Petunia Is The Queen Of The Flower Bed. Cultivation, Care, Reproduction, Planting. Diseases. Photo

Table of contents:

Petunia Is The Queen Of The Flower Bed. Cultivation, Care, Reproduction, Planting. Diseases. Photo
Petunia Is The Queen Of The Flower Bed. Cultivation, Care, Reproduction, Planting. Diseases. Photo

Video: Petunia Is The Queen Of The Flower Bed. Cultivation, Care, Reproduction, Planting. Diseases. Photo

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Know The Right Way to Grow & Care for Petunia Plant 2023, February
Anonim

Petunias are indispensable inhabitants of flower beds, flower beds, rabatoks, borders, vases, balconies and windows. They give bright fragrant cascades of flowers of all shades of the rainbow from early summer to frost; sometimes flowers completely cover foliage and shoots.

Petunia
Petunia

Petunia or petunia, Latin - Petunia from fr. petun - tobacco. A genus of herbaceous or semi-shrub plants of the Solanaceae family, with a height of 10 cm to 1 meter. Perennials used in cultivation as annuals. It comes from the tropical regions of South America, mainly Brazil, grows naturally in Paraguay, Bolivia, Argentina and Uruguay. One species of petunia, Petunia parviflora, is found in North America.

Petunia's stems are erect or creeping, densely branched. The leaves are arranged in the next order or opposite (upper), soft, whole. The stems and leaves are covered with simple and glandular hairs. Flowers are white, purple or reddish, solitary, terminal or axillary, on short peduncles, simple or double, regular or slightly irregular. The fruit is a bivalve capsule with very small seeds.

Petunias in hanging pots
Petunias in hanging pots

Conditions for petunias

Lighting: Petunia is light-requiring and thermophilic. Grows well in open, sunny places. Large-flowered petunias are more thermophilic than small-flowered ones; in damp cold weather they stop blooming.

Watering: Drought-resistant, however, in the absence of moisture for a long time requires watering. It tolerates strong soil moisture, but suffers from stagnant water.

Soil: Petunia prefers loamy or sandy loam soils, but can grow on any sufficiently fertile soil. It responds well to the introduction of humus or compost into the soil, but not fresh manure, since it contributes to the defeat of plants by fungal diseases. When preparing the soil for petunia in areas with acidic soils (pH less than 5.5), lime must be added. When digging the soil in spring, complex fertilizer is added to it.

Top dressing: 1 time in 2 weeks with mineral and organic fertilizers in spring and summer.

Growing petunias

Planting petunias with seeds

Petunia is propagated mainly by seeds. At home, growing petunia seedlings is complicated by a lack of light, so you need to take seeds with a large margin for sowing. The earlier the seeds are sown, the earlier the plants will bloom. If it is possible to give the seedlings illumination, then you can sow in February. Under normal conditions, it is optimal to sow in the second half of March. Another challenge associated with the size of petunia seeds is the soil in which they will be placed and keeping it at optimum moisture. For such seeds, you need a loose, light and nutritious soil. It is advisable to sift the top layer about 1 cm thick so that the seeds lay evenly on the soil.

Petunia seeds, mixed with dry sand, are poured onto well-shed water a day before sowing. Then it is sprayed, covered with glass and left at a temperature of 20 - 23 ° C. On days 5 - 7, tiny seedlings will appear that require special attention. Now they need to be sprayed daily and at least twice a day (morning and evening) turned to the light. At this moment, the seedlings need high humidity, but excess moisture in the soil causes their death from the "black leg". When the shoots of petunia grow up and the first leaf appears, the glass can be removed. If the seedlings begin to die, they need to be sprinkled with dry sand, watering should be reduced and sprinkled faster. In April, the seedlings of petunias are transferred to greenhouses. Planting in the ground in a permanent place is carried out after the end of spring frosts. Plant transplant is well tolerated.

Small-flowered petunia varieties bloom 70-75 days after sowing, large-flowered varieties bloom 10-15 days later.

Reproduction of petunia by cuttings

Varieties with double flowers, when propagated by seeds, give only 40-50% of terry plants, therefore they are more often propagated by cuttings cut from mother plants, which are kept in winter in light greenhouses at a temperature of 10-12 ° C, with moderate humidity and intensive ventilation. After rooting, the cuttings are transplanted into 9 cm pots.

Hanging basket with petunias
Hanging basket with petunias

Planting seedlings of petunias

Petunia is planted in open ground in central Russia in the second half of May. Despite the fact that this culture is very thermophilic, modern varieties and hybrids (especially from the multiflora group) can tolerate cold snaps to low positive temperatures and even small short-term frosts. In large cities, flowering petunia seedlings can be planted in flower beds, flowerpots and balconies in late April - early May.

It is better to plant petunia seedlings on cloudy days or in the evening, after watering the pots with plants well with water. The distance between plants depends on the variety and type of planting. For multi-flowered petunias in flower beds, it is 15-20 cm, for large-flowered petunias - 20-25 cm, for ampelous - 25-30 cm.

In balcony boxes, containers, vases, the distance between plants can be reduced by half. After planting the seedlings, it is watered (if the soil is not moist enough), and the soil around the plants is mulched with peat or humus. Mulching allows the soil to retain moisture longer and protects the plants from recurrent frosts.

Seedlings of petunias are planted in pots and containers rather tightly - about 70 plants per 1 m². Surfinia and other groups of ampelous (i.e., hanging, creeping) petunias, as well as calibrachoa, are usually cultivated in hanging baskets, balcony boxes and tall vases. In order to achieve lush growth and abundant flowering in these plants, they must be often watered and sprayed with water (in hot dry weather - 2-3 times a day), fed at least once a week, alternating root dressing with foliar (spraying by leaves). If growth and flowering are inhibited due to unfavorable weather conditions, treatment with growth stimulants ("Epin-Extra" or "Zircon") gives good results.

Flower bed with petunias
Flower bed with petunias

Petunia care

Large-flowered forms are more demanding on heat, moisture and nutritional conditions than small-flowered ones. Top dressing is the main condition for the abundant and prolonged flowering of petunias, therefore, the plants are fed regularly, starting a week after planting and until August with an interval of 7-10 days. Abundant flowering of petunias is provided by complete complex fertilizers, especially with a predominance of potassium. Very good results are obtained by feeding with organic fertilizers, including mullein infusion, as well as humic fertilizers. Regular feeding continues until the end of flowering.

More carefully you need to care for petunia plants planted in small containers: containers, pots, balcony boxes, especially in hanging baskets. The soil for them needs to be prepared nutritious, consisting of humus, peat, sod or leafy soil and sand. The percentage of these components can be different; the main thing is that the mixture is loose and at the same time moisture-consuming. To optimize its parameters, it is desirable to add perlite and hydrogel to the mixture. Lime is added to the mixture with high acidity. In addition, slowly dissolving complex mineral fertilizers must be added to the soil mixture for small containers. When filling boxes and containers with a mixture, drainage (gravel, expanded clay, etc.) must be poured onto the bottom with a layer of at least 5 cm.

The greatest harm to ornamental petunias is rain. In heavy summer rains, drops of water break the delicate petals, making flowers ugly, and plants sloppy. With prolonged long rains, plants can completely lose their decorative effect and stop blooming. Therefore, before the rain, it is advisable to move the pots and baskets with petunias under a shelter. Flowering petunia should also be watered carefully, under the root, being careful not to damage the flowers.

Ampel petunias and calibrachoa can suffer greatly from the wind, therefore baskets and flowerpots with them should be placed in places protected from the wind.

In many varieties of petunias, especially in large-flowered and double forms, wilted flowers can spoil the appearance. They are almost invisible in large arrays, but they are clearly visible in flowerpots, pots and in small flower beds near paths. To improve the decorativeness of plantings, such flowers are removed.

The use of petunias in garden design

The unique adaptability of petunias to various cultivation conditions, soils and climates, the simplicity of agricultural technology, the duration and brightness of flowering made it one of the favorite cultures of flower growers and gardeners. Currently, petunia occupies one of the first places in popularity among summer animals, and with the advent of new groups and hybrids, interest in it is increasing. The area of ​​its cultivation is huge - from the tropics to the Arctic and Alaska, its planting can be found on all continents, except, perhaps, Antarctica.

Flower bed with petunias
Flower bed with petunias

Such popularity of petunias has become a consequence and reason that significant efforts of geneticists, botanists and breeders around the world are aimed at creating more and more new varieties, hybrids and garden groups of petunias. Each of these groups is attractive in its own way and occupies a certain place in landscaping.

Traditionally, petunias are used to make flower beds, ridges and borders, and are planted on balconies. Modern hybrids, thanks to their powerful root system, grow well in containers with a limited volume (containers, pots, hanging baskets and vases). Terry varieties and hybrids are best planted in places protected from wind and heavy rain: on balconies, open verandas, loggias, in containers and at home. Fast-growing hybrids of ampel petunias allow you to close empty places in a mixborder or after harvesting bulbs.

Partners

All varieties of petunias are beautiful both on their own and in combination with other plants. In carpet plantings, they are planted next to ever-flowering begonias, lobularia, various decorative leaf crops: coleus, cineraria, irezine, etc. On flower beds, they look great next to most annuals, such as vervains, snapdragons, bracts gelichrisums, marigolds, cellosia, ageratums rudbeckia, levkoi and others, suitable in color and height for this variety.

In late spring - early summer, petunias look very impressive next to pansies, primroses, as well as bulbs - tulips, hyacinths, hazel grouses, and later - with irises and lilies. Near a reservoir and in a shady area, they will be a great company for hosts, daylilies, Virginia tradescantia and ornamental grasses.

In pots and containers, petunias and calibrachoa will be combined with zonal pelargonium, fuchsia, lobularia, petiolare gelichrizum, chlorophytum, balsam, sweet peas. In hanging baskets and window boxes, they can be planted with ampelous plants such as lobelia, ivy, zelenchuk, ivy budra, verbena, ivy pelargonium, etc.

Petunias
Petunias

Diseases and pests

Blackleg

Causative agents: soil-dwelling fungi from the genera Olpidium, Pythium, Rhizoctonict, mainly Pythium debaryanum and Rhizoctonia solani.

Symptoms: The root part of the stem becomes watery, darkens and decays. The plant lays down and dies. The mycelium of the fungus quickly spreads over the substrate in expanding, often even circles, affecting all new seedlings. Mushrooms infect seedlings from the first days of life. The disease is exceptional: in some cases, if you do not take any preventive and therapeutic measures, you can lose all the seedlings.

Conditions conducive to the spread of the disease: too thick crops, high soil and air humidity, high temperature (above 20 ° C), high soil acidity.

Preservation of pathogens (disease potential): in the soil and on plant debris.

Control measures: the main attention should be paid to prevention: do not thicken the crops, do not use too heavy or acidic substrate (the optimal level of soil acidity for petunias is pH 5.5-7), water moderately, avoid excess nitrogen fertilizers, remove diseased seedlings with part of the surrounding substrate. When preparing a substrate for seedlings, it is undesirable to use land from a vegetable garden or from a greenhouse, but if there is no other land, then it must be steamed, and then biological products containing antagonist soil microorganisms that compete with pathogens (Agat-25 K, Fito-sporin, Trichodermin, etc.). For preventive purposes, you can water the soil with sulfur preparations (Colloidal sulfur, Cumulus, "Tiovit Jet" - 40 g / 10 l of water).

When a "black leg" appears, it is necessary to spray the plants and water the soil with a suspension of preparations containing mancoceb, metalaxyl or oxadixil (Ridomil MC, Profit, Ridomil Gold MC, etc. - 20-25 g / 10 l of water).

Flowerbed and flowerpot with petunias
Flowerbed and flowerpot with petunias

Gray rot

Causative agent: Bothrytis cinerea imperfect mushroom. affecting many crops.

Symptoms: Light brown spots or rashes appear on the leaves, stems and flowers, which are then covered with a gray, fluffy bloom of fungal sporulation. The affected parts of the plant first wither and then rot, turning into a brownish mass with a gray bloom. Sometimes the fungus begins to develop in internodes, which leads to the death of the part of the plant located above the lesion site. If the damage is severe, the plant may die. The fungus infects petunia in any phase - from cotyledon leaves to seed ripening.

Conditions conducive to the spread of the disease: too dense crops and planting, high air humidity, low temperature (below 14 ° C), excess nitrogen fertilizers, lack of light. The fungus usually infects plant tissues through wounds; it is able to penetrate into the flower through the pistil.

Preservation of the pathogen: in the soil and on plant debris. The mushroom can also overwinter on wooden structures in greenhouses.

Control measures: preventive - excessive sowing and planting, excessive watering, too low temperatures should be avoided. The development of the disease stops at a high air temperature (25-27 ° C) and with a decrease in its humidity to 80% and below. It is necessary to regularly remove the affected parts of the plant and plant debris that serve as an additional source of infection, as well as increase the proportion of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers in dressings.

From the means of protection available to amateur flower growers, we can mention the biological product Integral (25 ml / 1 L of water), the chemical preparations Skor (2 ml / 10 L of water) and Maxim (2 ml / 1 L of water). However, all of these drugs are ineffective with a strong development of the disease.

White rot

Pathogen: Whetzelinia sclerotiorum marsupial (synonym - Sderotinia sclerotiorum).

Symptoms: the appearance of weeping brown spots, in humid conditions, covered with a white bloom of mycelium, The affected tissues soften and turn white. On the surface and inside the stem, a white mycelium forms, on which black sclerotia, the reproductive organs of the fungus, soon form. When sclerotia ripen, drops of liquid are formed on them, which strongly refracts light. Shoots located above the affected part die off. The fungus can damage all parts of the plant.

Conditions conducive to the spread of the disease: low temperature and high humidity. In addition, acidic soils, excessively dense plantings and untimely removal of affected plant parts contribute to this disease. Plants become infected through mechanical damage to tissues, but the fungus is able to penetrate inside and through the stomata, so it easily spreads through the flower garden on the hands and clothes of a person when caring for plants.

Preservation of the pathogen: in the soil and on plant debris in the form of sclerotia, which do not lose their viability for up to three years. Mycelium can also persist.

Control measures: deep digging and liming of the soil, adherence to proper agricultural practices, timely removal of affected plant parts. Good results are obtained by introducing the biological product Trichodermin into the wells when planting seedlings (2 g per well). When the first signs of the disease appear, treatment with biological (Integral - 5 ml / 1 l of water, Fitosporin-M - 4-5 g / 1 l of water) or chemical (Maxim - 2 ml / 1 l of water) preparations is necessary.

On especially valuable specimens, during initial infection, it is necessary to clean out the affected areas, and then sprinkle them with fluff lime or charcoal. It is advisable to sprinkle the soil around the plants with ash or crushed charcoal. These measures contain the development of the disease, but do not replace the treatment with chemical or biological products.

Petunias
Petunias

Wet rot

Causative agent: Rhizoctonia solani.

Symptoms: in the cotyledonous leaflet phase, the disease develops as a "black leg" (see above). From the picking stage to the end of the growing season, the pathogen causes decay of the root collar, while the leaves droop and wrinkle, acquiring a gray-green color with a lead tint. Oily light brown spots appear on the root collar, covered with a brown felt bloom of the fungus mycelium. Subsequently, small black sclerotia appear on the mycelium. Diseased plants lag behind in growth, turn yellow and wither. The fungus is capable of infecting a plant at any age.

Conditions conducive to the spread of the disease: planting too deep, and acidic and waterlogged soils. The pathogen is not picky about environmental conditions and can develop in the temperature range of 3-25 ° C, with soil moisture 40-100% and pH 4.5-8.

Preservation of the pathogen: in the form of sclerotia and mycelium in the soil (at a depth of 80 cm) up to 5-6 years. All this time, he is capable of infection.

Control measures: preventive - high agricultural technology and timely removal of diseased plants; bacterial (Integral - 5 ml / 1 l of water, Fitosporin-M - 4-5 g / 1 l of water) and mushroom (Trichodermin - 2 g of the drug per hole when planting seedlings) preparations. Suspensions of biological products are watered on seedlings and sown seeds are sprayed. In this case, a capsule of beneficial microorganisms is formed around the roots.

When a disease occurs, spraying with chemicals is necessary (Ridomil MC, Profit, Ridomil Gold MC - 20-25 g / 10 l of water).

Brown spot

Causative agent: Phyllosticta petuniae.

Symptoms: rusty-brown spots appear on the leaves, at first rounded, then oblong with concentric zones. Fruiting of the fungus is formed on the light part of the spots. Affected leaves wilt and dry out.

Conditions conducive to the spread of the disease: mechanical damage, high

air humidity.

Pathogen preservation: on fallen leaves.

Control measures: preventive - high agricultural technology. In order to prevent the disease, as well as when a disease occurs, spraying with copper-containing preparations can be carried out at intervals of 7-10 days (Cartocid - 50 g / 10 l of water, copper oxychloride - 40 g / 10 l of water, Oxyhom - 20 g / 10 l water, etc.).

Flowerbed-carpet of petunias
Flowerbed-carpet of petunias

Late blight

Causative agents: Phytophthora cryptogea and Phytophthora infestans.

Symptoms: The base of the stem turns brown and decays. The plant withers and subsequently dies. The defeat is possible at any age, however, more often the disease coincides in terms with late blight of tomatoes and potatoes, which is associated with the peculiarities of the biology of pathogens.

Conditions conducive to the spread of the disease: high air humidity, cold nights with abundant dew.

Preservation of the pathogen: in living wintering parts of plants that are carriers of the disease (for example, diseased tubers of potatoes planted in a vegetable garden). There is strong evidence that infection in soil and plant debris does not persist.

Control measures: during the period of growing seedlings, it is necessary to ventilate the greenhouse well and not thicken the crops. After planting seedlings in the ground, preventive treatments with copper-containing preparations can be carried out (Kartotsid - 50 g / 10 l of water, copper oxychloride - 40 g / 10 l of water, Oxyhom - 20 g / 10 l of water, etc.), but flowers are often damaged, which leads to a loss of decorative effect for several days. Preparations based on mancoceb, metalaxil or oxadixil (Ridomil MC, Profit, Ridomil Gold MC, etc. - 20-25 g / 10 l of water) act much softer.

In addition, they have not only a protective, but also a curative effect, therefore they can be used at a time when the signs of the disease have already appeared.

Petunia in a hanging planter
Petunia in a hanging planter

The unique adaptability of petunias to various cultivation conditions, soils and climates, the simplicity of agricultural technology, the duration and brightness of flowering made it one of the favorite cultures of flower growers and gardeners. Currently, petunia occupies one of the first places in popularity among summer animals, and with the advent of new groups and hybrids, interest in it is increasing. Looking forward to your advice!

Popular by topic