Forest Edible Mushrooms. Mushrooms In The Garden And On The Site. Cultivation, Reproduction. Cooking. Recipes

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Forest Edible Mushrooms. Mushrooms In The Garden And On The Site. Cultivation, Reproduction. Cooking. Recipes
Forest Edible Mushrooms. Mushrooms In The Garden And On The Site. Cultivation, Reproduction. Cooking. Recipes

Video: Forest Edible Mushrooms. Mushrooms In The Garden And On The Site. Cultivation, Reproduction. Cooking. Recipes

Video: Forest Edible Mushrooms. Mushrooms In The Garden And On The Site. Cultivation, Reproduction. Cooking. Recipes
Video: How to Grow Edible Mushrooms Outdoors — Vlog 020 2023, April
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It is very tempting to have boletus and aspen mushrooms, chanterelles and porcini mushrooms and even mushrooms in your garden. And this is quite real. Only one condition is needed - that there are birches or spruces, pines or oaks on the site. After all, these mushrooms are closely related to the roots of trees and do not grow without their participation.

White mushroom (Boletus edulis)
White mushroom (Boletus edulis)

When choosing forest mushrooms for growing in the garden, you must first of all focus on what trees are on your site. If it is a birch, then you can grow boletus, boletus, birch form of porcini mushroom. If it is a spruce, then you need to give preference to spruce mushroom or spruce form of white mushroom. The chanterelle grows with both coniferous and deciduous trees, and the golden yellow larch oiler, according to the name, grows only with larch trees.

Why do forest mushrooms have such a close connection with the tree? The fact is that, braiding its root and even penetrating into the cells, the mycelium forms a kind of complex - the fungus root, or mycorrhiza. Hence their name - mycorrhizal fungi.

Mycorrhiza is a complex symbiosis of trees and shrubs with mushrooms, which has never been fully understood. That is why we have not yet learned how to obtain forest mushrooms in artificial conditions. However, it is still possible to move them to your garden, and amateur mushroom growers have already accumulated sufficient experience in this. The most tested methods of growing porcini mushrooms, so let's talk about them in more detail. In addition, you can grow other forest mushrooms that you want to see in your garden in the same way.

Symbiosis with tree fungus - mycorrhiza
Symbiosis with tree fungus - mycorrhiza

Growing mushrooms

Few people know that our beloved porcini mushroom, depending on which tree it forms mycorrhiza with, has 18 forms. They can be distinguished by the color of the cap. For example, in the birch form, it is whitish or light brown. The best conditions for its fruiting are birch forests with a motley ground cover. And for a pine or upland form with a brownish-cherry-red cap and a very thick leg, pine forests are suitable where lingonberries, heather or lichen grow. This must also be taken into account when choosing porcini mushrooms for a garden plot.

As we already mentioned, there are several ways to grow porcini mushrooms, let's start with the oldest.

First way

Overripe mushrooms are placed in a wooden dish and poured with rainwater. Withstand for about a day, then stir, filter through a rare tissue. The resulting infusion with numerous spores of the fungus is poured over the soil around the tree from the trunk to the border of the crown. This method was successfully tested by the author in his own garden, where several 25-year-old birches grow.

By the way, experts say that the most favorable age of trees for growing mycorrhizal forest mushrooms under them is from 10 to 30 years.

White mushroom (Boletus edulis)
White mushroom (Boletus edulis)

© Kosiarz-PL

Second way

Where the necessary mushrooms grew, they carefully dig out small (from a matchbox) pieces of mycelium. In the garden, they are carefully laid in shallow pits, covered with a bedding of rotted leaves or needles and slightly moistened (but not watered!). If the weather is dry, the shelter is periodically lightly sprayed so that the soil below is always moist.

Pieces of mycelium are planted along the perimeter of the crown at a distance of 1.5-3 m from the trunk.

Third way

It consists in using pieces of ripe mushroom caps. There may be different options here.

Common boletus (Birch bolete)
Common boletus (Birch bolete)

© Jörg Hempel

First option

Pieces of caps of fresh ripe mushrooms are laid out under the trees on a loosened litter of rotted leaves or needles. After 4-5 days, they are removed, and the bedding is moistened. You can also use dried pieces of hats. In this case, they are already placed under the litter.

Second option

In mature porcini mushrooms, the tubular part of the cap is separated, crushed into pieces up to 2 cm, dried for 1.5-2 hours, stirring occasionally. Then, with a wooden spatula, lift the upper part of the needles or rotted leaves lying under the tree, and put 2-3 pieces of the mushroom there. After that, the coniferous or leaf litter is compacted and carefully watered.

Oiler (Suillus)
Oiler (Suillus)

© Dezidor

With all these methods, it is possible to collect some mushrooms already next year. After another year, you can count on a richer harvest. Of course, due to unfavorable weather and the influence of other unregulated and often unknown factors, there may be failures. But they should not embarrass amateur mushroom growers, especially since the cultivation of forest mushrooms does not require any material costs, except for your, in this case, not very big work.

If the plot is small and only fruit trees grow there, mushrooms can be grown in the same ways in the nearest forest or grove where there are pines, spruces, oaks or birches at the age of 10-20 years. In this case, you also need to choose a place similar to where the planting material was taken from (in terms of soil composition, tree species, the nature of the undergrowth, grass cover).

The mushroom plantation you have created, located in a nearby forest, will not only allow you to bring home a full basket of selected mushrooms all season, but will also contribute to the expansion of their growing areas. It's no secret that they are constantly decreasing, especially around cities. According to the memoirs of the remarkable Russian writer A. S. Aksakov, in the middle of the 19th century, for example, they went to pick mushrooms on carts, and now they go with only one basket.

When growing forest mushrooms, do not forget the main rule - you need to plant them only under a tree of the species near which the mycelium or mushroom was taken for planting, since these forest dwellers are very attached to their tree neighbors.

Common chanterelle, or real (Cantharellus cibarius)
Common chanterelle, or real (Cantharellus cibarius)

© Sanja565658

In reserve

Hot salted mushrooms

Porcini mushrooms, aspen mushrooms, boletus boletus, boletus, chanterelles, mushrooms are repeatedly washed with cold water. Water is poured into a saucepan at the rate of 1 cup per 1 kg of mushrooms, salt is added (1 tablespoon per liter of water) and after boiling water - mushrooms. During cooking, remove the foam, add spices. After 15-20 minutes, they are thrown back in a colander, cooled, placed in a keg or saucepan, sprinkled with spices, and covered with a circle with light oppression. Store in a cool place. The mushrooms will be ready no earlier than in a month.

Products: 10 kg of mushrooms, 500 g of salt, 40 black peppercorns, bay leaves, cloves and dill inflorescences to taste

Cold salted mushrooms

Milk mushrooms, volushkas, russules are poured with cold water and placed in a cool place for a day. Then the water is drained, the prepared mushrooms are rinsed with water, laid out in a tub in layers, sprinkling each with salt and spices, covered with a circle with oppression and kept in a cool place. The mushrooms will be ready in 1.5 months.

Products: 10 kg of mushrooms, 400 g of salt, allspice, bay leaf, dill, coarsely chopped garlic to taste

Common chanterelle, or real (Cantharellus cibarius)
Common chanterelle, or real (Cantharellus cibarius)

© Thierry Bissonnette

Materials used

Garden - Vegetable Garden - Flower Garden # 8 (77), August 2009 - L. V. Garibova, Doctor of Biological Sciences

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