth of shoots, and the end of summer. Each division should have 2-3 renewal buds and a rhizome segment. When planted in loose, fertile soil, they take root quickly.
Anemone, capable of forming root suckers, reproduce by root suckers with a renewal bud. These are forked, hybrid, Canadian, forest anemones. Reproduction takes place in early spring or late summer. The root offspring grows from the adventitious buds located on the roots. In anemone, they are formed in huge quantities at the end of flowering. But mass planting material can be obtained using root cuttings.
The best results are obtained if the cuttings are carried out during the period when the plant is just beginning to grow, or during the dormant period, at the end of summer. In the spring, at the beginning of the growing season, the roots grow most vigorously. But even during these periods, the survival rate of root cuttings in anemone ranges from 30 to 50%. The best results are obtained by cuttings of forest anemone and canadian anemone: survival rate is about 75%.
In early spring, the mother plant is dug up, the roots are washed and cut off at the root collar. The mother plant can be put back in place and, as a rule, the plant quickly takes root and recovers during the growing season.
The cut off roots are cut into separate cuttings, their length should be 5-6 cm. The use of growth stimulants, especially epin, with which cuttings are treated, accelerates the formation of roots. Then the cut cuttings are placed in a pot filled with loose substrate. The substrate is made up of a peat soil mixture with the addition of loam and sand. When filling the pot, the substrate is compacted so that its edge is 1-2 cm below the edge of the pot.
Such a substrate protects the cuttings from drying out, holds them in the desired position, maintains normal air exchange and, when regrowth begins, provides the necessary nutrients. Cuttings are placed in it at a distance of 3-4 cm from each other. The top of the cutting should be level with the surface of the substrate. Then the soil is compacted. Sprinkle sand over the landing. The pots are placed in a greenhouse or buried in the soil in the shade and covered with foil.
Watering is rare so that the cuttings do not rot. Watering is intensified only when a stem with green leaves appears. Only then at the base of the stem do adventitious roots develop. Then the film is removed. The next year, the plant can be planted in a flower garden.
Types of anemones
The genus anemone, or anemone (Anemone), belongs to the ranunculaceae family (Ranunculaceae) and includes more than 150 different species.
Tender anemone (Anemone blanda) blooms in early May and blooms for about three weeks. This plant is mountainous, the distribution area is the Caucasus, the Balkans and Asia Minor. Prefers fertile moist calcareous soils. The root system of the tender anemone is a shapeless tuberous rhizome. From the buds of its upper part in the spring grow delicate stalks 15–20 cm high with beautifully dissected leaves.
At the end of each stalk - "chamomile", a single inflorescence-basket with a diameter of up to 7 cm. The bush of the plant is graceful and airy. The flowers of the main species are blue-violet. Several dozen varieties with different flower colors have been bred: 'Charmé' - pink with a white center, 'White Splender' - white, 'Blue Shade' - blue.
The buttercup anemone (Anemone ranunculoides) is widespread in the light and humid forests of Eurasia. Its root system is a horizontal, creeping, strongly branching rhizome. The plant grows into a dense curtain 20-25 cm high. At the ends of graceful peduncles there is a bract of three finger-dissected leaves and one or three bright yellow flowers up to 3 cm in diameter. Forms with double flowers and purple leaves have been introduced into ornamental gardening. Blooms in mid-May. The flowering period is about three weeks.
The blue anemone (Anemone caerulea) is native to the Sayan Mountains and southern Western Siberia. It also blooms in mid-May and blooms for two to three weeks. It also has a creeping horizontal rhizome, but the plant forms not dense, but looser clumps up to 20 cm high. For 3-4 years, its area can grow up to 30-40 cm in diameter. Straight peduncles bear at the end three carved finger-like leaves and a single pale blue or white flower 1.5–2 cm in diameter.
The oak anemone (Anemone nemorosa) is widespread throughout the forest zone of Europe. She has a lot in common with the previous species. The same rhizomes, stem height, flower structure and flowering time. The main species has white flowers with a diameter of 3-4 cm. Less often, specimens with cream, greenish, pink or lilac petals are found. In decorative floriculture, there are more than three dozen varieties with simple and double flowers.
The most common of these is the white terry variety 'Vestal'. Cultivar 'Robinsoniana' is a plant with chestnut-purple stems and lilac-pink flowers; 'Blue Beauty' - with bright blue large flowers and bronze leaves. Anemone 'Virescens' looks like a fantastic green flower, it has practically no corolla, and the lobes of the calyx are greatly increased.
The forest anemone (Anemone sylvestris) belongs to primroses. Its height is 20–50 cm. The distribution area is the north of Western and Eastern Europe, Siberia, the foothills of the Crimea and the Caucasus. This species loves to grow in shrubs and on the edges of light forests. The root system is a vertical, rather powerful black rhizome. Basal leaves on petioles up to 20 cm long grow from the root collar in early spring.
At the end of the first decade of May, peduncles with one or two large (up to 5-6 cm in diameter) white flowers rise from the rosettes. Sometimes the back of the petals has a slight purple tint. The forest anemone grows well - in 3-4 years its bush can reach 25-30 cm in diameter. In regular flower beds, you have to dig in a limiter to a depth of 20 cm to stop it from scattering.
The forest anemone has been introduced into the culture of horticulture a very long time ago, since the XIV century. There are several varieties: 'Wienerwald' and 'Elise Feldman', sin. Plena 'with double flowers,' Fruhlingszauber 'and' Macrantha 'with large flowers up to 8 cm in diameter.
Rock Anemone (Anemone rupestris) is still rare in amateur gardens. This very beautiful species comes from the Himalayas, where it grows at an altitude of 2500–3500 m among bushes and grasses. The experience of growing in the suburbs has shown that the rock anemone is unpretentious and easy to care for. The root system is a bunch of roots that penetrate the soil to a depth of 15 cm.
From mid-May, purple peduncles 20-30 cm long appear from the rosettes. Each has up to three large flowers. On the back of the snow-white petals, an intense bloom of inky purple color. Flowering lasts about a month. And then aerial stolons begin to grow, at the ends of which young rosettes are formed. However, this species does not grow very actively.
Diseases and pests of anemones
Affected by leaf nematode. At the same time, yellowish-brown spots appear on the leaves, which later darken. In case of severe damage, the plant dies. Destroy badly affected plants, replace the soil in this place and plant other species.
Anemone flowers are very good in bouquets, for this they usually use white-flowered varieties and species. Anemone blue, oak, Altai, buttercup is used in group plantings, massifs, near bushes, in the undergrowth near paths.
Anemones are delicate, Caucasian, crown perfectly combined with muscari, scilla, primrose and other early flowering species. Japanese anemone is used in mixed plantings with peonies, phloxes and other large perennials.
Anemones are a wonderful decoration of the garden in late summer and autumn. Due to their beauty, long flowering and color, they are versatile plants. Autumn anemones look great against the background of most trees and shrubs.