Video: Vertical Gardening. Lianas. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction. How To Decorate A Wall. Choice. Garden Plants. Types Of Flowers. A Photo
2023 Author: Ava Durham | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-07-30 22:46
Vertical gardening of walls of buildings and various structures with climbing plants - vines is a progressive technique in green building. First of all, this does not require significant additional space. Lianas compare favorably with other plants. They usually multiply easily, grow quickly, in the middle zone of the European part of Russia in 2-3 years they can completely cover the walls of 1-2-storey buildings. Climbing plants are plastic to light conditions, gas-resistant, winter-hardy. Many species are distinguished by high decorativeness of leaves, flowers and fruits, elasticity and strength of shoots. Of all the known plants, only woody lianas are able to independently climb the walls of 2-4-storey buildings. Some types of vines used for landscaping,are still an additional source of high quality edible and medicinal fruits: actinidia, grapes, blackberries, lemongrass and others. Buildings, balconies, gazebos, arches, pergolas, trellises, hedges, picturesquely entwined with green lianas, give the cities located in the middle lane the exoticism of the south.
In our cities and towns, many houses built according to standard designs, especially prefabricated ones, do not always win in architectural terms. In a number of micro-districts, whole residential areas are monotonous and monotonous. In this regard, great hopes are pinned on vertical gardening, which rightfully belongs to one of the most economical and widely available means of architectural design of walls of buildings and various structures. It is designed to fulfill an important architectural, artistic and sanitary and hygienic role in modern cities and towns.
Vertical gardening, in addition to residential buildings, is also used for greening the walls of buildings of industrial enterprises, children's, cultural, medical and sports institutions; when decorating old houses; it is also used in landscape architecture.
There is a misconception that lianas, growing near buildings, contribute to the accumulation of dampness in the walls and their destruction. Research and many years of practice have proven that the roots of climbing plants extract excess moisture from the soil at the foundation of the house, and the aboveground part protects the walls from overheating, precipitation, and, consequently, from destruction. In addition, it creates more favorable living conditions.
This type of gardening is relatively new and, unfortunately, has not yet become widespread, especially in our republic. We hope that our tips and tricks will help amateur gardeners speed up the solution to this issue.
In order to skillfully cultivate lianas, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the biological characteristics of their growth and the ecological factors of the environment, in which they develop well and most fully show their decorative advantages.
Wood lianas in our temperate latitudes can climb to a height of 20-30 m; the diameter of the main stem sometimes reaches 20 cm (maiden grapes are five-leafed). Many species of lianas develop a powerful crown, are distinguished by rapid growth, early bloom (in the 2-3rd year), bear fruit (in the 3-5th year) and at the same time are distinguished by enviable longevity (climbing roses and climbing honeysuckle live up to 100 years, grapes - up to 200, ivy - up to 300). Almost all this time, they can be vegetatively propagated.
Vine seedlings initially develop as ordinary plants, and when the ability to attach to supports appears, they acquire the characteristics of real vines. In climbers (grapes), antennae appear when 8-10 internodes are formed in annual seedlings and the length of the shoots reaches 40-45 cm. They are able to wrap around the supports when they reach a height of 30-50 cm (actinidia, woodworm).
The onset of plant life after winter is associated with the onset of sap flow. In many lianas (actinidia, lemongrass, grapes, etc.) this occurs in late March or early April. Shoots of clematis and honeysuckle start to grow very early (in the 2nd or 3rd decade of April), in most others (grapes, actinidia, kirkazon, woodworm, lemongrass, etc.) shoots begin to grow in the 1st or 2nd decade of May.
In adult plants (actinidia, woodworm, grapes, clematis), the length of annual shoots can reach 2-4 m. This is due to the long duration of their seasonal growth (up to 4 months) and intensive daily growth of shoots (4-6 cm). By the fall, the shoots have time to woody enough, and the plants are quite winter-hardy.
Dates of flowering and fruiting of vines in Minsk are not the same. In May, yellow honeysuckle, honeysuckle, prince, woodworm, lemongrass bloom. In June - actinidia, kirkazon, moonseed, Zhakman's clematis, purple, Tangut, grapes. In July, actinidia large, polygamous, five-leafed maiden grapes, serrated clematis begin to bloom, in August, Chinese, eastern clematis, etc.
Plants that bloom in May - July are distinguished by a good harvest of fruits and quality of seeds. Weakly bear fruit and form empty seeds of vines, blooming in August.
One of the important environmental factors limiting the culture of lianas is the low temperatures of the winter period. The most winter-hardy lianas are actinidia kolomikta, Amur grapes, red grapes, foxes, five-leafed maiden grapes, round-leaved woodworm, curly, yellow honeysuckle, honeysuckle, large-leaved kirkazon, Manchurian, Chinese lemongrass, purple clematis, Tangut, Alpine lunacus, Da and others. Less winter-hardy actinidia large, polygamous, cultivated grapes, maiden grapes, triangular, climbing or climbing roses, etc. In the conditions of Belarus cultivated grapes, climbing roses, Zhakman's clematis need shelter for the winter.
Actinidia, kirkazon, rose have high requirements for soil fertility; on the contrary, “the less demanding are the woodworm and moonseed. Honeysuckle, lemongrass, prince, blackberry have an average demand for this factor.
Grapes and clematis are sufficiently resistant to temporary lack of moisture and drought. In contrast to them, in actinidia, kirkazon, lemongrass, and moonseed, yellowing, twisting of leaves, and falling of flowers and fruits are observed during the dry period.
Some species thrive and thrive in well-lit, sunny locations. These include grapes, climbing honeysuckle, rose, and clematis. Only a few species are shade-tolerant. Significant shading can be tolerated by woodworm, moonseed, maiden five-leaf grapes, ivy. Prince, Schizandra, Kirkazon occupy an intermediate position in relation to the light regime.
Adult specimens of various species of lianas in similar growing conditions reach unequal sizes - from 3 to 20 m or more.
For successful growth, abundant flowering and fruiting of vines, careful preparation of the soil is necessary with digging it to a depth of 40-50 cm with the introduction of 20-30 kg of humus per 1 m2. With continuous landscaping of structures, trenches are dug 40-50 cm wide and 60-70 cm deep. Single vines are planted in pits 50 × 50 cm in size.
Planting holes and trenches are dug no closer than 10-20 cm from the base of the building. In places of possible waterlogging of vines under the influence of storm water, the planting pit should be fenced with a concrete rim 5-b cm high, leaving a hole for vines measuring 20X30 cm.
The distance between plants when planting depends on the size achieved and the ability to branch. With continuous gardening, at a distance of 0.6-1.0 m, a moonseed, a prince, a clematis are planted one from another; 1.0-2.0 m - honeysuckle, kirkazon, lemongrass; 2-3.0 m - actinidia, grapes, woodworm.
The best time to plant vines is spring, before bud break. However, honeysuckle, clematis start growing very early, so the spring period of their planting is very limited. It is advisable to plant these vines in the fall. The seedlings are planted in a permanent place 10-15 cm deeper than they grew in the nursery. Recessed planting promotes the formation of adventitious roots, intensive development of the aerial part, and protects against freezing.
With vertical gardening of buildings, structures, fences, vines should be placed in accordance with the cardinal points, since the requirements for the light regime are not the same for them.
For vertical gardening
- a) southern, southeastern and southwestern walls are suitable: climbing rose, climbing honeysuckle, grapes, clematis;
- b) eastern, northeastern and western: actinidia, kirkazon, prince, Chinese magnolia vine;
- c) northern and northwestern: maiden grapes five-leafed and wood-nose.
On either side, you can plant woodworm and girlish grapes.
Such placement of vines creates the most optimal conditions for good growth and development, which will contribute to their high decorative effect and durability.
Caring for vines is not much different from caring for other plants. The peculiarities of leaving are to give their shoots a certain direction, the green "draperies" themselves - the appropriate shape by timely garter and shearing of individual shoots.
At the same time, you should ensure the safety of vines from possible damage. To do this, they are fenced with a low picket fence or a special crate; produce proper drainage of rainwater from the roof of the building to avoid erosion of roots and waterlogging of the soil.
As you can see, most species of lianas are quite winter-hardy in local conditions, grow and develop successfully, are resistant to the urban ecological environment, almost do not suffer from pests and diseases, and have a dried decorative effect. These advantages give reason to recommend vines for wider use in green building.
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