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Video: A Pineapple. Home. Care, Breeding Reproduction. Diseases And Pests. Flower. The Fruit. A Photo
The first Europeans to taste pineapple were sailors from the Santa Maria caravel, which approached the shores of America in 1493. Christopher Columbus, who commanded the caravel, made the following entry: "It looks like a pine cone, but is twice as large, this fruit tastes excellent, soft, juicy and very healthy." Pineapple came to Europe at the end of the 15th century in a candied form.… To Asia and Africa at the end of the 16th century. Pineapples were also grown in Russia, at first only in the tsarist greenhouses near St. Petersburg, and then in many winter gardens. It is known that in the 19th century in Ukraine in greenhouses up to 80 varieties of pineapple were grown and exported to Europe at 3 thousand poods per year. Today, the main producers and suppliers of pineapple are the Philippines, Thailand, Hawaii, Kenya, South Africa, Malaysia, Taiwan, Vietnam and Australia. The Indians endowed the pineapple with magical powers and used all parts of the plant for healing and performing magical rituals.
Pineapple (Latin Ananas), the Thai name - Sapparot - a perennial herb, belongs to the bromeliad family (Bromeliaceae). Pineapple has been cultivated since the 16th century in many tropical countries; gross fruit production is about 3 million tons. In the tropical regions of America, 8 species of this exotic fruit plant grow. Since the middle of the 17th century, it has been grown in botanical gardens, greenhouses, greenhouses. In Russia, pineapple seedlings have been grown in greenhouses since the 18th century and even exported abroad.
All cultivated pineapple varieties, which are dessert and canned, belong to one species - cultivated pineapple. It is a perennial herb with a short stem 20-30 cm high, on which there is a rosette with a large number of fleshy leaves up to one meter long. At the base of this rosette (crown), many offspring develop. At the top of the stem, pineapple seedlings are collected in the inflorescence, consisting of individual fruitlets, they end in the upper part with a bunch of leaves. At the top of the stem, flowers are collected in an inflorescence. Pineal compound fruit is obtained as a result of fusion of the fruit with the fleshy bracts and stem. Some varieties have thorns along the edges of the leaves. Large, juicy and fragrant pineapple fruits have a sweet and sour taste and usually reach up to 2 kg, in rare cases - up to 15 kg.
Pineapple is harvested from plantations a little unripe in order to bring it from its southern homeland to distant consumers in proper marketable form, however, this often negatively affects its quality. Immature stems burn not only the lips, but also the hands. After ripening, they acquire a refined taste with a characteristic pleasant aroma, similar to strawberry. Pineapple seedlings are eaten not only fresh, but also processed into juices, compotes, jams, preserves, frozen, etc.
Pineapple can be grown in a room using a rosette of leaves cut from the top of the fruit as planting material… Cut off the rosette at the very base of the fruit, without pulp, wash it in a pink solution of potassium permanganate, sprinkle the cut with ash and let it dry for 5-6 hours. After that, the rosette is planted in a pot with a capacity of no more than 0.6 l. Drainage is poured onto the bottom of the pot, and then a loose earthen mixture consisting of turf, leaf humus, sand and peat in a ratio of 1: 2: 1: 1. A mixture of leaf humus and sand is poured on top with a layer of 3 cm in a ratio of 1: 1. In the center of the pot, a hole is made with a depth of 2-2.5 cm with a diameter slightly larger than the diameter of the rosette. A little crushed charcoal is poured into it so that the tip of the outlet does not rot. An outlet is lowered into the recess, after which the earth is well tamped. Along the edges of the pot, 2-4 sticks are placed and a rosette is attached to them with ropes. Moisten the soila transparent plastic bag is put on the pot and placed in a bright place. The rosette takes root at a temperature of 25-27 C. In winter, a plank is placed on the battery and a pot with a handle is placed on it. After 1.5-2 months, roots are formed and new leaves begin to grow. The plastic bag is removed only 2 months after rooting. In an adult pineapple, lateral layers often grow at the base of the stem. They are rooted in the same way as the rosette from the top of the seed.They are rooted in the same way as the rosette from the top of the seed.They are rooted in the same way as the rosette from the top of the seed.
Pineapples are transplanted, as a rule, annually, slightly increasing the capacity of the pot. The root collar is deepened by 0.5 cm. It is transplanted only by transshipment, without destroying the lump of earth. The root system of a pineapple is very small, so even an adult plant is kept in 3-4 liter pots. The composition of the substrate is the same as for rooting. Leaf humus can be replaced with old rotted manure. The soil should be loose, nutritious and have an acidic pH of 4-6.
When growing pineapple, be sure to observe the temperature regime. In summer, the temperature should be 28-30 ° C, although pineapple grows well at a temperature of 25 ° C. On warm sunny days, the plant is taken out into the street, but if the temperature drops below 16-18 ° C at night, then it is brought into the room. In winter, it is kept at a temperature of 22-24 ° C. The temperature in the room must be at least 18 ° C, otherwise the pineapple will stop growing and then die.
Hypothermia of the root system has a detrimental effect on the plant, so it is placed not on the windowsill, but by the window on a table or a special flower stand. You can put the pot on the radiator by placing a board under it. In winter, the plant must be illuminated with a fluorescent lamp.
Pour the pineapple with settled rain or melt water. Such water is stored for a long time without losing its qualities. You can use settled or boiled water, acidifying it with citric or oxalic acid to pH 5-6. The acidity of the water is checked with a universal indicator litmus paper. Water for irrigation is heated to 30 ° C. When watered with ordinary water without acidification, the plant develops very poorly. Watering the plant, water is poured into the outlet. Excessive waterlogging leads to decay of the roots, so the earth should dry out slightly between waterings. In addition to proper watering, pineapple needs frequent spraying with warm water.
Every 10-15 days, the plant is fed with liquid complex mineral fertilizers, as well as carefully strained infusion of horse or cow dung. Necessarily 1-2 times a month, pineapple is sprayed and watered with an acidified solution of ferrous sulfate at the rate of 1 g per 1 liter of water. The solution is also poured into an outlet. Alkaline fertilizers such as wood ash and lime are not used, the plant cannot tolerate them.
With proper care, pineapple begins to bear fruit in the 3-4th year. Usually at this age, the length of its leaves reaches 80-90 cm.An adult pineapple can be made to bloom and bear fruit by fumigating it with any smoke. To do this, put a dense plastic bag on the plant, put several smoking coals next to the pot for 10 minutes, observing precautions. The procedure is repeated 2-3 times with an interval of 7-10 days. Usually, after 2-2.5 months, an inflorescence appears from the center of the outlet, and after another 3.5-4 months, the inflorescence ripens. The mass of ripe fruits is 0.3-1 kg.
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Sizes and shape of vessels for pineapple culture
In fact, the plant grows well in any container. For a pineapple, it is better to take a small but wide pot in diameter. This shape corresponds to the peculiarity of the plant: its root system is located in the upper layer of the root and does not go deep down. Wide crockery contributes to better soil aeration, which is very important for this crop. It is interesting to note that under natural conditions, each pineapple plant has two tiers of roots… The first consists of thin roots and is located almost at the very surface of the soil. The second includes radially located thin roots extending 1-1.2 m deep into the soil. Pineapple roots can also form in the leaf axils. Under favorable conditions, the axillary roots grow strongly, reaching the soil cover. In large rooms, where space permits, large specimens are transplanted into wide enameled tanks. The plant develops a powerful root system, so that in such conditions it is possible to obtain fruits weighing up to 1.5 kg.
Despite the good hygroscopicity of the soil, one should not forget about the need for drainage holes. At home, the plant is best transplanted in the warm season, when the soil temperature on the windowsill is + 20 + 25 ° C. In this case, you can count on good survival rate during transplantation. In the bottom of the vessel, not one, but several holes are made. Drainage (1.5-2 cm) is laid out on the bottom, which is used as expanded clay, small pieces of charcoal, broken brick. Prepared soil is poured on top. Before transplanting, the mixture is steamed to avoid the entry of pathogenic microbes into it. The plant is removed from the old volume and carefully transferred to the new one. At the same time, make sure that small soil particles adhering to the roots do not crumble. Having placed the roots horizontally, sprinkle them with earth.
Planting depth is an important detail of the agricultural technology of the bromeliad family. Pineapple does not have a definite root collar, so the risk of deepening it during transplanting disappears. Moreover, the plant should be deliberately deepened 2-3 cm below the previous level. This contributes to its better fixation and the development of a more powerful root system in comparison with the ground part, it is important that the plant sits firmly in the soil.
After transplanting, the pineapple is abundantly watered with a warm (+30 ° C) pale pink solution of potassium permanganate. It is recommended to tie the newly transplanted plant to stakes stuck in the same ground. After 2-3 weeks, the garter is removed. Pineapples are placed on the south or southeast windows. No scorching rays of the sun will harm the plant in the summer. It cannot be argued that on the windows facing the north side, they will not grow at all. True, their development slows down, and it is almost impossible to achieve fruiting.
In indoor conditions, pineapple mainly reproduces vegetatively (by the crown), using the rosette of leaves formed at the top of the seed, as well as lateral and basal processes. These vegetative organs usually appear during or after the fruiting of the plant. They are rooted in the same way, with the only difference that the top of the seed is cut off with a sharp, clean blade before being rooted, and the lateral and basal processes are carefully broken off. The apical rosette is cut only from a fully ripe fruit. The lower processes of the plant can be rooted when they reach approximately 15-20 cm from the base.
Before planting in the substrate, the prepared shoots are kept for 4-7 days. During this time, the cut site is covered with a tissue plug, which prevents the penetration of pathogenic bacteria to living tissues and instant decay. The cut must be smooth and free of burrs. It is best to dry the cut in a dark place at room temperature, hanging the shoot up with the cut on a rope, and the leaves down.
A detached pineapple shoot can be without water for several months. After which it will also take root safely. This is a property of all plants from the bromeliad family. In nature, they accumulate moisture in the center of the rosette of leaves, thanks to which they painlessly endure dry periods of the year.
When the cut is healed, the process is put on rooting.… To further ensure that the seedling does not rot, the resulting cork tissue is powdered with chopped charcoal. There are several varieties of rooting substrate, but the best one, which has proven itself over several years, is the following: sod land, high peat, leafy soil, birch sawdust, coarse sand (3: 2: 2: 2: 1). All these components are thoroughly mixed and placed in a vessel where they are going to carry out rooting. The substrate should not be compacted, it should be loose. For planting the appendix, a low (10-15 cm) vessel is taken. Its width does not play a big role. For this purpose, ordinary pottery flower pots without decorative cladding work well. The prepared shoot is carefully introduced into the loose substrate. Embedding depth 2.5-3 cm.
After planting, the substrate is spilled with a warm (+ 40 ° C) pink solution of potassium permanganate. To maintain the overall moisture content during rooting, the shoot is covered with a glass jar or plastic bag. Four rods are fixed around the plant in the soil so that they are higher than the upper leaves of the process. This kind of fence protects the leaves from contact with polyethylene. And the drops of condensate accumulated on the film will not fall on the leaves, which is very important. All the condensation formed will gradually drain down the sides of the bag into the soil. There is a kind of natural circulation of water, which will relieve the amateur from unnecessary worries about maintaining the moisture of the substrate. It is best to use a regular rubber band on the bottom to secure the film. She will press the bag tightly against the sides of the pot.
Thus, the shoot is ready for rooting. Its location during rooting does not matter much. It is only important that the temperature of the substrate should never fall below +25 degrees. C. Illumination can be any. It is undesirable to place the rooting process under the direct, scorching rays of the sun. It develops well in low-light environments. A similar method of reproduction is used when growing any plants of the bromeliad family.
There is one more method of reproduction - seed. But for indoor conditions, it is not very suitable - it is laborious, requires certain knowledge. Moreover, pineapple is a cross-pollinated plant and two simultaneously flowering specimens are needed to obtain seeds. Pineapple plants grown by sowing tend to inherit traits from both parents. But at the same time, in most cases, they retain mediocre characteristics. The vegetative breeding method is more perfect. The largest fruits, as experience shows, are formed on plants grown from the apical rosette of the seed.
It is difficult to say how much time passes by the time the shoot takes root. It all depends on the conditions and compliance with the rules of rooting agrotechnics. The rooting time ranges from one to two months. The first signs of rooting are the appearance of young light green leaves from the center of the rosette. In this case, the old leaves fall apart a little from the base of the axis. After rooting, you can start transplanting, having prepared the substrate for further cultivation in advance. At present, the method of clonal reproduction of pineapple has been established in laboratory conditions, which makes it possible to preserve all the qualities of the mother plant and obtain a large amount of planting material. In the future, lovers of indoor decorative gardening will also be able to use this breeding method.
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In culture, pineapple has a huge number of varieties, but not all of them have proven themselves well in world practice, so only the best ones will be discussed.
Cayenne is the oldest and most widespread variety. Its range is wide: Cuba, Hawaii, Australia, India and other countries in the tropical zone. Its leaves do not have thorns. The pulp of the fruit is pale yellow, cylindrical in shape. Food quality is high. The plant is resistant to diseases. The root system is small. This variety, according to scientists, is the ancestor of the pineapple culture, it has long been grown by the Indians.
Red Spanish - resistant to root rot. The plant is powerful, the leaves are thorny. The fruit is spherical, round, with fibrous pulp. The taste of the pulp is sour. Average sugar content. The variety is common in the south.
Quinn is an early ripe variety with thorny, tough leaves. The pulp is dark yellow, not fibrous. The main disadvantage is the small size of the fruit. Distributed in culture in Australia, South Africa.
These varieties have a large number of clones, so the description can only be taken as a basis. When growing pineapple at home, you should not select special varieties. On a room plantation, the plant sometimes loses certain varietal characteristics, so you should select improved forms directly in the home garden.
Diseases and pests
Compared to other indoor fruit crops, pineapple suffers little from diseases and pests. The most common pineapple pest is the false shield. It is not difficult to destroy it on pineapples, since after the first generation this pest dies. For prevention, it is useful to spray the plant with a weak solution of potassium permanganate and keep the leaves clean.
In winter, due to the low temperature with abundant watering, mold forms on the walls of the pot. It must be washed off immediately with warm water. If warm air is supplied to the plant from the central heating battery, then it is necessary to ensure that dry, hot air does not directly hit the pineapple leaves. From this, the tips of the leaves begin to dry out quickly. A drop in temperature in winter with abundant watering leads to decay of the root system. There were cases when it completely died off, and the plant fell over. Root rot is a very common pineapple disease when grown at home. If it is found, the lower part of the trunk is pruned to living tissue and the rooting of the plant is completely repeated, as described above.