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Video: Sesame, Or Sesame. Beneficial Features. Application. Seeds. Photo
Sesame, or sesame (Sesamum indicum) - a plant from the Sesame family (Pedaliaceae), belongs to the genus Sesame (Sesamum), which includes up to 10 species growing wildly in tropical and southern Africa, with the exception of one cultivated since ancient times throughout warm and hot Asia, and now in America.
The Latin name of the genus of plants Sesamum comes from other Greek. sēsamon, which, in turn, is borrowed from Semitic languages (Aramaic shūmshĕmā, Arabic simsim), from Late Babylonian shawash-shammu, Otassirian shamash-shammū, from shaman shammī - "oil plant".
- Description of sesame
- Sesame Facts
- The benefits and uses of sesame
Description of sesame
Sesame is an annual plant 60-150 cm high. Tap root, 70-80 cm long, branched in the upper part, thick. Stem erect, green or slightly reddish, 4-8-sided, pubescent, less often glabrous, usually branched from the very base; branches of the second order are rarely formed. Leaves are alternate, opposite or mixed. The leaves are pubescent, smooth or corrugated, 10-30 cm long, with long petioles. The leaf blade varies greatly in different forms and within the same plant.
The lowest leaves are usually round, whole-edged; the middle ones are lanceolate, elliptical or oblong-ovate, whole-edged, serrated, incised or deeply, finger-separated. The upper leaves are narrow, entire. Flowers are large, up to 4 cm long, almost sessile, located in the axils of the leaves, 1-5 pcs. The calyx is 0.5-0.7 cm long, leafy, with 5-8 elongated lobes, green, densely pubescent. Corolla two-lipped, pink, white or violet, densely pubescent, 1.5-3.8 cm long. Upper lip short, 2-3-lobed; the lower one is longer, 3- and 5-lobed.
Stamens, number 5, are attached to the lower part of the corolla, 4 of them are normally developed, the 5th is underdeveloped. Less often there are 10 stamens. Pistil with a 4-9-celled upper, strongly pubescent ovary.
Fruit is oblong, pointed at the apex, green or slightly reddish, strongly pubescent, 4-9-nested capsule, 3-5 cm long. Seeds are ovoid, flat, 3-3.5 mm long, white, yellow, brown or black in color.
Blossoms in June-July; bears fruit in August-September. It is found in the wild only in Africa.
Sesame seed is one of the oldest seasonings known to man, and perhaps the first crop was grown specifically for the edible oil. The people of Babylon prepared sesame cakes, wine and brandy, and also used oil for cooking and toiletries. Sesame was used by the Egyptians as a medicine as early as 1500 BC. Open Sesame is the magic word used by Ali Baba and the forty robbers to enter the cave.
This can be attributed to the fact that ripe sesame pods open with a loud click at the slightest touch. Even among the ancient sesame was associated with immortality. There is some exaggeration in this, however, sesame seeds are indeed rich in vitamins (especially vitamin E) and minerals (especially zinc) necessary for the normal functioning of any human body. Unfortunately, in our country sesame is not very popular, and is best known as a component of halva, especially "tahini" - for its preparation, tahini mass is used as a basis - pounded sesame seeds. In the late 17th and 18th centuries, slaves brought seeds to Amerka.
The seeds, depending on the plant variety, are brown, reddish, black, yellow, and ivory. Darker seeds are considered more flavorful. Sesame seeds have a nutty, sweet flavor that is enhanced by roasting. Due to their high oil content, seeds deteriorate quickly. Better to buy them in small quantities and use them quickly. Sesame oil, on the other hand, has a long shelf life.
The benefits and uses of sesame
Since sesame is the world's seasoning and spice today, as well as a source of vegetable oil, let's look at its use, starting in the Middle East. In the Middle East, sesame seeds are used for sprinkling various types of baked goods and tortillas. Throughout the Middle East, ground sesame seed paste is used, which is used in many Middle Eastern recipes to thicken and flavor sauces and gravies.
Basically, almost all plant seeds contain some kind of latent energy that is used as a source of growth for a young plant in the first phase of its life. The seeds contain fatty oil (up to 60%), which includes glycerides of oleic, linoleic, palmitic, stearic, arachidic and lignoceric acids; phytosterol, sesamin (chloroform), sesamol, sesamolin, vitamin E, sam.
According to other sources, sesame oil mainly consists of triglycerides, light unsaturated oleic acid (35-48%), linoleic acid (37-48%), in addition, about 10% of saturated fatty acids: stearic (4-6%), palmitic (7-8%), as well as myristic (about 0.1%), arachinic (up to 1.0%) (iodine number 110). Due to its strong antioxidant properties - sesamol (oxyhydroquinone methyl ester) is found in sesame oil, and the absence of triple unsaturated fatty acids, sesame oil has a long shelf life.
Sesame seeds are rich in calcium, vitamins B1 and E and polyunsaturated fatty linoleic acids. Sesame seeds contain about 50-60% fatty oil, its composition is characterized by two lignins - sesamin and sesamoline (about 300 ppm in oil), which are converted into phenolic antioxidants - sesamol and sesaminol during the refining process. Sesame oil is a food product that is equal to other vegetable oils, however, it does not contain vitamin A and is low in vitamin E.
Oriental sesame oil owes its scent to several compounds that form only during the roasting process. The main ones are - 2-furylmethanethiol, which also plays an important role in the aroma of coffee and baked meat, guayacol (2-methoxyphenol), phenylethanethiol and furaneol, as well as vinyl guacol, 2-pentylpyridine, etc.
Sesame seeds are used to add texture and flavor to a variety of breads, buns, crackers, and salad dressings. Spice blends in the Middle East and Asia use whole sesame seeds that are crushed. In China and Japan, sesame seeds are used in salads and vegetable dishes.
Sesame is widely used for the production of tahini paste. White sesame is mainly used for these purposes. Tahini paste is used for the production of sweet desserts, and together with sugar and honey, for the production of halva. Sesame can be peeled to produce high quality tahini paste.
White sesame is often used to decorate baked goods and bread. For these purposes, sesame seeds are pre-exfoliated. Peeled sesame seeds can be toasted before being used as a sprinkle on baked goods. In Korea, sesame leaves are used, which have a pungent taste, give them a nice shape and serve as vegetables with sauce or fried in batter.
In addition, they are used to wrap rice and vegetables in them (an analogue of Japanese sushi) and pickled sesame leaves are added to stews at the very end of cooking. The Korean sesame variety produces large leaves, very similar to the perilla leaves preferred in Japanese cuisine. Perilla leaves are softer and smaller, with more carved edges and a different scent. Sesame Salt - The main Korean seasoning is a mixture of toasted sesame seeds, ground and salt.