Garden Forms Of Abutilon. Flower Rope. Care, Conditions, Wintering, Reproduction. Photo

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Garden Forms Of Abutilon. Flower Rope. Care, Conditions, Wintering, Reproduction. Photo
Garden Forms Of Abutilon. Flower Rope. Care, Conditions, Wintering, Reproduction. Photo

Video: Garden Forms Of Abutilon. Flower Rope. Care, Conditions, Wintering, Reproduction. Photo

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Indoor maples in the new millennium are considered one of the most popular plants. And when abutilons are also found in gardens, they seem to be very exotic aliens. Garden abutilons outwardly differ little from indoor species, but recently special frost-resistant novelties have appeared. And they are grown according to completely different rules. Our article is about the features of growing garden abutilones and the most interesting varieties for ornamental gardening.

Abutilon hybrid (Abutilon x hybridum "Moonchimes")
Abutilon hybrid (Abutilon x hybridum "Moonchimes")

Content:

  • Container and original garden abutilons
  • The use of abutilones in ornamental gardening
  • Conditions necessary for abutilones in the garden
  • Caring for garden abutilones
  • Wintering of corinabutilones and container abutilones
  • Pest and disease control
  • Reproduction of garden abutilones

Container and original garden abutilons

Among the relatives of ordinary indoor abutilones and their many species there are plants that, in addition to their usual characteristics, can also boast of frost resistance or increased endurance. And although it would be more correct to call such unique plants not abutilones, but corinabutylones, they completely changed our understanding of abutilones in general.

The elimination of frost-resistant abutilones has generated a lot of confusion in their classification and even today is controversial. In our country, corinabutylons are considered a rarity, but they are actively tested in botanical collections, and the seeds can already be found on sale in specialized catalogs.

Due to the appearance on the market of plants of winter-hardy relatives, the range of garden abutilones has changed and now it includes two groups of plants:

  1. Genuine tubular abutilones (representatives of the genus Abutilon).
  2. Frost-resistant abutilones or corynabutilones (representatives of the genus Corynabutilon).

Both those and other plants belong to the Malvov family, they are indistinguishable in foliage and flowering, but differ significantly in size.

The name "indoor maple" in relation to the abutilones used in gardening is as rarely used as the name corinabutilone. More often you can find the second (popular) name of the plant - rope-way. It is under this name that new products are most often distributed - corinabutylones, which are grown mainly in open soil.

Abutilones and corynabutilones are colorful shrubs and herbaceous perennials. In nature, they are found on the territory of South America, in the tropical and subtropical belt of other continents, rightfully ranked among the moisture-loving exotics. But unlike the well-known tropical varieties, the more hardy corynabutilones come from Chile, where in the harsh climate the plants acquired their unexpected qualities and resistance.

These are evergreen and deciduous, rather powerful shrubs, the height of which ranges from 1.5 m to more than 3 m in the absence of formation. Lush and straight bushes flaunt with large leaves of very rich colors. The leaves sit alternately, heart-shaped or divided into 3 or 5 lobes, resembling maple leaves.

Thanks to the foliage, this plant got its popular nickname. Abutilon flowers are easy to recognize by their special, glass-or cup-shaped form. Corolla petals grow together into a lantern or bell, flowers are always solitary. Abutilones are so popular due to the touching graceful buds, lush anthers and stamens that grow together with the pistil and protrude from the corolla. This houseplant invites you to enjoy touching details.

Among the hybrid abutilones, variegated variations in foliage color are often found, but there is even more choice in the color of the inflorescences. Classic yellow or white, orange, red, delicate shades of pink at the flower bells, they are invariably pastel and beautiful. The veins on the petals emphasize their translucent texture. The hybrid rope-tree blooms, as a rule, relentlessly, from late spring to October. But with the wrong care, the flowering period can be shorter.

Containerized hybrid abutilon (Abutilon hybridum)
Containerized hybrid abutilon (Abutilon hybridum)

The most popular varieties of corynabutilones and hybrid abutilones

Of the corynabutylones, in the genus of which there are only a dozen plants, in horticulture today they are increasingly used:

  1. Vine- leaved or ovine rope-grass (Corynabutilon vitifolium) is a magnificent powerful deciduous shrub that turns into a tree with age under favorable conditions. The maximum height in nature is not limited to 5 m, but in garden culture the plants will not exceed 2 m. The diameter of the bushes is almost twice as high as they are due to their neat shape. The shoots are powerful, felt, green, forming a beautiful slender crown. The lobed oval leaves are adorned with a pleasant gray edging and toothed edge, they reach 15 cm in length and very much resemble the pubescent leaves of grapes. Cup-shaped flowers up to 8 cm in diameter are collected in rare clusters of inflorescences. The color range is limited to white, pink and lilac colors. Grape-leaved garden abutilon blooms in May, pleases with its flowering a little more than a month.
  2. Corinabutilon Ochsenii (Corynabutilon ochsenii) is a compact and wide shrub about one and a half meters high with interesting twisted shoots. Leaves up to 7 cm long are arranged alternately, they are divided into 3-5 lobes and flaunt with a typical jagged edge, but sit on sufficiently long petioles, which gives the whole bush an additional openwork. The edge on the foliage is almost invisible. Single or paired lilac flower bells are surprisingly graceful. The flowers of this species are smaller, they flaunt with their dark spots at the base of the petals.
  3. Corynabutilon × suntense is a relatively new hybrid derived from the two previous species, it is considered the most winter-hardy and abundant flowering abutilon for garden culture. At one time, the presentation of this plant at the exhibition became a real sensation and brought many awards to the creators. This plant is characterized by compact, densely branching, strikingly lush shrubs with densely sitting bright greenery, as well as flowering that can last all summer. Leaves are soft, velvety, pubescent. Cup-shaped flowers amaze with the beauty of textures and delicate pastel colors, they bloom in small-flowered inflorescences, surprising with their large size.

From containerized, or non-frost-resistant abutilones, hybrid abutilones (Abutilon x hybridum) are mainly used in garden culture. But two more types of abutilones are also grown as garden tubs, not indoor plants:

- painted abutilon (Abutilon pictum) with its compact densely branched bushes, beautiful bright leaves; most often they are variegated, and the flowers resemble neat glasses of the most delicate colors; it is a typical abutilone, the main advantage of which, of course, is its rapid growth;

- Abutilon megapotamicum (Abutilon megapotamicum) - a beautiful plant with drooping shoots, thin, grayish, touching, emerald green elongated leaves and flowers like lanterns with a red "cup" and a yellow corolla; stamens are strikingly long, hanging from drooping flowers, atypical purple color; this cable car blooms from May to September.

Abutilons, changing their indoor career to gardening, differ from purely indoor or greenhouse plants not only in the abundance of flowering. The leaves of such garden tubs grow thicker, the shoots branch better and are stronger, and the leaves themselves exceed the competitors by several times. It is in the garden abutilones that the brightest colors can be observed; when the temperature drops, the flowers are decorated with a charming blush.

It is possible to select tubular abutilons by colors, the variety of which has exceeded the scope of ordinary pastel tones and includes even rare fruit shades, as well as by the shape of flowers, unusual or variegated color of leaves, the desired shape of the bush. The choice must be made so that the plant becomes a stylish touch in the design of any garden and reveals its character as best as possible.

Vine-leaved or sheep's cable car (Corynabutilon vitifolium)
Vine-leaved or sheep's cable car (Corynabutilon vitifolium)
Corinabutilon Santense (Corynabutilon × suntense)
Corinabutilon Santense (Corynabutilon × suntense)
Hybrid abutilon (Abutilon x hybridum)
Hybrid abutilon (Abutilon x hybridum)

The use of abutilones in ornamental gardening

Containerized or tubed abutilons require protected locations. But it is thanks to this feature that they can become the main star of landscaping the territories adjacent to the house, covered gazebos and recreation areas under a canopy. On the terrace and veranda, the beauty of flowering and the grace of colorful abutilones will appear in a completely new light, and the plant will delight you with much longer flowering than its indoor competitors.

With timely hardening, even ordinary abutilons can be buried in a tub or pot in the soil or planted in the open ground for the summer, using to decorate flower beds.

Corinabutilons today are trying to adapt to the culture of open soil with careful shelter for the winter. These are powerful plants that, regardless of the chosen method of shelter for the winter, are almost always planted in the soil. Corinabutylons are used to decorate front gardens and ceremonial compositions, as single accents, in flower beds near the terrace or recreation area - where the beauty of this exotic will become the main decoration of the garden.

Any exotics and classic tubs, as well as bright annual plants, are suitable partners for garden abutilones. But abutilones look no worse in splendid isolation.

Conditions necessary for abutilones in the garden

For growing corynabutilones in tubs, in open soil, or for dropping container plants, careful selection of sites is necessary. Garden abutilons are photophilous, but the daytime sun will negatively affect both foliage and flowering. Plants are placed in places with diffused, soft lighting. Where only the evening and morning sun will fall on the bushes or in places where there is a slight shade from large trees.

If abutilon is grown as a garden tub, which is removed for the winter indoors, then the conditions for it begin to be selected not at all from lighting or soil. Particular attention should be paid to protecting container plants from rain and wind. Abutilon containers are displayed on a terrace, veranda or under a canopy, where the plant will not suffer from wind and rain. Any abutilons, except megapotamian, will prefer bright lighting, but megapotamian abutilones need to choose shaded areas. Moreover, any abutilones should not "come into contact" with the midday sun, and the air in the place where the plant is exposed should not stagnate.

For garden abutilones, it is very important to choose a loose, high-quality, permeable and nutritious soil. Both the potted substrate and the soil on the flower garden should be light, nutritious, but at the same time, moisture-consuming. To improve the characteristics of the soil, you can add hydrogel or special loosening additives, compost.

Planting and transplanting plants is quite simple:

  1. Tubular and container abutilons are transplanted annually - into large containers with good drainage holes, at the very beginning of the active growth phase. For abutilones, the transshipment method is used.
  2. When dropping potted abutilones in the soil, planting pits are prepared according to the size of a container with a slightly greater depth, drainage is laid on the bottom, and then the container is simply installed in the pit.
  3. If abutilones are planted in open ground, then the plant is installed in large planting pits with drainage laid on the bottom (depth and diameter - about 50 cm).

The level of plant penetration is kept the same. Any planting is completed with watering and mulching. The best time to dig in and plant in the soil is May, mid or late month.

Garden abutilon (cable car)
Garden abutilon (cable car)

Caring for garden abutilones

Containerized abutilones are watered regularly, maintaining a stable average soil moisture and allowing the substrate to dry out in the upper layer before the next watering. The plant does not like drought, but the abutilons are watered very carefully. For buried or planted abutilones, irrigation is carried out, focusing on the weather and the rate of soil drying, mainly during periods of drought. In any case, abundant watering in summer and by autumn must be reduced to a minimum light humidity, so that the plant is ready for wintering in time, regardless of the method of its shelter.

Top dressing for garden plants is carried out only in spring and summer, stopping them at the end of summer, meaning the high-quality preparation of plants for wintering.

A prerequisite for growing any garden abutilones, even tubs, is soil mulching. Any plant materials with a layer of 5 cm or more stabilize the soil characteristics, protect the root system from overheating, simplify maintenance and eliminate the need for loosening and frequent watering. Also important is the function of protection from both return frost and autumn cold snaps.

Abutilon, like most exotic plants, will need regular removal of wilting flowers. This simple procedure allows you to maximize the flowering of garden abutilones.

The main pruning of abutilones is carried out only in early spring, at the very beginning of the active growing season. The pruning procedure must include two mandatory components:

  1. Sanitary cleaning. All thinned, unproductive, damaged or dry shoots are removed from the plant.
  2. Formation. Abutilone can be shaped as desired, contoured and dimensionally controlled.

During the season, the main pruning is complemented by the removal of damaged branches and pruning of overly elongated shoots. Usually, the degree of shortening of shoots is limited to 1 / 3-2 / 3 of their length.

Abutilon hybrid (Abutilon x hybridum)
Abutilon hybrid (Abutilon x hybridum)

Wintering of corinabutilones and container abutilones

Even corynabutilones or garden abutilones, including the best of the hybrid Santensa abutilones, with all the declared and advertised frost resistance, are able to withstand a maximum of 12 degrees of frost. Grape-leaved corynabutylones can withstand frosts up to a maximum of -5 degrees. If the adaptation is carried out correctly before they are taken out into the garden, then tubular garden abutilons will be able to withstand light returnable or first autumn frosts, especially with high-quality soil mulching. But they will not be able to winter in the soil.

It is possible to grow corinabutylones with light cover in the form of hilling without digging for the winter only in the southern regions. Abutilone Santens is especially promising for mild climates. In the middle lane, the most reliable wintering option for a plant is to dig it up and transfer it to containers with a cool content during the winter. If there is a collection of corinabutylones, then you can try to set aside one plant with an air-dry shelter with careful insulation.

The only difference is in the digging and the timing of the introduction for the winter. Ordinary tub abutilones, if they were adapted to cold snaps in the spring, can be carried away when the first frost is threatened, and the night temperature approaches 0.

Corinabutylons can be removed from the garden only after the first frost, leaving in the garden on much larger lines and focusing on the leaves of the plant. Abutilon Santens is the last to be carried out of the garden. Plants dug into the soil are carefully dug out, cutting off the roots that have sprouted through the drainage holes. The plants planted in the soil are dug out with a large earthen clod, and then the roots are shortened to the volume of the maximum available container or tub. If there are large containers, the roots can only be partially trimmed.

Plants need to be kept for several weeks in intermediate conditions - in quarantine or in a buffer zone. Removal of dry leaves, removal of dry inflorescences and sanitary pruning of damaged shoots before wintering are mandatory, as is the removal of contaminated topsoil.

Kadkovy abutilons should overwinter in a bright room with minimal watering that only maintains the viability of the rhizomes, without top dressing. The air temperature plays a key role: the maximum allowable value for tubular abutilon is + 15 ° С, comfortable - from +10 to + 12 ° С.

Taking plants into the garden or for displaying on the terrace, for digging in or planting - all this requires an equally long adaptation. Plants gradually become accustomed to bright lighting, low temperatures and fresh air, taking them out for several hours on a balcony or in a garden on fine days.

The gradual lengthening of the period of stay in the fresh air allows the abutilones, by the time the air temperature at night settles at a stable warm mark (not lower than 5 degrees), to undergo sufficient hardening to completely move them to the garden. But even in the garden, abutilone is first exposed for several weeks in the "buffer zone", and then moved or planted to a permanent place.

Corynabutilones can be taken out to the garden first, already from the beginning of May. Kadkoy abutilones are usually moved to the garden only by mid-May. If they have been adapted correctly, garden abutilons will not be afraid of light age frosts.

Garden form of abutilon (cable car)
Garden form of abutilon (cable car)

Pest and disease control

When grown as a garden plant, the ropeway continues to be not the most resistant shrub. Whiteflies are very common on the leaves of the plant, and aphids spread throughout the plant with amazing speed.

At the first signs of plant infection, it is better to immediately start pest control with insecticides. For several years after infection, abutilones need to be sprayed 2-3 times per season for prevention purposes.

Prevention is the best strategy for growing garden abutilones. The risk of contamination of this delicate and pest-attracting plant is very high when kept outdoors. You can save yourself from most of the problems if you carry out preventive spraying with systemic insecticides before taking it out to the garden, as well as 1-2 times during the season.

Reproduction of garden abutilones

Similar to obtaining new generations of indoor maples, plants can be obtained both from seeds and by simple rooting of apical cuttings according to the standard technique (under a hood, in a warm and light soil). Variegated varieties are propagated only vegetatively.

If you have abutilon growing in your garden, share your experience of growing it in the comments to the article. Our readers will be very grateful to you.

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