Table of contents:
- Garden. Garden. Homestead: Almost an encyclopedia for beginners. T.I. Golovanova, G.P. Rudakov
Video: Flowers And Ornamental Plants. Perennial. Description, Cultivation, Care, Reproduction. A Photo
- Part 1. How to place flowers. Plot: selection of plants, planting.
- Part 2. Heat, water, light food. Care. Reproduction.
- Part 3. Annuals. Biennials.
- Part 4. Perennials.
- Part 5. Ornamental shrubs.
Perennials are plants that can grow for several years without transplanting in one place. In the fall, their stems, leaves and flowers die off, and in the spring they reappear
On the roots, rhizomes, tubers, bulbs, they have renewal buds, from which shoots grow every year.
Not all perennials hibernate in the soil. Gladioli, dahlias, cannes should winter indoors
Perennials bloom at different times, so if you choose the right plants, they will decorate the garden from spring to autumn.
Dahlias are one of the most common flowers. These are plants with various colors of flowers and various shapes of petals, reminiscent of roses, chrysanthemums, peonies.
Dahlias are planted at a distance of 75 and 120 cm from each other. Rotted manure is introduced in autumn with deep tillage. For better growth and development, plants are fed with organic fertilizing 2-3 times during the growing season
The tubers are planted in deeply cultivated soil (30-40 cm). The best planting dates are when the spring frosts end. To obtain an earlier flowering, tubers are germinated on windows, in pots, greenhouses. Of the aerial shoots that appear, 1-2 of the most powerful are left, the rest are cut out. To protect the stems from damage by the wind, they are tied to stakes, which are driven into the soil before planting. To prevent overheating of the root system and retain moisture, it is necessary to mulch the soil surface in the area with dahlias with peat, sawdust or foliage.
Before planting, dahlias can be propagated, the tubers can be divided into smaller parts. Tubers with several well-formed tuberous roots are selected for division. The tubers are cut so that each lobe has a portion of the root collar with at least one bud at the base. When planting large undivided dahlia tubers, it is recommended to pour a small earthen mound at the bottom of the prepared hole and spread the roots in the radial direction on it. After planting, the highest bud should be in the soil close to the surface. Separate root tubers obtained by dividing large rhizomes are planted somewhat deeper. In this case, there should be a 5 cm layer of soil above the upper bud.
Dahlia is propagated by dividing tubers, cuttings and seeds. Seeds are sown in a box or greenhouse in March. Then the plants are transplanted into small pots, as they grow into large ones. They are planted in the ground at the usual time. Such plants bloom a year or the next year after sowing. This method is only used for non-double dahlias.
In the fall, after the first frost, dahlia tubers are dug up. First, the stem is cut off 10-15 cm above the ground, and then dug out. Dig them out very carefully so as not to damage the tubers, so it is better to do this with a pitchfork. At a distance of 25-30 cm from the stem, dig in the plant. Then, holding the stem, bring the pitchfork under the tuber and take it out. Tubers are thoroughly dried for 1.5-2 weeks at a temperature of 15 °. The tubers are peeled, thin roots are cut with scissors or a knife. The tubers are stored at a temperature of 3-5 ° C and in winter they must be examined several times.
Rotted tubers are separated from healthy ones, sore spots are cut off, cleaned and the cuts are covered with crushed charcoal
Dahlia varieties differ in the shape and color of the inflorescences, the structure of the bush. They are classified by the nature of the inflorescences, their size, the degree of terry, the shape of the lingual flowers.
Simple (non-double) - 50-100 cm high, ligulate flowers are dark pink, tubular - bright yellow. These dahlias are known for their varied, vibrant flower colors.
Collar - plant height 200 cm, diameter of baskets 10-15 cm. In the center they have a disc of tubular flowers, then 2-3 rows of petals, like a collar around the disc.
Anemonoid. Inflorescences are semi-double or double. In the center there is a pillow-shaped disc of tubular flowers. It is surrounded by one or two rows of reed flowers. They look like an anemone.
Nymphaean - the inflorescence consists of wide oval slightly concave numerous ligulate flowers and in appearance resembles a white water lily.
Cactus - terry inflorescences. Ligulate flowers are rolled into tubes or twisted, pointed at the ends.
Chrysanthemum - double, marginal flowers are narrow, long, rolled into thin, concave tubes at the ends, resemble chrysanthemums.
Decorative - inflorescences are flat or slightly convex. Ribbon-like, wide ligulate flowers are arranged in tiled or spirally, curved and cover a few tubular flowers.
Spherical - terry spherical inflorescences, the diameter of the inflorescences is 15-20 cm.
Pompom - inflorescences like spherical, but much smaller.
Dissected - the tongues are dissected at the ends.
Decorative cactus - have signs of decorative and cactus dahlias.
© Just chaos
Gladioli grow well in sunny areas with a slight slope for water to drain. Grow poorly in cold and damp areas. In autumn, humus or rotted manure is applied to the site for gladioli at the rate of 10 kg per 1 m2, the site is dug to a depth of 30-40 cm. Fresh manure must not be brought in before planting the corms.
Before planting, corms and children are warmed up for 20 days in a room with a temperature of 20-25 ° C. Sometimes the baby is germinated in wet sawdust or sand for 1-2 days.
© Carl E Lewis
On a wet site, gladioli are planted in beds, on a dry site - at the level of the soil surface. Large corms are planted to a depth of 15 cm, small ones - up to 10 cm. Large corms - at a distance of 15-20 cm, small ones - 10-15 cm. It is possible to return gladioli to last year's place only after 5-6 years. After planting the beds, mulch with peat. Gladioli are planted in well-heated soil in May. They can be planted until June 15, the plants will bloom then in September. If planted later, they will not have time to form a healthy bulb.
In the area with these flowers, the soil is kept loose, weeds are removed, the plants are watered abundantly, but often they should not be watered. During the summer they are fed 2-3 times. Liquid bird droppings have a good effect - 8-9 liters of diluted droppings are consumed per 100 liters of water (1 part of droppings, 10 parts of water).
All diseased plants must be removed from the plantings. When cutting flowers, at least 3-4 leaves should remain on the plant. This is necessary to obtain a healthy corm.
Gladioli are dug in late September - early October, before the onset of severe frosts. In sunny weather, dry them well for 1-3 days in the sun. Then for 10-15 days in a well-ventilated room with a temperature of 25-30 ° C. After drying, remove the roots and remnants of old corms. Then they are dried for about a month at a temperature of 20-22 ° C, then sorted, folded into boxes or bags of gauze and stored in a cool room at a temperature of 4-8 ° C.
Corms, despite the fact that they are being replaced, give good flowers no more than 4-5 years. Then they are replaced with new ones, grown from children.
© ripplestone garden
Narcissists need fertile soils that are organic. They love moisture and grow well in more acidic soils than tulips. Daffodils are dug up after 2-3 years, you should not leave them in one place for a longer period, as they grow, shrink, diseases and pests can develop. Daffodils are planted in the ground in the first half of September. On heavy soils, the planting depth is less than 10 cm, on lighter sandy loam -15 cm.
Distance in a row for large bulbs 10 cm, for smaller ones 6-7 cm, distance between rows 15-20 cm.
© Satoru Kikuchi
Daffodils are propagated by bulbs. Children of daffodils are sorted before planting. It is better not to use small children less than 1 cm, of which a large onion will not turn out in two years. Children are planted on prepared ridges.
Two weeks after planting, the land is leveled. This will also kill the weeds. Plant care consists of loosening the soil, removing weeds and watering. Then the soil is mulched with weathered peat, with a humus layer of 3-5 cm. With the onset of cold weather, the plantings are covered with peat or straw.
In the spring, the protective layer is removed from the plants, leaving only the mulch layer. Over the summer, it is good to feed the plants several times with liquid dressings.
When the plants bloom, the flowers are cut off so that the bulbs are not depleted. Daffodils are dug in late July - early August. Sick plants are destroyed along with a clod of earth. Then the bulbs are dried, the patients choose. Separate the baby from them. Before planting the bulbs in the ground, they must be stored in rooms with good ventilation and so that the air temperature does not exceed 20 ° C.
As a rule, they all bloom for a short time, but how pleasing to the eyes after a long winter!
The flower appears directly from under the snow. Blooms no more than 12 days. Then the leaves dry up, die off, and a period of rest begins.
Better to plant in shady and semi-shady places with fertile soil. It is possible in the sun, but then the snowdrop needs to be watered regularly. It blooms less. It can grow in one place for 4-5 years.
The plant propagates by children and seeds. The dug out bulbs are immediately planted in a permanent place. You can store them for no more than two months. To do this, they are dried, poured into boxes not in a thick layer and covered with sand. Store in a cool dry place. They are planted to a depth of 6-10 cm.
Spring and autumn plants. Golden-flowered crocus - one bulb can produce many flowers. Crocus prominent, or beautiful, blooms in autumn, crocus sowing, or saffron-new, has flowers of white, yellow, orange, lilac, purple-pinkish.
Crocuses grow in sunny, shady and semi-shady areas in humus-rich soil. Fresh manure under crocuses is not recommended. For fertilization, you can use a mixture of leaf, greenhouse or compost soil. For the winter, crocuses mulch (use dry peat). They grow in one place for 4-5 years, but if you need to multiply quickly, they are transplanted after 1-2 years.
The bulbs are planted in the fall at a distance of 5-8 cm from each other to a depth of 7-8 cm.
Perennial bulbous plant, starts growing early. It tolerates frost well
For 1 m2, 4-6 kg of well-rotted manure are applied. The bulbs are planted in rows to a depth of 10-13 cm. On heavy loamy soils, the bulbs can be planted to a depth of 5-6 cm, but the soil must be well mulched with peat or peat compost with a layer of 7-8 cm. On heavy soils, river sand is applied to the bottom of the furrows in layer 1, 5-2 cm. Sprinkle sand on top of the onion. The distance between plants should be 2.5-3 times the diameter of the bulbs.
Bulbs are usually planted in the third decade of September - early October.
After planting, mulch well with peat, humus, peat compost, chopped straw with a layer of 4-5 cm.
Plant care consists of loosening, weeding, watering.
Tulips are removed from the soil every year when the leaves turn yellow and dry. They are dried in shady, well-ventilated places, cleaned, sorted and stored until autumn.
To get larger bulbs, flowers are cut before they bloom
Tulips love warm, sunny places, but grow well in partial shade.
They grow especially well on sandy loam soils.
Peonies are planted in the third decade of August and early September (in central Russia), then they manage to take root by winter. As a last resort, you can plant peonies in the spring. They bloom in May and June.
Peonies grow well on loose, loamy soils. On heavy clay soils, they can grow under the condition of deep soil cultivation, up to 50-60 cm, and the application of peat-fecal fertilizers, humus, compost, as well as sand in the ratio: organic fertilizers 2 parts, sand 1 part and sod land 2 parts.
The site should be sunny and without stagnant groundwater, from which peonies grow poorly and die. Peony roots penetrate deeply into the soil and spread widely in it, so dig holes for planting 70 cm deep and 60 cm wide, with a meter distance between them. Add 2-3 buckets of humus or weathered peat, 100 grams of lime, 500 grams of ash to the soil taken out of each pit and mix everything well.
Manure is placed at the bottom of each pit in a dense layer of 10 cm, covered with 20 cm of earth and compacted. Then the prepared earth is poured with a mound and poured with water from a watering can with a strainer. Then the earth will be well compacted. In the middle of the mound, a peony bush is placed so that the buds are at the level of the edges of the pit. And they cover the roots with earth so that there is no void between them.
Then the peony is watered abundantly. If, after watering, the bush has dropped strongly and the buds are below the surface of the earth, they slightly pull it up and fill up the earth. Make a mound of earth above the base of the bush at 10-15 cm. It is very important that the buds after planting are not below the edges of the pit, since when deeply planted, peonies do not bloom for a long time or even do not bloom at all.
For the winter, newly planted peonies are covered with spruce branches or dry leaves by 20-30 cm. This is done when the ground is frozen, and in spring the shelter is carefully removed. In the spring, as soon as sprouts appear, the first feeding is carried out with a solution of mullein, bird droppings. Feed the plants the second time at the beginning of bud formation and the third time after flowering.
Until the deepest autumn, peonies need to be watered abundantly. Then the plants will develop well this year and will bloom well next year (flower buds in a peony form at the end of summer).
After each watering and top dressing, the soil around the peonies is loosened by 5-7 cm, but not deeper, otherwise young roots can be damaged. With proper care, peonies grow for 10-15 years and bloom annually.
For reproduction, the bushes are divided into parts every 5-8 years. In mid-August, the bush is deeply dug in at a distance of 50 cm, carefully lifted with a shovel or garden pitchfork with wide teeth and taken out. Then the soil is washed off from the roots with water. Then the diseased roots are removed, the bush is carefully separated, trying to break the fragile roots as little as possible. Take a knife with a hard blade and a sharp end. On each part, 4-5 stems of the current year are left with buds and roots. Sprinkle all cuts with crushed charcoal.
New bushes are planted in pre-prepared pits.
The broken off parts of the roots are not thrown away, but planted in the beds and covered for the winter. In the spring these roots will sprout, and after 4-5 years the plants will bloom.
You can also grow peonies from seeds. Seeds are sown on the garden bed immediately after harvest. They will rise next year in the spring, and seedlings will bloom in the 4th or 5th year.
The classification of garden peonies is based on the difference in the structure of the flower: non-double, Japanese, anemone, semi-double, double. In terms of flowering periods, early, middle, and late are distinguished.
© Ben + Sam
Montbrecia is a bulbous plant from the iris family. Corms and babies are planted in early spring. Organic fertilizers are applied in the fall before deep tillage. For each m2, 2-3 buckets of humus are introduced. In the spring, planting material is prepared: the corms are separated from the uterus, the roots are shortened by half the length and, without clearing the scales, they are dipped in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for several minutes. It acts as a disinfectant and trace element. Do the same with old onions. As soon as the soil in the flower garden is ready, grooves are made at a distance of 10-15 cm from each other, watered with water and corms are planted. They are planted at a distance of 10-12 cm from one another, to a depth of 5-8 cm.
In dry times, the plants are watered abundantly after 3-4 days and the aisles are loosened. During the growing season, the montbrecia is fed 2-3 times. This culture loves open sunny places with good nutritious soils. Seedlings of spring frosts are not afraid, these plants are planted early.
Montbrecia blooms in August - September, before frost. Its flowers are medium-sized, funnel-shaped, with six diverging orange or orange-red (in the center, the color is thicker) petals.
Flowers bloom, like gladioli, gradually, from bottom to top, up to 6-8 pieces in a panicle. They stand out in relief against the light green background of erect xiphoid leaves. During seed propagation, many forms are formed.
Pruning flowers early increases the size of the babies, and bouquets of montbrecia are more durable if the flowers are cut when the second bud from the bottom has blossomed.
They start harvesting corms with the onset of the first autumn frosts.
At a height of 4-5 cm, the stems are cut with a pruner. Then they dig in with a shovel and select the plants, lightly shaking them off the ground, and put them in boxes. They are placed in a frost-free basement, stored like gladioli.
The plant reproduces quickly. Each corm gives several children (4-6), which bloom in the same year and will be planting material for the next year. The old corm dies off at the end of the year, like in gladioli. And if she is planted again, she will give the same number of children.
© PJ Peterson
The wrestler, or aconite, belongs to the buttercup family. This unpretentious plant grows well in poor soils, but loves moisture. It grows poorly in fertilized areas. It can grow in one place for 5 years.
Propagated by dividing the bush, young tubers. Divide the bush in September or spring. Can also be propagated by seeds. Plants grown from seeds bloom in 3-4 years.
The color of the flowers is blue, violet-blue, white. The plant is 70-150 cm high. The flowers are collected in loose brushes 30-60 cm long.
The plant is beautiful, but you need to remember that all its parts are poisonous, so it is better not to plant along the paths where children can pick it off.
© jenny downing
Hyacinth from the lily family. Blooms early. In the middle zone of our country - in early - mid-May. It grows well in sunny, well-sheltered areas, but it can grow in partial shade. Hyacinth does not like waterlogged acidic soils; you cannot fertilize the site with fresh manure.
One place can grow for 10- i2 years if fertilized every year.
When the leaves of the plant turn yellow and dry, the bulb must be dug out, the baby must be separated from the leaves, and dried. Two months before planting, the bulbs are stored at a temperature of 23-25 ° C, then at a temperature of 18 ° C.
In September-October, the bulbs are planted in the ground to a depth of 10-15 cm, at a distance of 12-15 cm from each other. After the onset of frost, they are covered with peat, spruce branches, foliage with a layer of 10-15 cm.
Hyacinths are planted in flower beds, ridges, borders. Hyacinths are pink, white, purple, light blue, yellow.
Irises are used for cutting, forcing, border and group plantings. Iris requires a well-cultivated and fertilized soil. For 1 m2, it is recommended to apply 4 kg of humus. On clay soils, humus is introduced together with sand. Iris is propagated by dividing the rhizomes (segments) and seeds. Irises are divided and transplanted 2-4 weeks after flowering stops.
© Photos o 'Randomness
The site for them is chosen sunny, with well-permeable soil. Too moist soil and shading contribute to the development of diseases. Irises also do not grow well near trees, where there is a lack of moisture and nutrients.
A plot for irises is prepared in the same way as for most perennials.
For the division of irises, well-developed plants are chosen, preferably three years old
Wet root rot caused by bacteria is one of the most dangerous diseases of irises. The first symptoms of this disease are yellowing and drying of the leaves in late spring. Then the disease affects young shoots, they grow poorly, turn yellow, turn brown and die off. At their base, as well as on the young parts of the rhizome, rot develops with a characteristic unpleasant smell of decomposing protein. Under favorable conditions for the development of the disease (that is, when growing in damp shaded areas and applying too large doses of nitrogen and thickening of the plants), bacteria also infect the older parts of the rhizomes. In this case, the entire rhizome turns into a light brown smear mass, however, its skin remains without visible changes.
© Lee Coursey
For planting, unconditionally healthy parts of the rhizome are chosen, which are cut into small pieces with 1 - 2 buds. Divide the rhizome with a sharp knife. Places of incisions should have the smallest diameter, so that their surface is as small as possible, so that bacteria do not get into them and they do not become infected with fungi. Cutting leaves up to a height of 10-15 cm, depending on the thickness of the rhizome, prevents wilting, and the plants are better accepted after planting. Root cuttings are planted shallowly, placing them horizontally. The roots are laid out on two sides perpendicular to the growth.
In the summer, when there is no rain, iris is watered to keep the soil loose and free from weeds. In areas with severe winters for the winter, the iris should be covered with spruce branches (spruce branches), peat, sawdust, in winter - with snow.
© Tie Guy II
Florists grow several groups of irises. Bearded irises are the most common group. Medium and tall bearded irises are especially widely represented in floriculture.