Sweet Cherries. Varieties And Cultivation. Planting And Leaving. Photo

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Sweet Cherries. Varieties And Cultivation. Planting And Leaving. Photo
Sweet Cherries. Varieties And Cultivation. Planting And Leaving. Photo

Video: Sweet Cherries. Varieties And Cultivation. Planting And Leaving. Photo

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Video: Top 5 Most Popular Cherry Trees | NatureHills com 2023, February
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Sweet cherry is a berry that has come to the table of residents of different countries for thousands of years. For the first time, these delicious berries were tasted by the ancient Romans, having settled down on vacation in the small town of Kerasunta, and gave them the name Kerasunta fruits. Since the berries were liked not only by the warriors, but also by the birds, a clarifying definition was added to the name - bird. Kerasunt bird fruits, having gone through hundreds of definitions and descriptions, got their name in Latin Cerasus avium, translated as “bird cherry”. Our article is about the best varieties of cherries for different regions and the agricultural technology of its cultivation.

Cherry fruits on the tree
Cherry fruits on the tree

Content:

  • History of cherry cultivation in Europe
  • Botanical characteristics of sweet cherry
  • Cherry varieties for cultivation in summer cottages
  • Growing and caring for cherries in summer cottages
  • Protection of cherries from diseases and pests

History of cherry cultivation in Europe

In some countries, to this day, the popular name of sweet cherry is used - "sweet cherry", "early cherry". The fact that cherry and sweet cherry are different cultures, although they belong to the same family, was determined by botanists only in 1491.

In the foreseeable past, according to the descriptions of travelers-researchers of nature, wild cherries grew freely in the natural conditions of the Mediterranean countries, Eastern and Central China and other states of Asia Minor. According to excavations and descriptions, cherries were grown in the gardens of Pontius as early as 73 BC.

The Romans brought sweet cherry to Europe, and already in the 2nd century it occupied its niche in the Germanic gardens. In the Middle Ages, Western and Central Europe, northern Italy, southern Sweden learned the taste of the extraordinary berry of gigantic trees. In Europe, cherry gardening is about 2 thousand years old.

In Russia, the first cherry seedlings appeared in the 12th century, first in the south, and then gradually, thanks to natural scientists, selection and the work of breeders, this culture began to move northward to colder regions.

Nowadays, sweet cherries are successfully cultivated on an industrial scale and in private gardens in the southern regions of the CIS countries (in Moldova, Ukraine, Georgia). In Russia (in warm regions), huge areas are occupied by sweet cherry in the Krasnodar Territory, in the Caucasus. Since the second half of the 20th century, sweet cherry has been growing in private gardens at the latitude of the Moscow region and St. Petersburg, in some regions of the Far East and Siberia.

Botanical characteristics of sweet cherry

Sweet cherry in the plant system

In the plant system, it belongs to the pink family, belongs to the genus "Plum", the species "Sweet cherry" with the international scientific name Prunus avium. An equivalent and more common name for sweet cherry is a synonym (in the scientific literature) Cerasus avium bird cherry. In Russia and the CIS countries, it is called sweet cherry.

Cherry trees with fruits
Cherry trees with fruits

Brief description of cherries

Sweet cherry is a perennial plant of a group of trees of the first size. Under natural conditions, the height of trees reaches 10-20 m in height. The culture is characterized by rapid growth at a young age. In one place, cherries can grow up to 75 years, but in horticultural culture they are used for the first 15-20 years. The crown of the tree is ovoid, conical, directed upwards.

The main location of the root system of sweet cherry in the soil is horizontal. Over the years, individual roots change the direction of growth and deepen into the lower layers up to 1.0-1.5 m. A wide ramification of the root system forms over time, which must be borne in mind when determining the planting scheme of the culture.

At a young age, the bark of the sweet cherry on the trunk and perennial skeletal branches is smooth, brownish-red, maybe silvery. Covered with numerous lenticels or stripes. Over time, it can peel off in separate films.

On the crown of the cherry, three types of buds are formed, which are placed on growth and fruit shoots:

  • vegetative;
  • generative;
  • mixed.

Sweet cherry leaves are simple, shiny, petiolate, of green shades of different color density - from light to dark green. The leaf blades are elliptical, obovate, oblong-ovate, and other forms with a serrated edge. At the base of the petioles there are 2 glands.

Sweet cherry flowers with a white corolla, actinomorphic, bisexual, in a few flower umbrellas. Blossom earlier than leaf buds.

Cherry fruits are drupes, shiny, on long petioles.

The seeds are in a spherical or slightly elongated bone, covered on top with a juicy pericarp. The color of the cherry pericarp, depending on the variety, can be yellow, light yellow-pink, pink-yellow, red, burgundy, burgundy-black (almost black). The size of the fruits in cultivated varieties of sweet cherry is from 1.5 to 2.0 cm in diameter.

According to the composition and density of the pulp, cherry varieties are divided into 2 groups:

  • "Gini", the berries of which do not have keeping quality; they are used only fresh;
  • "Bigarro", whose dense pulp can be used fresh, transported to other regions, used for making jams, preserves, compotes and other products.
Bunch of cherries
Bunch of cherries

Cherry varieties for cultivation in summer cottages

The sweet cherry in the south marks the beginning of summer, as it is the first fruit of the summer season. In terms of early maturity, sweet cherry is second only to honeysuckle berry bushes. The cherry season by region begins in the last decade of May and ends by mid-June.

Modern gardening has more than 4000 varieties and hybrids of sweet cherries. Gone are the 20 meter giants providing tasty berries to birds. Dwarf varieties from 3.5 to 5.0 m appeared, from which it is easy to harvest, protecting it from gluttonous flocks of flying "thieves".

Breeders have developed new varieties and hybrids of sweet cherries for southerners, special varieties for cold Siberia, dank unstable weather in central Russia and the North-Western regions, as well as for the Far East blown by the sea winds.

The state register includes more than 40 varieties of sweet cherry, of which:

  • the largest fruits are formed by the cherries Tyutchevka and Iput;
  • late varieties of cherries from the zoned ones - Tyutchevka, Veda, Golubushka, Lezginka, French black, Annushka;
  • the earliest of the zoned ones - Goryanka, Iput, Ariadna, Dana, Dessertnaya, Dagestanka;
  • the most winter-hardy cherries for the north of Russia, including Siberia and the Far East - Rechitsa, Odrinka, Tyutchevka, Revna, Bryanskaya rozovaya, Bigarro Burlat, Sakhalinskaya sweet cherry, Ordynka;
  • early ripening varieties of cherries - Ovstuzhenka early, Tyutchevka, Fatezh, Symphony.

Sweet cherry is self-fertile and always needs pollinators. It is optimal to plant 3-4 trees in the garden. Good pollinators are Iput, Veda, Ovstuzhenka.

Cherries for your garden can still be selected by the color of the fruit:

  • Pink cherry: Pink pearls, Bryansk pink, Leningrad pink, Orlov pink, Pink sunset.
  • Red cherry: Teremoshka, Krasnaya Gorka, Iput, in memory of Astakhov, Radits, Valery Chkalov.
  • Yellow cherry: Drogana yellow, Zhurba, Chermashnaya.
Cherry fruits of different color
Cherry fruits of different color

Cherry varieties for Central Russia

The following cherry varieties for central Russia are characterized by the following data:

  • The most winter-hardy varieties. Frosts down to -32 ° C are not terrible.
  • They are resistant to spring return frosts.
  • Taste qualities of berries on a 5-point tasting scale are 4.5-5.0 points for the below listed varieties.
  • The vast majority of varieties belong to the Bigarro group.
  • Stable harvests are formed from 4-5 years of age.

North, Pink sunset, Tyutchevka, Krasnaya Gorka, Fatezh, Memory of Syubarova, Revna, Ovstuzhenka, Bryanochka, Raditsa, Rechetsa, Iput, Bryanskaya pink, Teremoshka, Prime, Leningrad pink, Sinyavskaya, Italian, Orlovskaya pink and others.

Cherry varieties for the Central Black Earth Region

The state register for the central black earth region includes 10 varieties of sweet cherry, of which almost 7 are time-tested:

Early pink, Italian, Iput, Krasa Zhukova, Ariadna, Motherland, Orlovskaya Fairy, Orlovskaya pink, Adelina, Poetry.

Referring to the annual catalog of varieties of fruit crops, it is possible for the central chernozem zone (more balanced in weather conditions) to select cherry varieties recommended for the more southern regions of central Russia.

When choosing a cherry variety, it is necessary to pay attention to the weather conditions of the area in the spring. It is more practical to choose early ripening varieties of middle and late ripening. If there are no spring return frosts with significant negative temperatures in the area, you can stop at early varieties.

When choosing varieties of cherries, the main thing is that they are zoned for the climatic conditions of the area of ​​residence.

Sweet cherry varieties Fatezh
Sweet cherry varieties Fatezh
Cherry varieties Tyutchevka
Cherry varieties Tyutchevka
Sweet cherry varieties Iput
Sweet cherry varieties Iput

Cherry varieties for the North-West region of Russia

There are no cherry varieties especially for the Northwest regions. They should be late and early maturing. That is, their early flowering is excluded and rapid maturation is necessary. Of the varieties of cherries recommended for the middle zone, Tyutchevka, Fatezh, Symphony have taken root in the Leningrad Region.

Seda and Yurga varieties of medium late and medium ripening are in development for the North-West region. Currently, they are undergoing varietal tests for their introduction into the State Register.

Cherry varieties for Siberia

Of the cherry varieties bred for central Russia, you can use the most frost-resistant and late-flowering for the northern regions of Russia. Why late blooming? To avoid spring frosts. Moreover, given the self-fruitlessness of the culture, they must be planted at least 2 or 3 different varieties.

Cherry varieties distinguished by high frost resistance (-30 … -32 ° C) are recognized as the best for the North of Russia: Rechitsa, Revna, Symphony, Odrinka, Tyutchevka, Bryanskaya rozovaya, Fatezh.

On private plots, amateurs of experimental gardening receive harvests of medium-ripening cherry varieties: Severnaya, Leningradskaya rozova, Pamyat Astakhov.

Cherry varieties for the Far East

In the Far East, in regions of developed agriculture (Khabarovsk Krai, Primorye, etc.), cherry varieties grow and bear fruit in private gardens: Sakhalinskaya sweet cherry, Ordynka, Bigarro Burlat, Sweet pink cherry.

Almost every year, harvests of sweet cherries of the varieties Francis, Ariadne, Dragana yellow are obtained.

Cherry varieties Chermashnaya
Cherry varieties Chermashnaya

Growing and caring for cherries in summer cottages

Sweet cherry is a culture of a moderately warm climate. In the southern regions, it grows freely in the open field and does not require special care for itself. In the northern ones, characterized by long frosts, trees are sheltered for the winter. Semi-creeping varieties of sweet cherries have been developed specifically for such regions.

Cherry requirement for soil

All types of fertile soils, both sandy loam and loamy, are suitable for sweet cherry. Poor sandy loam soils, crushed in arid regions, are not suitable for cherries. The culture does not tolerate areas with a high level of occurrence of aquifers. If the groundwater on the site is at a level of 1.5 meters from the soil surface, cherries cannot be planted. The root system of the culture will be in constant high humidity, which will lead to root rot.

The period of planting cherry seedlings

In the southern regions, cherry seedlings are planted in autumn at the end of October - November. Before the onset of a constant cold snap, the roots of the seedling will take root, and it will overwinter well. In such regions, seedlings can be planted in the spring.

In regions with an early onset of constant cold snap, planting is best done in early spring. During the summer season, cherry seedlings root well in warmer soil and grow up in warm weather. In winter, they will leave completely engrafted.

Young cherry tree
Young cherry tree

Rules for planting cherry seedlings

Cherry varieties grafted on tall scions are planted in a row every 4-5 meters and at least 7 m between rows. Using varieties on medium and low-growing rootstocks, rows and aisles are left 6x4 and 4x3 meters, respectively.

Before planting, a cherry seedling is examined. Only the broken roots are removed, the rest are not cut off, and in the soil, so as not to break, they are slightly bent.

  • The planting hole is dug to the size of the root.
  • Drainage is laid at the bottom.
  • Humus and nitrophosphate 50-60 g are added to the pit. The mixture is thoroughly mixed.
  • A mound is formed, along which the roots are spread.
  • Planting for a better closure with the soil is compacted and watered. Mulch.
  • If necessary, carry out post-plant pruning.

When planting in autumn, the cherry stem is covered for the winter, measures are taken to protect it from damage by hares, mice and other pests.

Cherry care

Vegetables can be temporarily grown between the rows of young plantings. On depleted soils, it is better to increase soil fertility by sowing green manure crops.

From 2 to 3 years of age, a cherry crown is formed. The stem is cleaned from the side branches, the shoots are removed, and the leading central shoot is shortened. It is removed to the side shoot.

The culture is usually used up to 15 years, and then replaced by a young seedling. At a later date, the tree sharply reduces the yield, begins to hurt.

Cherry dressing

Spending a large amount of nutrients for flowering and then for the formation of fruits, sweet cherry needs additional receipt of nutrients. Most of the flowers and ovaries fall off as a result of the natural self-regulation process of the emerging crop.

Starting from the 5th year of life, organic and mineral fertilizers are applied annually under the sweet cherry. The rate of mineral fertilizers depends on the fertility of the soil and is (depending on the age of the crop) from 70 to 200 g per tree. Tukas are applied scattered around the crown diameter for irrigation. You can pre-carefully cut grooves along the edge of the crown or drill holes where to fill in the fertilizer.

Of the mineral fertilizers, it is better to use nitroammophoska or nitrophosphate. Fat is brought in before flowering.

Once every 3-4 years in the fall, 1-3 buckets of humus or compost are introduced under the tree under a shallow embedding.

Cherry fruit ovaries
Cherry fruit ovaries

Watering cherries

In prolonged dry weather, trees are watered, but only in the first half of the season. About 20-30 days before the main harvest, watering is stopped. The berries crack and rot. Some varieties reduce keeping quality during transportation.

Cherry crown formation

When growing several trees in a private garden, the formation of a sparse-tiered or vase-shaped crown is used.

In a tier-sparse form, 3 tiers of skeletal branches are laid. On the first tier there are 3-4, the second 2-3 and on the last 1-2 branches. The distance between the tiers on the central shoot of a sweet cherry is 60-80 cm.

With a cupped crown, one tier of 4-5 branches is formed. The center conductor is removed. Such cherry crowns are more practical. The tree is low, the crown is light. It is easy to care for, harvest and protect from bird raids (special nets are available for sale).

Sanitary pruning and thinning of the cherry crown is carried out annually (if necessary). If necessary, especially in weakly branching varieties, they carry out a shortening pruning of shoots, up to 1/3 of the growth. Pruning is best done in early spring or summer after harvest.

Protection of cherries from diseases and pests

Cherry diseases

Cherries are much less common and less affected by diseases than cherries. Of the diseases, the most familiar to gardeners are perforated spotting (clasternosporia), gray rot of stone fruits (moniliosis), cocomycosis, and bacterial burn. Outbreaks of fungal diseases are most often observed during a cold rainy summer with abundant dew and temperatures in the range of + 15 … + 16 ° С. In cold regions, the processing of gardens must be carried out without fail, according to recommendations for combating diseases.

Antifungal fungicides and solutions of other pesticides (Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate, Skor, Horus, Hom, Abiga-Peak) can be used one-time for treatments in early spring. For coccomycosis and moniliosis, cherries can be treated with mycosan, according to official recommendations. During the growing season, it is necessary to switch to biological products phytosporin-M, trichodermin, pentofag and others. Use all drugs strictly according to recommendations. Otherwise, the effect of the application may not appear.

Young cherry tree
Young cherry tree

Cherry pests

Of the pests, various types of cherry aphids, cherry fly, cherry slimy sawfly damage the cherry most of all. There are recommendations that Actellik-500 EC effectively acts on a cherry fly. It is used during the summer of flies, the berries at this time begin to ripen (turn pink). Do you need such a drug? The choice is yours.

Dalmatian chamomile infusion is effective. 200 g of dry material (buy at a pharmacy) pour 1 liter of water and leave for 12 hours. This is a stock solution. Add 5 L of water. Filtered. Sprayed. Spray at least 2 weeks before harvest. Dalmatian chamomile is poisonous. And its solution is far from harmless, although it is made from grass.

Since the pests of sweet cherry, in general, actively work during the warm period, which coincides with the formation of the crop, it is better to use tank mixtures of bioinsecticides (bitoxibacillin, lepidocid, nemabact and others) with biofungicides for control. The drugs are effective during the warm period. Safe for the health of adults and children, birds and animals. They can be used for almost the entire summer season. It is necessary to work with biological products according to the recommendations.

Dear Readers! Not all cherry varieties are listed in the article. Roughly recommended doses of fertilizers and drugs for diseases and pests. If you are interested in the article, write to us. Share what remedies you use, how effective they are. By what scheme do you fertilize cherries and whether you fertilize them annually or according to your own (different) scheme. Readers will be happy to read and discuss your comments.

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