Table of contents:
- Seedling care
- Planting in a permanent place and caring for plants
- Top dressing tomato
- Getting an early crop of tomatoes
Video: Growing Tomatoes In Greenhouses
The leaf system grows slowly during the first 20 days after germination. The next 15 - 20 days, the growth noticeably increases, and after 35 - 40 days from the emergence of shoots, the height and size of the leaves greatly increase. During the growth and development of plants, so that the seedlings do not stretch out, it is necessary to improve the light conditions, monitor the temperature and hardening. After the emergence of seedlings, the temperature is maintained at 16-18 ° C during the day and 13-15 ° C at night. Then it can be increased to 18 - 20 ° C during the day and 15 - 16 ° C at night. This regime is observed until the seedlings grow in the box to the second or third true leaf - within about 30 to 35 days after germination. During this time, the seedlings are watered 2 - 3 times, combining with root feeding. In this mode of watering and feeding during the low light period (March) strong seedlings grow.The first time they water a little when all the seedlings appear. The second time is watered after 1 - 2 weeks, combining with top dressing in the phase of one true leaf. The last time it is watered 3 hours before picking (transplanting) the seedlings.
The water should have a temperature of 20 ° C and be settled. So that it does not fall on top of the leaves, it is better to water under the roots.
The boxes or crates should be turned the other way towards the window pane almost every day to prevent the seedlings from pulling to one side.
It is impossible to put the box directly on the windowsill, it is better on some kind of support, so that air access to the root system is not limited. When the seedlings have 1 true leaf each, root feeding is done: 1 teaspoon of liquid fertilizer "Agricola-Forward" is diluted into 2 liters of water. This dressing enhances seedling development and strengthens the root system.
The second feeding is done when the third real leaf appears: 1 tbsp is diluted in 1 liter of water. spoon at the level of the "Barrier" preparation. Watered with solutions very carefully.
Seedlings with 2 - 3 true leaves dive into pots measuring 8 × 8 or 10 × 10 cm, in which they will grow for only 22 - 25 days. To do this, the pots are filled with one of the recommended soil mixtures and watered with a solution of potassium permanganate - 0.5 g per 10 liters of water (22 - 24 ° C). When picking seedlings, sick and weak plants are rejected.
If the seedlings are slightly elongated, then the stalk, when diving into the pots, can be buried halfway, but not to the cotyledon leaves, and if the seedlings are not stretched out, then the stalk is not buried in the soil.
After picking the seedlings into pots, for the first 3 days, the temperature is maintained at 20-22 ° C during the day, and 16-18 ° C at night. As soon as the seedlings take root, the temperature is reduced in the daytime to 18 - 20 ° С, at night to 15 - 16 ° С. Water the seedlings in pots once a week until the soil is completely wet. By the next watering, the soil should dry out a little, make sure that there are no long breaks in watering.
12 days after picking, the seedlings are fed: for 1 liter of water, take 1 teaspoon of nitrophoska or nitroammofoska or 1 teaspoon of organic fertilizer "Signor Tomato". They consume about a glass for 3 pots. After 6 - 7 days after the first feeding, do the second. For 1 liter of water, dilute 1 teaspoon of liquid fertilizer "Agricola-5" or fertilizer "Ideal". Watered at the rate of 1 glass for 2 pots. After 22 - 25 days, the seedlings are transplanted from small pots into large ones (12 × 12 or 15 × 15 cm). When transplanting, try not to burrow the plants.
After planting, the seedlings are slightly watered with warm (22 ° C) water. Then do not water. In the future, moderate watering is needed (once a week). Water as the soil dries up. This restrains the growth and stretching of seedlings.
Many gardeners will probably ask the question: why do you need to dive seedlings first into small pots, and then plant them in large ones? This procedure can be done or not. Basically, those gardeners who grow one to two dozen plants are transplanted. If you grow from 30 to 100 plants, replanting from pots to large ones is not necessary, this is a laborious work. And yet each transplant inhibits the growth of the plant and the seedlings do not stretch. In addition, when plants are in small pots, they develop a good root system under normal watering, since water in such pots does not retain and there is more air access in them. If the seedlings are immediately cut into large pots, it will be difficult to regulate watering: the water in them stagnates. Water overflow often occurs, and the root system does not develop well from lack of air, which,in turn, negatively affects the development of seedlings (it stretches slightly). Try not to overflow.
15 days after transplanting into large pots, the seedlings are fed (first feeding): 1 tablespoon of Agricola Vegeta fertilizer or 1 tablespoon of superphosphate and potassium sulfate are dissolved in 10 liters of water, stir and water the seedlings at the rate of 1 glass for each pot … After 15 days, a second feeding is made: 40 g of granular fertilizer "Agricola-3" or a tablespoon of fertilizer "Fertility" or "Breadwinner" are dissolved in 10 liters of water and 1 glass is consumed per plant. This will be watering and feeding.
If the soil in the pots has been compacted during the growing period of the seedlings, add the soil to the full pot.
In rare cases, if the seedlings are very elongated, the stems of the plants can be cut into two parts at the level of the 4th or 5th leaf. The upper cut off parts of the plants are placed in a jar with a solution of heteroauxin, where after 8 - 10 days, roots up to 1 - 1.5 cm will grow on the lower stalks.Then these plants are planted in nutrient pots 10 × 10 cm in size or directly into a box at a distance of 10 × 10 or 12 × 12 cm from each other. The planted plants will continue to grow like a normal seedling that is formed into a single stem.
New shoots (stepsons) will soon appear from the axils of the four lower leaves of the trimmed plant remaining in the pot. When they reach a length of 5 cm, the two upper shoots (stepson) must be left, and the lower ones removed. The left upper stepchildren will gradually grow and develop. The result is a good standard seedling. This operation can be done 20 to 25 days before landing in a permanent place.
When such seedlings are planted in a greenhouse, they continue to form in two shoots. Each shoot is tied separately with twine to a trellis (wire). Up to 3 - 4 fruit clusters are formed on each shoot.
If the tomato seedlings are stretched out and have a pale green color, it is necessary to make foliar top dressing with the preparation "Emerald", 1 teaspoon per 1 liter of water - spray the plants for 3 days in a row or top dressing - (for 10 liters of water take 1 tablespoon of urea or liquid fertilizer " Ideal "), spending a glass for each pot, put the pots for 5 - 6 days in a place with an air temperature of 8 - 10 ° C both day and night and do not water for several days. It will be noticeable how the plants stop growing, turn green and even acquire a purple hue. After that, they are again transferred to normal conditions.
If the seedlings are developing rapidly to the detriment of flowering, root feeding is done: for 10 liters of water, take 3 tablespoons of superphosphate and spend a glass of this solution for each pot. A day after feeding, the seedlings should be placed in a warm place with an air temperature of 25 ° C during the day, and at night 20 - 22 ° C and also do not water for several days in order to dry the soil a little. Under such conditions, the seedlings are normalized, and after a week they are transferred to normal conditions. In sunny weather, during the day, the temperature is kept at 22 - 23 ° C, at night 16 - 17 ° C, and in cloudy weather it is reduced to 17 - 18 ° C during the day, and up to 15 - 16 ° C at night.
Many gardeners complain about the slow growth of seedlings, in this case it is fed with a growth stimulator "Bud" (10g per 10l of water) or liquid fertilizer "Ideal" (1 tablespoon per 10l of water).
In April - May, the seedlings are hardened, that is, they open the window both during the day and at night. On warm days (from 12 ° C and above), the seedlings are taken out to the balcony for 2 - 3 hours for 2 - 3 days, leaving it open, and then taken out for the whole day, you can leave it overnight, but you must cover it on top with a film … If the temperature drops (below 8 ° C), it is better to bring the seedlings into the room. Well seasoned seedlings have a bluish purple hue. When hardening, the soil must be watered, otherwise the plants will wilt.
To preserve flower buds on the first flower brush, it is necessary to sprinkle the seedlings with boric solution (1 g of boric acid per 1 liter of water) or a growth regulator with the preparation "Epin" in the morning in cloudy weather 4 - 5 days before planting in the garden or in the greenhouse. In sunny weather, this cannot be done, otherwise burns will appear on the leaves.
Seedlings should be 25 - 35 cm high, have 8 - 12 well-developed leaves and mature inflorescences (one or two).
2 - 3 days before planting seedlings in a permanent place, it is recommended to cut off 2 - 3 lower true leaves. This operation is done in order to reduce the possibility of the appearance of diseases, better ventilation, illumination, which, in turn, will contribute to the better development of the first flower cluster. Cut so that stumps remain 1.5 - 2 cm long, which then dry up and fall off themselves, and this will not damage the main stem.
Planting in a permanent place and caring for plants
The grown seedlings are planted in the greenhouse from April 20 to May 15. During this period it is still cool, especially at night, so it is recommended to cover the greenhouse with two layers of film, the distance between them should be 2 - 3 cm. Such a coating not only improves the thermal regime, but also increases the service life of the inner film until late autumn. The outer layer of the film is removed from 1 to 5 June. A greenhouse intended for tomatoes should have vents not only on both sides, but also on top (1 - 2), since tomatoes, especially during flowering, need careful ventilation. In order to avoid diseases, it is not recommended to plant tomatoes in the same greenhouse for several years in a row. Usually they are alternated with cucumbers, i.e. one season - cucumbers, the second - tomatoes. But recently, cucumbers and tomatoes have begun to suffer from the same fungal disease - anthracnose (root rot).Therefore, if tomatoes are still planted after cucumbers, then it is necessary to remove all soil from the greenhouse or at least remove its top layer by 10 - 12 cm, where the entire infection is located. After that, the soil must be sprayed with a hot (100 ° C) solution of copper sulfate (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water) or dilute 80 g of the Khom preparation in 10 liters of water (40 ° C) and spray the soil at the rate of 1.5 - 2 l by 10 m.
Tomatoes and cucumbers are not grown in the same greenhouse, since tomatoes require more ventilation, lower humidity and air temperatures compared to cucumbers. If, nevertheless, there is only one greenhouse, then in the middle it is partitioned off with a film and cucumbers are grown on one side, and tomatoes on the other.
The greenhouse should be completely illuminated from morning to evening by the sun's rays, even a slight shading by trees or shrubs entails a decrease in yield.
Ridges are made along the greenhouse, their number depends on the width of the greenhouse. The ridges are made 5 - 7 days before planting seedlings with a height of 35 - 40 cm, their width depends on the size of the greenhouse (usually 60 - 70 cm), a passage of at least 50 - 60 cm is made between the ridges.
On a bed of loamy or clayey soil, add 1 bucket of peat, sawdust and humus per 1 m2. If the beds are made of peat, then add 1 bucket of humus, sod land, sawdust or small shavings and 0.5 buckets of coarse sand. In addition, add 1 tablespoon of superphosphate, potassium sulfate or two tablespoons of nitrophosphate and dig up everything. And before planting, the seedlings are watered with a solution of potassium permanganate (1 g of potassium permanganate per 10 liters of water) at a temperature of 40 - 60 ° C, 1.0 - 1.5 liters per hole or with organic fertilizer "Barrier" (5 tablespoons per 10 liters of water) … 40 g of liquid fertilizer "Agricola-3" are diluted in 10 liters of water and watered with a warm solution (30 ° C) not only the holes, but also the beds.
Non-overgrown seedlings (25 - 30 cm) are planted vertically, filling only the pot with soil mixture. If, for some reason, the seedlings stretched up to 35 - 45 cm and the stem was buried in the soil during planting, then this is a mistake. The stem, covered with soil mixture, immediately gives additional roots, which stops the growth of the plant and contributes to the fall of flowers from the first brush. Therefore, if the seedlings are outgrown, then I advise you to plant them as follows. Make a hole 12 cm deep, in it the second hole is deeper to the height of the pot, put a pot of seedlings in it and cover the second hole with earth. The first hole remains open for now. After 12 days, as soon as the seedlings take root well, cover the hole with earth.
If the seedlings are up to 100 cm long, they must be planted on the bed so that the top rises 30 cm above the soil. The seedlings must be planted in one row in the middle of the bed. The distance between the plants should be 50 cm.To do this, pegs with a height of no more than 60 cm are inserted in the garden at the appropriate distance.Further, a groove 70 cm long and 5 - 6 cm deep is made from each peg (in no case should seedlings be planted in the soil to a great depth, since the ground has not yet warmed up in early spring and the root and stems rot, the seedlings die). At the end of the groove, a hole is dug to accommodate the pot with the root system. The hole and groove are watered with water, a pot with roots is planted and covered with soil. Then a stem without leaves is laid in the grooves (3 - 4 days before planting, the leaves are cut off so thatso that at the base of the main stem there are stumps of 2 - 3 cm, which dry out 2 - 3 days before planting in the ground and easily fall off without damaging the stem). Next, the stem is fixed in two places with a slingshot aluminum wire, covered with soil and lightly tamped. The remaining stem (30 cm) with leaves and a flower brush is freely attached with a figure eight to the pegs with plastic twine.
Do not forget that the garden bed with overgrown tomato seedlings is not loosened or hilled during the summer period. If the dug-in stems are bare during watering, mulching (backfilling) with a layer (5 - 6 cm) of peat or a mixture of peat with sawdust (1: 1) is necessary.
Hybrids and varieties of tall tomatoes are planted in the middle of the beds in one row or in a checkerboard pattern 50-60 cm apart. If the distance between plants is 80 - 90 cm instead of 50 - 60 cm at the norm, then with such a rare planting, the yield drops sharply, almost by half. In addition, a free plant in the garden branches strongly, gives many stepchildren, many flower brushes, and therefore the ripening of fruits is delayed. After planting, the plants are not watered for 12 to 15 days so that they do not stretch. In 10 - 12 days after planting, tomato plants are tied to a trellis 1.8 - 2 m high. Tomatoes are formed into one stem, leaving 7 - 8 flower brushes. You can leave only one lower stepson with one flower brush, and remove all the other stepsons from the axils of leaves and roots when they reach a length of 8 cm.It is better to do this in the morning,when stepsons break off easily. In order to avoid infection with viral diseases, the stepsons do not cut off, but break off to the side so that the plant sap does not get on the fingers, since you can transfer the disease from a sick plant to a healthy one with your hands. The posts from the stepsons are left 2 - 3 cm high.
Pollinate flowers during the day in warm sunny weather, slightly shaking the flower brushes. In order for the pollen to germinate on the stigma of the pistil, it is necessary to water the soil immediately after shaking or spray it with a fine spray on the flowers. 2 hours after watering, the air humidity is reduced by opening the window and door. Airing is mandatory, especially in the tomato flowering phase. In addition to the side ones, the upper vents should also be open so that there is no condensation (water drops) on the film. Waterlogged soil reduces the content of dry matter and sugar in tomato fruits, they become sour and watery, and also less fleshy. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure such watering, in which it will be possible to obtain a high yield and not reduce the quality of the fruit.
Before flowering, the plants are watered after 6 - 7 days at the rate of 4 - 5 liters per 1 m2, during flowering before fruit formation - 10 - 15 liters per 1 m2. The water temperature should be 20 - 22 ° C. In hot weather, the amount of watering increases.
In film greenhouses, watering should be carried out in the morning and avoided in the evening, so as not to create excessive moisture, which contributes to the formation and deposition of condensation and water drops on the plants at night, which is especially dangerous for them at low night temperatures.
During the growing season, it is necessary to make 4 - 5 forage feedings.
Top dressing tomato
The first feeding is carried out 20 days after planting the seedlings in a permanent place: dilute 1 tbsp per 10 liters of water. spoon of organic fertilizers "Signor Tomato" and "Agricola-Vegeta", spend 1 liter per 1 plant.
The second feeding is carried out 8-10 days after the first: 1 tbsp is diluted in 10 liters of water. a spoon of organic fertilizer "Signor Tomato" and 20 g of granular fertilizer "Agricola-3", mix everything thoroughly, consume a working solution of 5 liters per 1 m2.
The third feeding is carried out 10 days after the second: 2 tbsp is diluted with 10 liters of water. spoons of mineral fertilizer "Nitrofoski" and 1 tbsp. spoon of liquid fertilizer "Ideal".
The fourth feeding is done 12 days after the third: 1 tbsp of water is diluted in 10 liters of water. spoon of superphosphate, potassium sulfate or 40 g of granular fertilizer "Agricola-3", stir everything, consume a solution of 5 - 6 liters per 1 m2.
The fifth top dressing is made final: 2 tbsp is diluted with 10 liters of water. tablespoons of organic fertilizer "Signor Tomato", consuming 5 - bl per 1 m2.
Foliar dressing is done approximately 5-6 times during the growing season:
- A solution of the "Bud" preparation (before and during flowering).
- A solution of the drug "Epin" (during flowering and fruit setting).
- With a solution of the drug "Izumrud" (before flowering and during fruit setting).
- With the Agricola-3 solution (at any stage of development).
- Agricola-fruit solution (to accelerate fruit ripening).
The best temperature for normal growth and fruiting of tomatoes is 20 - 25 ° C during the day and 18 - 20 ° C at night.
During fruiting, tomatoes are fed with the following solution: 1 tablespoon of organic fertilizer "Signor Tomato" and one teaspoon of "Ideal" are taken for 10 liters of water. Watering 5 liters per 1 m2. This dressing helps to speed up the fruit filling.
Gardeners have a lot of questions about caring for tomatoes: flowers fall, leaves curl, etc. Of course, if for some reason the growth of a tomato is disrupted and suspended, then this primarily affects the formation of the plant and inflorescence, i.e. … few fruits are formed on the flower cluster, which sharply reduces the yield. For example, if the top leaves of a tomato are constantly twisted, there is a rapid growth, and the plant itself is powerful, the stems are thick, the leaves are dark green, large, juicy, i.e., as the gardeners say, fattening is in progress, then such a plant will not give a crop, since everything goes into the vegetative mass, into the greenery. These plants usually have a very weak flower raceme with few flowers. This happens from abundant watering when applying large doses of nitrogen and organic fertilizers and a lack of light.To straighten such plants, first of all, they do not need to be watered for 8 - 10 days, the air temperature should be increased for several days during the day to 25 - 26 ° С, and at night to 22 - 24 ° С. It is necessary to properly pollinate the flowers of these plants - in warm weather from 11 to 13 hours, shaking the flower brushes by hand. And to delay growth, root feeding with superphosphate is done (for 10 liters of water, you need to take 3 tablespoons of superphosphate, at the rate of 1 liter for each plant). And in a short time the plants are corrected.And for growth retardation, root feeding is done with superphosphate (for 10 liters of water, you need to take 3 tablespoons of superphosphate, at the rate of 1 liter for each plant). And in a short time the plants are corrected.And to delay growth, root feeding is done with superphosphate (for 10 liters of water, you need to take 3 tablespoons of superphosphate, at the rate of 1 liter for each plant). And in a short time the plants are corrected.
It happens that the leaves of plants are directed upward at an acute angle and do not curl either at night or during the day. Flowers and even small fruits often fall from such plants. The reasons for this are dry soil, high temperature in the greenhouse, poor ventilation, low light.
In this case, it is urgent to water the plants, reduce the temperature in the greenhouse, ventilate, etc. In well-developed plants, the upper leaves curl slightly during the day, and straighten at night, the flowers do not fall off, they are bright yellow, large, there are many of them in the flower brush … This means that the plant receives everything it needs to grow: light, nutrition, etc. A good harvest is obtained from such plants.
It often happens that beautiful large fruits are poured on the first brush, and on the second and third brushes the filling is slow. In order to speed up the filling on the second and third flower clusters and improve the flowering of subsequent ones, it is necessary to remove the first crop from the first cluster as early as possible, without waiting for the reddening of the fruits. The removed brown fruits ripen quickly on a sunny windowsill. Immediately after harvesting, water the soil at the rate of 10 - 12 liters of water per 1 m2. Stepsons and leaves are not cut off, the temperature in the greenhouse is reduced to 16 - 17 ° C (vents and doors are opened), especially at night. Under these conditions, the harvest quickly forms on subsequent clusters and ripens at an earlier date.
If in a good new greenhouse the plants are thin, with long internodes, a loose flower cluster and a small amount of fruit, then trees or berry bushes grow around it, preventing the penetration of light. As a result, the yield in such a greenhouse will be 3-4 times lower than in a greenhouse well-lit by the sun. Therefore, remember that tomatoes are the most light-loving crop. The fruits are sweet from the sun.
Getting an early crop of tomatoes
To get an early harvest of tomatoes, seedlings are grown earlier. The older the seedling, the more developed it is, which, in turn, allows you to harvest the fruit earlier. Typically, tomatoes, depending on the variety, take 110, 120 or 130 days from germination to fruiting. By creating more favorable external conditions - increasing the area of nutrition, light, heat, improving soil nutrition - you can shorten the period from germination to ripening of fruits by 10, 15, 20 days. And, as a rule, even an overgrown seedling with lignified stems gives a greater yield of fruits than a young, loose, easily breaking one. In more northern regions, where summer is shorter, the seedling age should be increased to 70 - 80 days. At the same time, it is not bad to use artificial supplementary lighting and maintain a temperature lowered to 14-15 ° C at night.An important role in getting an early harvest is played by hybrids with a superdeterminant or determinant type of growth, such as Druzhok, Yarilo, Semko-Sindbad, Blagovest, Scorpio, Verlioka, Semko-98, Funtik, Poisk, Gondola, Gina.