Bumblebee. Pollinators. Beneficial Insects. Breeding. House For Bumblebees. A Photo

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Bumblebee. Pollinators. Beneficial Insects. Breeding. House For Bumblebees. A Photo
Bumblebee. Pollinators. Beneficial Insects. Breeding. House For Bumblebees. A Photo

Video: Bumblebee. Pollinators. Beneficial Insects. Breeding. House For Bumblebees. A Photo

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Video: A home fit for a bumblebee 2023, January
Anonim

Not only bees, but also bumblebees can collect nectar and receive honey, they feed their offspring with them, however, bumblebees do not make honey reserves for the winter. After all, bumblebees live only one summer, only one uterus can winter. In the spring, she wakes up and searches the surroundings in search of a suitable nest. It can be arranged anywhere: in the old hollow of a woodpecker or squirrel, in the burrow of a mouse or hedgehog. The main thing is that the “room” must be closed so that a certain temperature remains inside.

Bumblebee (Bumblebee)
Bumblebee (Bumblebee)

© Polinizador

Studies have shown that bumblebees play a huge role in pollination of various plants in the advancement of agriculture to the north. The fact is that bumblebees are one of the most cold-resistant insects, well adapted to life in the harsh conditions of the north, where other pollinators either cannot live or fly for a short time. Bumblebees reach the north to Greenland, Novaya Zemlya, Chukotka and Alaska. Such an unusual cold resistance of these insects is associated with the peculiarities of the thermoregulation of their body. It is generally accepted that insects are cold-blooded animalswhose body temperature does not differ from the ambient temperature. But when they began to measure the body temperature of various insects on Elbrus and in the Khibiny, it turned out that the body temperature of bumblebees is on average 40 ° C and can exceed the ambient temperature by 20 - 30 °. This heating is caused by the work of the pectoral muscles. As soon as the insect stops moving, it begins to cool down. However, if it begins to "hum", that is, to quickly contract the muscles of the chest without moving the wings, then the temperature decrease stops or it starts to rise slowly. Thanks to this feature, bumblebees maintain a temperature of about 30-35 ° C in the nest. It has long been noticed that a "trumpeter" appears in the bumblebee nests before dawn, who, as it was believed, raises his fellow tribesmen to work with a hum. But it turned out that he was just shivering from the cold.Indeed, in the pre-morning hours, the temperature at the soil surface drops dramatically (the buzz was just observed at 3-4 in the morning, and as you know, these are the coldest hours). The nest cools down and, in order to warm it, bumblebees have to work hard with their pectoral muscles. On hot days, you can see a bumblebee at the entrance to the nest, which flutters its wings. He is engaged in ventilation of the nest. In addition to the constant state of vibration (tension and relaxation of muscles), the hairs covering its head, neck and abdomen help the bumblebee to maintain body temperature. The ability to maintain a high body temperature allowed bumblebees to penetrate far to the North. But she does not allow them to live in the tropics. About 300 species of bumblebees live in Northern Eurasia, North America and the mountains. And only two species are found in tropical regions of Brazil.

Bumblebee (Bumblebee)
Bumblebee (Bumblebee)

© Vera Buhl

Bumblebees are great pollinators… Thanks to their long proboscis, they can extract nectar even from flowers with narrow corollas, thereby collecting pollen from plants inaccessible to other insects. When Europeans moved to South Australia and New Zealand, whose climates resemble those of Europe, they tried to grow red clover for livestock. He gave rich mows, bloomed beautifully, but there were no seeds. It turned out that neither Australia nor New Zealand have bumblebees that pollinate this plant in Europe and North America. When two species of bumblebees were brought here from Europe and they acclimatized, clover began to give rich harvests of seeds. Nowadays bumblebees are considered to be the best pollinators of this valuable forage plant. For this purpose, they are artificially bred and settled on clovers.Great success in the artificial breeding of bumblebees was achieved in Russia thanks to the work of the amateur entomologist G.S.Voveikov. Tests of the "bumblebees" created by him on the experimental plot showed that the yield of red clover seeds increased by 71% in comparison with the control. Bumblebees collect not only nectar, but also pollen from plants. Bumblebees are helped to bring this delicacy to the nest by special devices that are located on their hind legs. This is a paired apparatus consisting of "brushes" and "baskets". But pollen falls not only into special depressions on the paws. Sometimes dust particles linger on the abdomen, and then are transferred to another flower. Bumblebees are able to collect pollen and nectar from plants very, very quickly. Biologists have calculated that only one field bumblebee, during a flight lasting 100 minutes, visits 2,634 flowers.S. Voveikova. Tests of the "bumblebees" created by him on the experimental plot showed that the yield of red clover seeds increased by 71% in comparison with the control. Bumblebees collect not only nectar, but also pollen from plants. Bumblebees are helped to bring this delicacy to the nest by special devices that are located on their hind legs. This is a paired apparatus consisting of "brushes" and "baskets". But the pollen falls not only into special depressions on the paws. Sometimes dust particles linger on the abdomen, and then are transferred to another flower. Bumblebees are able to collect pollen and nectar from plants very, very quickly. Biologists have calculated that only one field bumblebee, during a flight lasting 100 minutes, visits 2,634 flowers.S. Voveikova. Tests of the "bumblebees" created by him on the experimental plot showed that the yield of red clover seeds increased by 71% in comparison with the control. Bumblebees collect not only nectar, but also pollen from plants. Bumblebees are helped to bring this delicacy to the nest by special devices that are located on their hind legs. This is a paired apparatus consisting of "brushes" and "baskets". But the pollen falls not only into special depressions on the paws. Sometimes dust particles linger on the abdomen, and then are transferred to another flower. Bumblebees are able to collect pollen and nectar from plants very, very quickly. Biologists have calculated that only one field bumblebee, during a flight lasting 100 minutes, visits 2,634 flowers.that the yield of red clover seeds increased by 71% compared to control. Bumblebees collect not only nectar, but also pollen from plants. Bumblebees are helped to bring this delicacy to the nest by special devices that are located on their hind legs. This is a paired apparatus consisting of "brushes" and "baskets". But pollen falls not only into special depressions on the paws. Sometimes dust particles linger on the abdomen, and then are transferred to another flower. Bumblebees are able to collect pollen and nectar from plants very, very quickly. Biologists have calculated that only one field bumblebee, during a flight lasting 100 minutes, visits 2,634 flowers.that the yield of red clover seeds increased by 71% compared to control. Bumblebees collect not only nectar, but also pollen from plants. Bumblebees are helped to bring this delicacy to the nest by special devices that are located on their hind legs. This is a paired apparatus consisting of "brushes" and "baskets". But pollen falls not only into special depressions on the paws. Sometimes dust particles linger on the abdomen, and then are transferred to another flower. Bumblebees are able to collect pollen and nectar from plants very, very quickly. Biologists have calculated that only one field bumblebee, during a flight lasting 100 minutes, visits 2,634 flowers.consisting of "brushes" and "baskets". But pollen falls not only into special depressions on the paws. Sometimes dust particles linger on the abdomen, and then are transferred to another flower. Bumblebees are able to collect pollen and nectar from plants very, very quickly. Biologists have calculated that only one field bumblebee, during a flight lasting 100 minutes, visits 2,634 flowers.consisting of "brushes" and "baskets". But pollen falls not only into special depressions on the paws. Sometimes dust particles linger on the abdomen, and then are transferred to another flower. Bumblebees are able to collect pollen and nectar from plants very, very quickly. Biologists have calculated that only one field bumblebee, during a flight lasting 100 minutes, visits 2,634 flowers.

Bumblebee nesting entrance
Bumblebee nesting entrance

Bumblebees work flawlessly in any weather, and thanks to additional pollination, the yield, for example, of tomatoes, increases by a third. Bumblebees fly from dawn to evening. Most intensively before lunch. They don't care about light rain. Caring for offspring is above all. On bad days, the female only needs one flight to provide the brood with food and heat it for an hour. But in May, when there are heavy prolonged rains for 3 - 4 days, the brood may die. Not from the cold, but because of the lack of food.

Garden bumblebees do not fly to the surrounding fields and justly take bribes from garden plants. If bumblebees choose your greenhouse as an apiary, then even in the heat there will not be a single barren flower on tomato bushes. Also in the cucumber rows. Already at dawn, bumblebees will collect nectar and pollen, pollinating flowers until the onset of 32 - 36 degrees heat, when pollination is already useless. Bumblebees, unlike bees, are better oriented in the greenhouse and do not beat against the film and glass.

It is good when there are many annual and perennial flowers on the site. They are not only pleasing to the eye, but they are essential food for bumblebees, bees, entomophages like hoverflies, lacewings, predators and parasites of harmful insects. There should be enough spring nectar plants near bumblebee nesting sites: heather, daffodil, primrose, crocus. Goat willow is of great importance for bumblebees - the main source of pollen in spring. The presence of late flowering plants allows females preparing for a long winter to create the necessary reserves in their bodies. Pay attention in autumn to late honey plants - you can see male bumblebees on them. They can be taken with bare hands - males have no sting. And the perfumery smell is well felt, attracting females.

Bumblebee house
Bumblebee house

© citylovesyou_ffm

In recent years, there are fewer bumblebees in the summer cottages. Perhaps one of the reasons is that in April-May, in search of nesting sites, they penetrate through cracks into buildings, from which they cannot find a way back, and die at closed windows after 2-3 days, not having the reserves necessary in the body after wintering food. So it turns out that light, but full of holes in the country houses, turn into traps for these noble insects.

Another reason for the death of bumblebees is the improper use of pesticides. You can not spray insecticides on flowering plants, as well as during the day, especially during hot hours, without isolating the flowering crops with a film. It is better to carry out processing late in the evening.

Despite their relatively large size, bumblebees are very peaceful and do not sting very much. Therefore, their pupae, cocoons and larvae often become a tasty dish for foxes, badgers, voles and other rodents. Bumblebees have another terrible enemy. If we compare it with the bumblebee itself, it turns out that the offender is several times smaller, but he takes not by force, but by quantity. It can be found in any forest, in any meadow. This is an ant. Ants are not averse to tasting bumblebee honey, as well as eating fattened larvae. Therefore, so that the ants do not accidentally stumble upon the nest, bumblebees remove all the blades of grass and twigs around the nest.

Bumblebee
Bumblebee

© Vera Buhl

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Each summer resident can attract bumblebees to his site. It is enough to insulate a part of the wall of the utility room from the inside, approximately 1 x 1-1.5 m in area with straw, moss, dry leaves, cover everything with roofing material, hardboard. Drill from the outside two holes with a diameter of 1 -2.5 cm for the taphole, build a canopy over it, nailing a bar.

You can also make a hive house. Which, after a bumblebee family has lived in it for one season, needs to be burned, it is not suitable for further use, since many parasites remain in the nest. In extreme cases, the house must be cleaned and scalded with boiling water.

Sometimes a bumblebee house can be a piece of asbestos-cement pipe, closed on both sides, with a hole as a taphole; a flower pot and even a birdhouse. Inside, the nest is half filled with soft tow or cotton wool. The opening in the bumblebee nest from the rain is covered by a piece of wooden plank placed on the stones at the edges. Also place a stone or brick on top so that neither the wind nor the animals can move the bar.

Bumblebee (Bumblebee)
Bumblebee (Bumblebee)

© pjt56

A hive house from a flower pot is the simplest nesting place for bumblebees and do not despair if the bumblebees do not inhabit it. Even among the scientist-entomologist V. Grebennikov, who was professionally engaged in bumblebee breeding, they populated no more than half of the artificial nests, which is considered very successful. You will need patience. If the house was not inhabited by the end of July, store it in the barn until next season. A hive house for bumblebees should be left in the garden from April to the end of July every year, until a bumblebee family appears in it.

For the purposeful artificial breeding of bumblebees, there is an option of a plastic two-room nesting hive house from the Oxford Bee Company (Oxford Bee Company).

Note: You can put more cotton in it to keep warm.

Bumblebee (Bumblebee)
Bumblebee (Bumblebee)

© kallerna

The location of the hive house for bumblebees will be prompted by female bumblebees looking for a place to nest in April-May-June. This can be any cozy, not damp corner of the garden. Bumblebees are not aggressive and get used to the close proximity of humans. The only thing is to protect the hive from ants, which can enter the house not through the tunnel, but through the cracks in the walls.

Place bumblebee houses in the garden every year and hope for the best.

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