Gooseberry Is A Spiked Berry. Planting, Growing, Care. Photo

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Gooseberry Is A Spiked Berry. Planting, Growing, Care. Photo
Gooseberry Is A Spiked Berry. Planting, Growing, Care. Photo

Video: Gooseberry Is A Spiked Berry. Planting, Growing, Care. Photo

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Growing Gooseberries from Planting to Harvest 2023, January
Anonim

Who among us has not tasted this wonderful berry? And what kind of jam is made from gooseberries! It is one of the most common plants in our gardens and undoubtedly one of our favorites. Early classifications distinguished two genera: Currant (Ribes) and Gooseberry (Grossularia). In the more widespread monographs, only one genus Ribes is recognized. Cross-resemblance between different types of currant and gooseberry ultimately led to the concept of one genus. Everything a gardener needs to know about growing a gooseberry - planting, caring, reproduction - in this article.

Gooseberry
Gooseberry

Content:

  • Botanical description
  • Choosing a place for planting gooseberries
  • Planting gooseberries
  • Gooseberry care
  • Collecting and storing the gooseberry crop
  • Gooseberry propagation
  • Gooseberry diseases and pests

Botanical description

Common gooseberry, or Rejected gooseberry, or European gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa) is a plant species of the subgenus Grossularia (Gooseberry), the genus Currant (Ribes), the Gooseberry family (Grossulariaceae).

It is a small shrub up to 1-1.2 m high, with dark gray or dark brown peeling bark. The branches are tripartite, less often - simple thorns of leaf origin. Young shoots are cylindrical, grayish, planted with thin needle-like spines and small black dots. Leaf scar with three traces. The buds are brown, covered with numerous red scales, with pubescent white hairs along the edge. The buds sit in the axils of thorns (thorns) or above tripartite thorns.

Leaves petiolate, round or heart-ovate, up to 6 cm long, short-pubescent and dull. Leaf blade with 3-5 lobes and a blunt-toothed margin. Flowers are bisexual, greenish or reddish, solitary or 2-3 in leaf axils. Hypanthium, like sepals, pubescent. Blooms in May.

Rosely gooseberry (Ribes roezlii)
Rosely gooseberry (Ribes roezlii)

Fruit-berries, oval or nearly spherical, up to 12 mm long, glabrous or coarsely bristly, with well-visible veins. Greens, yellows, or purples. Ripen in June-August.

Choosing a place for planting gooseberries

Gooseberries are photophilous, they need to be planted in open, sunny places, protected from strong winds. Responds well to soil fertility. It does not tolerate waterlogging at all (the root collar decays), it tolerates a temporary drought much better. He also does not like nearby groundwater - it is desirable that their level is no closer than 1.5 m from the earth's surface. If the groundwater is higher than 0.8 m, then the bush should be planted on a soil bedding-pillow with a height of 0.3–0.5 m and a width of 0.8–1 m.

If there is not enough free space on the plot, then you can place the gooseberries between young fruit trees, but the distance from trees to bushes should be at least 2 m.You can also plant gooseberries along the border of the plot or along the fence - so that the plantings are not located from buildings and fences less than 1.5 m.

Gooseberry prefers light, medium loamy soils. If the soil on the site is sandy loam or heavy clay, it is necessary to add clay or sand, respectively. Dislikes acidified soils. If the acidity index (pH) is higher than 5.5, then lime is added for planting - at least 200 g per 1 sq. m. In order for the gooseberry to grow and develop well, the soil at the planting site must be carefully weeded.

It is not advisable to plant a shrub in a place where currants or raspberries grew before - the soil will be severely depleted, and diseases and pests common to these crops will surely attack the "newcomer".

Planting gooseberries

Gooseberries can be planted in spring and autumn, but the best planting time is autumn (from late September to mid-October), since by late autumn the planted plants have time to start and form new young roots. When planting in spring, survival rate and shoot growth are generally worse.

To do this, in early autumn, a site under the gooseberry is dug up, carefully choosing all the rhizomes of the weeds. After digging, the soil is carefully leveled with a rake with metal teeth, breaking all clods of earth.

For autumn planting, holes are dug under the gooseberries in 2-3 weeks so that the soil has time to settle. Pits are dug 50 cm deep and 50 cm wide. The upper fertile layer is placed in one direction, the lower infertile layer in the other. Then add to the fertile pile: 8-10 kg of humus or well-rotted manure, 50 g of double superphosphate, 40 g of potassium sulfate. All components are well mixed. These fertilizers are enough for plants for three years. If the soil is clayey, then 1 bucket of coarse river sand is added to the pit.

For planting, pure-grade, healthy one-year or two-year seedlings are used, which have a well-developed system (with roots at least 25-30 cm long) and the ground part of 3-4 strong shoots. When planting such seedlings, the plants begin to bear fruit earlier. Before planting, the damaged or dried parts of the roots and branches are removed from the seedlings. You can soak the roots for one day in liquid organic fertilizers: 3-4 tablespoons of sodium humate per 5 liters of water. After that, the roots take root faster.

Gooseberry bush with berries
Gooseberry bush with berries

The plant is planted straight or slightly with a slope with the root collar deepening 5-6 cm below the soil level. Make sure the roots are well spread. Then, holding the plant by the stem, the roots are covered with soil. The ground thrown to the roots is gradually compacted. At the same time, the seedling is slightly shaken so that the earth evenly fills all the voids around the roots.

After filling the hole, the plants are watered, about a bucket of water into the hole, and then the space under the bush is mulched with dry peat or humus with a layer of 2-3 cm to reduce moisture evaporation and prevent crust formation. After planting, the shoots are cut off from the seedling, leaving 5-6 buds above the soil surface.

Gooseberry care

Caring for gooseberries comes down to pruning, feeding, watering, loosening, fighting weeds, pests and diseases. Gooseberry pruning is carried out during the dormant period: in late autumn or early spring. Slices with a diameter over 8-10 mm should preferably be covered with pitch. To combat diseases and pests, in early spring in early April, over the snow, gooseberry bushes are poured from a watering can with boiling water, always through a spray bottle. In May, it is necessary to loosen the soil around the bushes and under them and carry out, if necessary, top dressing with nitrogen and potash fertilizers and / or diluted manure infusion around the perimeter of the crown of the bush and retreating a little further.

Gooseberry
Gooseberry

The gooseberry bush bears fruit for 10-15 years or more and removes a significant amount of nutrients from the soil. Therefore, to obtain consistently high yields, an annual application of organic and mineral fertilizers is required: for half a bucket of compost - 50 g of superphosphate, 25 g of potassium sulfate, 25 g of ammonium sulfate. Under a plentifully fruiting large bush, the fertilizer rate is doubled.

Under the bush, the soil should be loosened, covering fertilizers; dig up the soil outside the crown without damaging the roots. After flowering and after another 2-3 weeks, top dressing is carried out with a mullein solution (1: 5) at the rate of 5-10 liters per bush.

In dry, hot weather, it is necessary to monitor soil moisture. Gooseberry bushes should be watered at the root, this reduces the incidence of plants. Do not water the plants by sprinkling, especially with cold water.

5-6 leaves are left on them and one berry in each cluster. Due to this technique, you can get very large gooseberry fruits. The cut branches are burned to produce ash or placed in a compost heap.

Gooseberry fruit buds are laid in the second half of summer. Therefore, while harvesting, one must remember and take care of the next year's harvest, i.e. provide the bushes with food and moisture during this period.

Collecting and storing the gooseberry crop

Gooseberries, unlike other berry crops, are harvested at different stages of ripeness. For processing into jam, berries are best picked at the stage of technical ripeness, when they are still tough, but have already acquired the color characteristic of ripe berries of this variety. And for fresh consumption, the berries are harvested when they have reached full ripeness: then they are soft and much sweeter. It is especially important to allow varieties with yellow, white and red fruits to ripen on a bush so that they acquire the most intense color.

Gooseberry
Gooseberry
Gooseberry
Gooseberry
Gooseberry
Gooseberry

It is not by chance that the gooseberry was called the “northern grape”. Its berries are somewhat reminiscent of grapes, and in addition, they produce a wine that is considered the best in taste among fruit and berry wines and is close to grape in quality. Making gooseberry dessert wine is relatively easy at home. To do this, add about the same amount of water and 350 grams of sugar to a liter of pure juice. Next, the wine is prepared using conventional technology. It becomes harmonious and soft in taste after about six months.

Gooseberry propagation

Gooseberries can be propagated by seeds, layering, green cuttings. During seed propagation, varietal characteristics are not preserved. Most of the seedlings often deviate in the direction of wild species with all the undesirable traits: strong thorniness, small berries, etc. Therefore, seed propagation of gooseberries is used mainly for breeding new varieties.

Gooseberry vegetative propagation has been used for a long time. It allows you to consolidate valuable varietal traits that have been accumulated and selected in the process of selection.

Currently, gooseberries are propagated vegetatively in two main ways: using horizontal layering and rooting of green cuttings, followed by growing in a nursery. Two-year-old planting material is more reliable for planting plantings in production conditions (and in backyard gardens).

Propagation by horizontal layers

In early spring, the soil under the bush is well loosened, fertilized, leveled, watered. The branches are tightly pinned to the ground with wooden or wire hooks, after 2 and 4 weeks they are sprinkled with earth (with a layer of 5-6 cm). In the fall, the rooted cuttings are dug up and separated from the bushes. The output of rooted shoots depends on the strength of the development of the mother bushes, on the accurate and timely implementation of agrotechnical measures. Up to 60-80 such shoots are obtained, and in some cases up to 300-400 per bush.

Growth buds on bent shoots are usually well visible and give rise to future rooted plants. So, in the Russian variety of 2480 buds, 2470 shoots took root, in the Russian yellow from 1941 - 1856 (95.6%), in Malachite from 623 - 620 (99.5%), in Weak-spiked No. 3 from 410 - 353 shoots (86 %).

The number of buds is in direct proportion to the biological characteristics of the variety. Chernomor bushes are vigorous, straight-growing, branches are thin, numerous, resulting in a thickening of the bush. There are fewer rooted shoots. In the uterine plots of this variety, it is necessary to thin out the branches in the bushes, to leave the most healthy and strong shoots.

Gooseberry
Gooseberry

Branches of any age can be used for layering (from 10 to 18 per bush), choosing highly overgrown ones that have a greater number of growths compared to others. Moreover, from one branch you can get from 8 to 19 rooted shoots.

Rooting green cuttings

Another more modern way of breeding gooseberries is by rooting green cuttings in special rooms with a plastic shelter and a fogging device. The substrate for this is prepared well aerated - from peat and sand, which must be kept healthy, without the accumulation of infections.

Indoor air temperature should not exceed plus 25 degrees, water spray should be thin, close to fog. Under optimal conditions, the growth length and the state of the root system by the end of summer are such that most plants can be planted in a permanent place in the year of propagation, bypassing growing in the nursery. So, in the Russian variety rooted cuttings are up to 76-88, in Smena - 72-90, Yubileyny - 77-94 percent.

Green gooseberry cuttings react very quickly to frequent violations of certain conditions of agricultural technology, and then all the leaves turn black and crumble - the roots are weakly formed or lose this ability completely. As a result, the percentage of rooted cuttings in varieties Russian 50-61, Russian yellow - 44-78, and Slaboshipovaty No. 3 - 37-55.

Thus, the high potential ability of new gooseberry varieties for rooting, due to their genetic origin, makes it possible to obtain the required number of rooted plants annually when growing planting material. In this case, both methods of its rooting are used.

Gooseberry diseases and pests

Gooseberry is especially susceptible to two diseases - American powdery mildew (spheroteka) and septoria (white spot). More than other insect pests, it is annoyed by the gooseberry moth and the yellow gooseberry sawfly.

Gooseberry
Gooseberry

Most modern gooseberry varieties are resistant to spheroteca. However, the disease acts selectively - it affects young plants more strongly. Therefore, they need protection - treatment with drugs "Topaz", "Vectra" or "Strobi" (doses and method of application are indicated on the packages). The first spraying is after the leaves blooming, on the buds. The second is after 10-14 days.

There are no varieties that are absolutely resistant to septoria. Before flowering and after harvesting, it is necessary to process the bushes and the soil under them with "Oxychloride" and "Skor", in the fall it is necessary to apply phosphorus-potassium fertilizers and dig up the soil under the bushes.

Against the moth and sawfly, the bushes in early spring (after the separation of the buds, as well as immediately after flowering) are sprayed with karbofos or biological products - bitoxibacillin or lepidocide. In the fall, they dig up the ground under the bushes to a depth of 8–10 cm and huddle within the radius of the crown so that a soil cushion 10–12 cm high is formed. In the spring, two weeks after flowering, the bushes are bored.

The gooseberry is a wonderful plant with delicious berries, and it is undoubtedly worthy to grow in every area! Do you have gooseberries? Share your experience in caring for him in the comments.

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