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Video: Rose Pests And Diseases. Means Of Protection. Treatment, Treatment, Prevention. Description And Photo
2023 Author: Ava Durham | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 07:13
Diseases and pests cause severe damage to roses, and sometimes lead to their death. Therefore, the fight against pathogens and pests should be given exceptional attention. Timely and correct implementation of agricultural techniques and protective measures is the basis of preventive plant protection. In this article, we tried to collect information about all the most common diseases and pests of roses and, of course, provided the reader with a complete list of the arsenal for dealing with them.
- Rose pests
- Diseases of roses
- Preparation of spray solutions
- Folk remedies for rose protection
The most dangerous pests are during the growing season of roses, when buds, leaves, shoots and flowers develop on the bushes, serving as food for larvae or adult insects. At this time, plants are especially in need of protection.
Among the gnawing pests for roses, the most dangerous are beetles, caterpillars and sawfly larvae. They violate the integrity of the organs, slowing down the growth and development of the bushes, reducing flowering. Damage by gnawing insects is reduced to the following: rough or perforated eating of the pulp, leaving the veins intact;
- curly eating of leaves from the edges;
- mining, that is, eating inside the tissues of leaves of passages;
- gnawing passages in the stems;
- damage to buds and flowers outside;
- destruction of stamens and pistils.
The mouth organs of sucking pests are adapted to suck out liquid food. They pierce tissue and suck out cell sap, disrupting physiological processes. From such damage, the leaves turn yellow, curl, dry out and die off. The most common sucking pests of roses include ticks, aphids, scale insects, cicadas (rose whiteflies). The listed pests can appear both in open and protected ground.
It settles on rose bushes in large colonies, located on the underside of the leaves, on the stems of young shoots, buds and peduncles. Aphid larvae are very small, barely visible to the eye. They quickly turn into wingless large founding females, which hatch at once about a hundred larvae, the latter, in turn, are capable of giving new offspring in eight to ten days. Only ten or more generations a year.
According to the Swiss rose grower S. Olbricht, the generation of one aphid during the growing season can give about two million individuals. By the end of summer, winged forms of aphids appear - males and females. They lay fertilized overwintering eggs, from which new aphid colonies emerge in early spring.
Sucking the juice from the young organs of roses, insects grow and multiply rapidly. Bushes weakened by aphids grow poorly, shoots are often bent, leaves curl and crumble, and the buds do not open or give ugly flowers. Roses weakened by aphids do not tolerate wintering conditions worse.
The appearance of aphids on roses can be judged by the increased activity of ants in the rose garden, which drink the sweet juice secreted by aphids. Ants protect the colonies of aphids and even organize new colonies, transferring the founding females to places not yet inhabited by pests. Aphids are readily eaten by seven-spotted ladybugs. One of them can eat up to 270 aphid larvae per day.
Aphid control measures on a rose: treatment in early spring before the buds swell with contact insecticides. Later, one of the following insecticides is used: actellic, antio, karbofos, metathion, rogor and others.
Spraying with a solution: 2 g of kerosene per 10 liters of water.
An infusion of the following composition is also effective: 300 g of chopped onion or garlic and 400 g of tomato leaves are placed in a three-liter jar. The latter is filled with water and placed in a warm place for 6 hours to infuse. After that, the infusion is mixed well, filtered through cheesecloth or a fine mesh, and in a large bowl, bring the volume to 10 liters with water.
To make the infusion adhere well to the leaves and shoots, add 40 g of 72% soap, but better - liquid green. Bushes are treated with this infusion every seven days in five repetitions. It can also be used against ticks, copperheads, sawflies, caterpillars.
It is widespread and very harmful to the culture. The leaves become covered with small white dots, become like marble and lose their decorative effect. Severe damage from leafhoppers leads to premature yellowing and leaf fall. In autumn, the female lays eggs at the ends of the shoots of roses. In the spring, larvae emerge from overwintered eggs (they can be seen on the underside of the leaves). These are white, small, inactive larvae that feed on leaf juice. The body of the leafhopper is white or pale yellow, elongated. Adults are very mobile. At the slightest touch to the sheet, they quickly jump and fly to another place. Two or three generations develop a year.
Control measures against rose leafhoppers: control of leafhoppers is most effective during the mass appearance of larvae. It is recommended to carry out two treatments with insecticides at intervals of 10-12 days with the capture of the territory adjacent to the plantings.
Slobbery penny, or omnivorous leafhopper
The body of an adult insect is yellow-gray. The larvae live in their foamy secretions in the form of salivary foam, sucking the juice from the stems. They are located in the axils of the leaves and on their lower side. When touching the leaves infested by the pest, the larvae quickly jump out of the foam and hide.
Measures to control the drooling penny: spraying with insecticides.
Spider mite on a rose
One of the most dangerous pests of roses, especially in greenhouses, where it can grow all year round. Adult ticks have four pairs of legs, their body is oval, 0.3-0.5 mm long, greenish-yellow in color with black spots on the back. Winter body coloration is orange or red. The larvae are greenish with three pairs of legs. The eggs are small, up to 1 mm in diameter, round, transparent, located under a thin web. One female lays up to 180 eggs. After five to seven days, larvae emerge from the eggs. The entire developmental cycle of a tick is 10-25 days. An adult tick lives for 18-35 days.
Both adult mites and their larvae damage the leaves of roses from the underside, causing a sharp disruption of physiological functions and metabolism. The pests suck the juice from the leaves, the affected leaves turn yellow, become covered with small light spots at the injection sites and fall off prematurely. Cobwebs and excrement secreted by pests pollute the leaves, a lot of dust is retained on the latter. As a result, roses lose their decorative effect.
Females hibernate, mainly under plant remains, in greenhouses - under lumps of soil and in other secluded places. In spring, at an air temperature of 12-13 ° C, females lay barely noticeable transparent creamy eggs on the underside of the leaves. In winter greenhouses, ticks live and multiply constantly.
Often, inexperienced rose growers complain about the yellowness of the leaves of roses, attributing various diseases to the plants (chlorosis, etc.). In fact, this is the work of spider mites. You can find them with a magnifying glass.
Measures to combat spider mites on a rose: spraying plants with acrex at a concentration of 0.08% or isophene - 0.05, omite - 0.1% and other acaricides. The development of mites is inhibited by spraying the lower surface of the leaves with cold water 3-4 times a day.
In greenhouses, the most harmless are preparations of the avermectin group: Aktofit, Fitoverm, Vermitek. These drugs do not act on eggs and tick larvae and protonymphs that do not feed, expect to molt. At a temperature of + 20 ° C, at least 3 treatments are required with an interval of 9-10 days. At + 30 ° C 3-4 treatments with an interval of 3-4 days.
Caterpillars of three types of rose leaf rollers and a fruit roller do great harm to the leaves and young shoots of roses. The first caterpillars appear in early spring, damaging barely blossoming buds, then young shoots and leaves.
Measures to combat leafworms on a rose: with a small dispersal of leafworms, caterpillars are collected by hand and destroyed. In the spring, before bud break, the bushes are sprayed with one of the pesticides.
There are two types: the white-belted sawfly and the descending sawfly. The most common is the downward sawfly. False caterpillars, or sawfly larvae, hibernate in cocoons in the soil. In the spring they pupate, and adult insects fly out of the pupae. The length of an adult insect is up to 6 mm, its back is shiny, black, wings are darkish, legs are black, tibiae are yellowish. The sawfly is somewhat similar in structure to a bee. Females lay eggs one at a time on the tops of young shoots. Coming out of the eggs, the caterpillars bite into the young shoot, make a stroke up to 4 cm long inside it (from top to bottom), and develop there. The damaged shoot darkens and dries up. In autumn, the caterpillars descend into the soil for the winter.
Measures to combat sawflies on roses: in the fall, they dig up the soil under the bushes so that the caterpillars are on the surface and freeze in winter. Against hatching caterpillars, plants are sprayed with one of the pesticides. Pruning and burning of inhabited shoots is performed before the larvae emerge from them.
Bronze and deer
Bronze beetles are golden-green above with sparse hairs, copper-red below. Their body length is 15-20 mm. Beetles fly from May to August. Females lay eggs in humus-rich soil, in manure. At the end of summer, the larvae pupate in the soil, beetles emerge from them, which hibernate there, and fly out next summer. Fawn - black beetles, densely covered with grayish hairs with white spots, the body length of the beetle is 8-12 mm.
Both beetles eat the petals of rose flowers, eat out stamens and pistils. Flowers of light colors suffer more from them.
Control measures: collect beetles early in the morning when they sit motionless on flowers.
Diseases of roses
Under unfavorable conditions (lack of light, moisture, mineral nutrition, or excess nitrogen fertilizers), roses weaken. At the same time, the resistance of plants to many diseases and to colonization by pests decreases. Sometimes roses are oppressed to such an extent that they die. Sources of infection with fungal diseases can be stems and leaves left on the site after the removal of dead bushes.
Young actively growing shoots and leaves are more often sick. At air humidity below 60% and a temperature of 17-18 ° C, powdery mildew is almost not manifested. On the surface of leaves, stems, buds and thorns, a powdery coating of white, ash or grayish color is formed. At first, the plaque is weak, appears in the form of separate spots, but gradually it grows and forms a solid mass over the surface of the affected area. As a result of the disease, tissues are destroyed and a number of physiological processes in roses are disrupted, leaves curl, young sections of shoots die off prematurely.
Measures to combat powdery mildew on a rose: autumn pruning of affected shoots, collection and burning of fallen leaves. Digging the soil with the circulation of the layer - while the pathogens die from a lack of air in the soil. In autumn or early spring (before bud break), after pruning the affected shoots and harvesting fallen leaves, they are sprayed with solutions: 3% iron sulfate with 0.3% potassium sulfate or 3% copper sulfate.
During the growing season, excluding the flowering time, they are regularly (after seven to ten days) sprayed with other preparations approved for use in individual farms. For example, with a copper-soap solution: dissolve 200-300 g of liquid green soap (or 72% household soap) in 9 liters of soft water (preferably rainwater); Dissolve 20-30 g of copper sulfate in 1 liter of water; quickly stirring the soap solution, pour a solution of copper sulfate into it with a small stream. The solution is ready for use.
For spraying use a 1% suspension of colloidal sulfur. Sulfur has a stimulating effect on the growth and development of roses, especially on alkaline soils. This is apparently due to its oxidation and the subsequent increase in water-soluble reserves of nutrients in the soil. Unilateral nitrogen application increases the development of the disease. Top dressing with potash fertilizers increases the resistance of roses to powdery mildew. With a strong development of the disease, you can spray the plants with soda ash (50 g per 10 l of water).
In addition, in autumn and spring, the soil around the rose bushes is sprinkled with wood ash (100-120 g per 1 m²) and lightly embedded in the surface layer. Once every seven days in the evening, spray with a five-day infusion of ash (200 g per 10 L of water) and mullein (1 kg per 10 L of water). The microelements found in ash and slurry, bacteria destroy the mycelium of the pathogen of powdery mildew and contribute to the healing of roses. Thus, a biological method of control and foliar feeding is carried out. Spraying is repeated until the signs of the disease disappear.
Black spot (Marsonina)
This is a fungal disease that manifests itself as a black-brown spot on the leaves of roses. Usually, signs of the disease become visible in the second half of the summer. Dark brown radiant spots of various sizes are formed on the leaves, petioles and stipules. With severe infection, the entire leaf darkens, the leaves dry up and fall off. Mycelium and spores overwinter on shoots and leaves.
Measures to combat rose black spot: collecting and burning diseased leaves, pruning and burning diseased shoots, digging the soil with a turnover, autumn or early spring spraying of roses and soil before bud break with one of the permitted preparations.
In spring, an orange dusty mass of spores appears on the stems near the blossoming leaves and the root collar. In summer, small orange-yellow sporulation pads are visible on the underside of the leaves. The disease of roses with rust is more pronounced in years with warm and humid springs. As a result, the functions of vegetative organs are disrupted: transpiration increases, photosynthesis decreases, breathing becomes difficult and metabolism is disrupted. With the development of rust, plants are suppressed, the leaves dry out, the stems, shoots and flowers are deformed.
Measures to combat rust on a rose: pruning affected shoots, collecting leaves and burning them, digging the soil, spraying roses before sheltering for the winter with Bordeaux liquid or iron vitriol. During the growing season, it is treated with a copper-soap solution.
It manifests itself in whitening or yellowing of leaves. The main reasons are the lack of iron, manganese, zinc, magnesium, boron and other elements in the soil. For example, with a lack of iron (usually on calcareous soils), the so-called calcareous form of chlorosis develops. At the same time, the chlorotic color spreads almost throughout the leaf, except for the veins. First, the youngest are affected - the apical leaves. If the disease progresses, small veins also become discolored. The leaf becomes almost white or white with a cream shade. Subsequently, its tissues die off, the leaf falls off.
With a lack of zinc, chlorosis spreads along the entire edge of the leaf and to the tissues between the large lateral veins. Along the central and lateral veins, the leaf retains its green color. At the base of the veins, the green areas of the leaf are wider.
With a lack of magnesium, the lower leaves turn yellow and die off, the veins remain green, the edges of the leaves curl. Boron deficiency manifests itself in the light color of young leaves, they become thickened and brittle. Young growing parts are ill, the ends of shoots (growth points) die off. Even with a slight excess of alkali, the leaves of roses begin to chlorosis, especially in late autumn and winter.
Rose chlorosis control measures: determine the cause of the disease as a result of soil or plant analysis. Salts of the appropriate nutrients are added to the soil in prescribed doses.
Downy mildew, downy mildew
One of the dangerous diseases of roses, especially rose hips. At the onset of the disease, brown drying spots appear on the upper side of the leaves, and a grayish, barely noticeable bloom of fungal sporulation on the lower side. Over time, brown spots turn reddish-brown, gray ones gradually turn yellow, then turn brown. The affected tissues die off, the leaves fall off.
The disease develops especially strongly in rainy and hot seasons.
Measures to combat rose peronosporosis: to prevent the disease with the onset of hot and rainy days, the bushes are sprayed with fungicides.
Preparation of spray solutions
For amateur flower growers, copper-soap solution and lime-sulfuric broth are not always successful. To prepare the drug with high quality, the following technique is carefully observed.
For a copper-soap solution, take only warm soft water, preferably rainwater. If not, add 5 g of soda ash or 2 g of dry mustard per 10 liters of water to soften the water. The solution should not be stored for more than 5 hours - it quickly deteriorates. The solution is prepared at the time of use in a wooden or enamel bowl.
In nine liters of hot (50-60 ° C) water, 300 g of liquid green soap is dissolved, in the absence of it, 72% household soap is used. Then, 30 g of copper sulfate are dissolved in 1 liter of hot water.
In a hot state, a solution of copper sulfate is poured into a soapy stream in a thin stream. The place of contact of the solutions is immediately shaken quickly or the liquid is stirred with a wooden stick. The solution turns blue. Before spraying, the preparation is cooled to 20-25 ° C. If flakes fall out in the liquid, the solution cannot be used.
The lime-sulfuric broth is prepared as follows. For 17 liters of water, take 2 liters of ground sulfur and 1 liter of good-quality quicklime (or 1.5 liters of slaked lime). Lime is slaked in a small amount of water, without bringing it to a violent boil. When the lime heats up, add sulfur to it and, stirring thoroughly, add the rest of the water. The mixture is boiled over a fire for about 50 minutes from the moment it boils, until it turns cherry red.
During boiling, add water to the original volume. Stop adding 15 minutes before the end of cooking. The finished broth is cooled, defended and filtered through a canvas into glass, earthenware or enamel dishes. The strength of the broth is determined by a hydrometer. Usually its density is 1.152-1.162 g / cm3 (10-20 ° according to Baume).
For spraying plants, take 180-220 g of the finished broth (concentrate) per 10 liters of water. Two to three days before the start of treatment, a test spraying of one or two rose bushes is done. In the absence of burns on the plants, the solution can be used for spraying. In case of burns on the bushes, lime should be added to the solution. Store the broth in a well-sealed container in a cool dark place.
To prepare 10 liters of 1% Bordeaux liquid, you need to take 100 g of copper sulfate and 100 g of quicklime or 150 g of slaked lime. In one glass, earthenware, enamel or wooden dish, lime is quenched or diluted (milk of lime is obtained), in another - copper sulfate is diluted. Then slowly, in a thin stream, with rapid stirring, the solution of copper sulfate is poured into the solution of milk of lime. The resulting mixture is called Bordeaux liquid.
You can determine its suitability for processing as follows: a knife or a nail cleaned from dirt and rust to a shine is dipped into the prepared solution. If the iron object removed from the solution is covered with copper, then lime must be added to the Bordeaux liquid until the plaque stops forming. To prepare a 3% Bordeaux liquid, the amount of quicklime is respectively increased to 300 g, copper sulfate - also to 300 g.
Folk remedies for rose protection
Since ancient times, people have used original ways to combat pests and diseases of roses in their gardens. Used these methods and well-known rose growers. NI Kichunov, in the fight against various kinds of insect pests, sprayed roses with tobacco broth (makhorka), aloe extract, kerosene, etc. IV Michurin used milkweed juice or a water extract of its juice to protect roses from rust.
Rose Disease Remedies
From powdery mildew, roses are sprayed with infusion of mullein and ash. Dilute 1 kg of fresh cow dung and 200 g of ash in 10 liters of water, stirring occasionally. Insist for seven days in a warm place, filter through cheesecloth, and the infusion is ready for use. Spraying with infusion of ash and mullein is carried out with the appearance of the first signs of the disease. If the symptoms of powdery mildew do not disappear three to four days after spraying, the spraying is repeated. Further infusion treatments are best alternated with fungicide treatments.
When rust develops, diseased bushes are often burned so that the disease does not spread throughout the entire area. Infusion of milkweed can save roses from rust. IV Michurin did the following: he broke off a part of the milkweed stalk and rubbed the area of the plant affected by rust with the end with a protruding drop of milky juice. The operation was repeated two or three times a day.
If the disease appeared immediately on a large number of bushes, then the following is done. For 10 liters of warm water, take 1.5 kg of milkweed stalks, after crushing them in a meat grinder or in another way, insist in a warm place for one day. The concentrated aqueous juice extract is drained and used for spraying. The disease usually resolves after the second spray.
In the state farm "Decorative Cultures" in Kabardino-Balkaria, a case was noted when a rosehip intended for budding turned out to be infected with rust. The question was about the inevitable rejection of the entire stock. At the suggestion of IP Kovtunenko, the rosehip was cut in half and sprayed with a 3% solution of spindle oil. Some time after processing, the stock turned green and in the same year it was budded. The roses grown on it were healthy.
Rose pest remedies
400 g of makhorka or waste from tobacco production is boiled for 30 minutes in 9 liters of water. The broth is insisted in a warm place for two days, filtered through two layers of gauze and a canvas to avoid clogging the sprayer nozzle. Dissolve 40 g of soap, preferably green, in 1 liter of water and mix with a decoction of shag. The composition is ready for spraying.
Pass 300 g of chopped onion or garlic and 400 g of fresh tomato leaves through a meat grinder, insist in 3 liters of water for 5-6 hours. Filter the infusion. Bring its volume in a large bowl to 10 liters with water, add 40 g of soap. The composition is ready for spraying.
Grind 200 g of dry or 600 g of fresh hot pepper. 2 liters of water are poured into an enamel bowl, cooked pepper is added there, boiled over low heat for 1 hour. The broth is infused for two days. Pieces of pepper in the broth are pounded, the broth is drained, the plant particles are squeezed out. The solution is filtered, brought to 2 liters with water. Pour 1 liter of pepper decoction into 10 liters of water, add 40 g of diluted soap there. The composition is ready for spraying.
Pour 1 kg of dry yarrow leaf or 1.5 kg of dry leaf and wormwood in 10 liters of warm water. Insist in a dark warm place for two days, filter. Before spraying, 40 g of diluted soap is added to the infusion.
Add 200 g of freshly crushed horse sorrel roots in 10 liters of warm water, insist for 2 hours in a warm place. Add 40 g of green soap before spraying. The composition is ready for processing plants.
Insist 500 g of dried dope plant in 10 liters of water for 12 hours. Before spraying, add 40 g of soap.
Yu. M. Kara against spider mites uses:
- 2% solutions of a concentrated solution of tobacco, fern leaves, calendula seeds, onion scales;
- 3% - onion bulbs;
- 8% - yarrow and marigold leaves;
- 15% - wormwood;
- 20% - tops of potatoes and leaves of tradescantia;
- 25% infusion of bitter nightshade.
According to him, on the third day after treatment, the death of the pest is 71% of the infusion of onion bulbs, 76.8% - from onion scales, 81.8% - from wormwood, 83.6% - from calendula, 84.6% - from potato tops, 87.5% - from tradescantia, 88.5% - from fern, 96% - from yarrow, 96.1% - from marigolds, 98% - from nightshade, 100% - from tobacco infusion.
Used material: Sokolov N. I. - Roses.
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