How To Use The Greenhouse In The Country As Efficiently As Possible? What Crops Can Be Planted Together? Zoning

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How To Use The Greenhouse In The Country As Efficiently As Possible? What Crops Can Be Planted Together? Zoning
How To Use The Greenhouse In The Country As Efficiently As Possible? What Crops Can Be Planted Together? Zoning

Video: How To Use The Greenhouse In The Country As Efficiently As Possible? What Crops Can Be Planted Together? Zoning

Video: How To Use The Greenhouse In The Country As Efficiently As Possible? What Crops Can Be Planted Together? Zoning
Video: The Beginner's Guide to Greenhouses 2023, April

Today you will not surprise anyone with the presence of a greenhouse in a summer cottage or a local area. They differ not only in design, but also in the area occupied - from miniature to huge. In any greenhouse, novice summer residents try to use every free square meter for growing crops. But excessive occupation of the greenhouse space with an abundance of plants can lead to a negative result. Plants will start to hurt, infecting nearby growing crops, accumulating negative microflora in the soil, and … in one week, the greenhouse can turn into a heap of dead plants. Therefore, having conceived to build and use a greenhouse, it is necessary to carefully think over and plan its construction and internal arrangement.

Greenhouse at their summer cottage
Greenhouse at their summer cottage


  • Internal arrangement of greenhouses
  • Layout of beds in the greenhouse
  • Types of greenhouse beds
  • Filling the beds
  • How to divide the greenhouse into zones for different plants?
  • Greenhouse vegetable compatibility
  • Rules for the location of crops in the greenhouse
  • How to increase the productivity of the greenhouse?
  • Using the greenhouse for growing seedlings of vegetable crops
  • Using the greenhouse for growing plants

Internal arrangement of greenhouses

The layout of the inner space of the greenhouse depends on its purpose and size. For the greenhouse itself, a place is selected so that the sun's rays illuminate it throughout the whole or most of the day. When growing low-growing plants (seedlings, peppers, bush tomatoes, green ones), the greenhouse is placed so that the beds are directed from north to south. In mixed plantings with growing parts of the plants on trellises (cucumbers, tall tomatoes, zucchini), it is better to place the beds from west to east for uniform illumination of crops.

Layout of beds in the greenhouse

The beds in the greenhouse should be of a size suitable for work. Wide beds with narrow paths will complicate not only caring for plants, but also create conditions for the development of fungal, bacterial and viral diseases. In multi-row thickened plantings, mutual oppression of plants will begin in the struggle for light, moisture and other benefits of the environment.

With a 1.8-2.0 meter wide greenhouse, 2 beds are usually broken along walls 70-80 cm wide or an arm's length with processing equipment. A passage of at least 40 cm is left between the beds, on which there are auxiliary equipment, trays with seedlings and other materials. Usually, the greenhouse passage is covered with sand, gravel, tiles so as not to slip through the mud when watering, processing plants and other works.

The beds on the sides and along their length are fenced with boards or other material in the form of a border up to 20-30 cm high so that the soil does not crumble onto the path. The curb is well strengthened so that it does not collapse under the load of soil.

In a greenhouse 3.0-3.5 meters wide, the optimal arrangement of the beds occupies 3 lanes and 2 lanes. Side beds are placed along the long side or along the perimeter of the greenhouse. The width of the beds is mainly determined by the type of plants grown. So, for trellis crops, side beds can be only 40-45 cm, and for bush crops - wider, but not more than 70-80 cm. The width limitation is associated with the possibility of only one-sided processing.

In the center of the greenhouse, there is a double bed, which can reach a width of 1.5 m, since it is processed from both sides. The paths are made of such a width that it is convenient to reach any plant and not damage it when performing work - watering, removing garbage, processing, harvesting.

For safety reasons, the tracks must be covered with any covering material so as not to slip on wet ground. In large greenhouses, paths are sometimes completely covered with cement (preferably with reinforcement) or individual tiles, and wooden flooring is laid.

Types of greenhouse beds

Greenhouse beds are subdivided into ground, raised, in the form of separate boxes, desktop. All types of beds, except for table beds, can be insulated.

Ground beds are the easiest to care for. They are usually set up in small greenhouses for growing seedlings, forcing greenery or several bushes of tomatoes, cucumbers. In such beds, the soil conditions do not ensure the normal development of vegetables and other crops and are not used in large closed-type structures.

Table beds are laid on specially prepared racks. They are most convenient for growing seedlings, radishes, forcing greenery, indoor flowers in a pot culture.

The most common and easy to care for plants in large greenhouses are tall beds. They can be 20-30-50 cm high. On such beds it is easier to carry out earthworks (change and disinfect the soil), take care of plants. They warm up quickly. In cold regions, the earth layer will create an additional thermal cushion, insulating it from the cold natural soil layer. With isolated beds, it is easier to maintain the paths. The ridges can be made in the form of separate boxes with bulk soil of the required height.

Sometimes in large greenhouses, removable racks are installed on which you can grow seedlings at the same time as forcing green ones in the beds. After sampling the seedlings, the racks are removed and basic crops (cucumbers, tomatoes, etc.) are planted on the garden bed.

Greenhouse zoning
Greenhouse zoning

Filling the beds

If the natural soil in the greenhouse is heavy, dense, you need to remove the top layer and make a good drainage flooring from rubble, broken brick and other waste. Pour the prepared or purchased soil mixture on top. Such beds are usually arranged in warm regions or in temporary use structures. In colder regions, it is advisable to make insulated beds.

On such insulated beds, only the upper nutrient layer, consisting of several components, is subject to annual replacement. The greenhouse owner can choose any method of warming the beds.

In greenhouses where it is planned to grow 4-6 or more types of vegetable products, it is better to divide long beds into several zones, especially if the crops grown require different illumination, humidity and air temperature.

How to divide the greenhouse into zones for different plants?

Each type of plant requires certain conditions for normal development and fruiting. From this point of view, the placement of plants different in relation to the environment in a confined space is a rather difficult task. To facilitate the selection of plants and create normal conditions for the growth, development and formation of the crop, the zoning of the greenhouse will be most correct.

It is practical to measure the temperature along the longitudinal walls of the greenhouse and highlight areas where the temperature changes. Separate these areas with any material, highlighting areas with a higher temperature and cooler. Usually the greenhouse is divided into 3 zones. If the greenhouse is heated, then the warm zone will be in the middle of the room, the warmest at the end and the coldest at the beginning, where the doors to the vestibule are constantly opened, performing certain work.

If the greenhouse has a large area, then the zones are separated with more durable material (plywood, plastic), temporary doors are installed. In greenhouses with an area of 3.0x10.0 m, zones are usually separated by plastic wrap with slots for passage or an oilcloth screen. Insulation will help to increase the level of humidity in the area, maintain the desired temperature, ventilate the allocated area. Depending on the conditions for each zone, the main / base and accompanying crops are selected for joint cultivation.

Greenhouse vegetable compatibility

The basic crops for growing in summer cottages are, in the absolute majority, tomatoes and cucumbers, and accompanying vegetables are planted with them. The placement of vegetables in the greenhouse must be thought out in advance. So, for tomatoes you need moderate watering, average air humidity, ventilation, mineral dressing, and for cucumbers, on the contrary, heat, humidity, organic matter, no drafts and temperature drops.

That is, for crops that are resistant to cold, the zone closest to the vestibule will be optimal, and for cucumbers, the middle or even distant one. To use the greenhouse at 100%, you need to provide a list of other vegetable and green crops necessary for the family. So, next to the tomatoes, you can plant other nightshades - bell peppers, eggplants. Quite good neighbors can be lettuce, onions, radishes, herbs, and other green ones that do not require high temperatures, humidity and other special conditions (Table 1).

The table below shows only the most common base crops and crops that have good compatibility with them. They are usually used for replanting on the sides of the garden or as early maturing (radish) before transplanting. By the way, you can lay a separate prefabricated bed and use it several times. After harvesting the first harvest, plant new prepared seedlings (salad), onions on a green feather, or sow green ones.

Garden beds in the greenhouse
Garden beds in the greenhouse

Table 1. Compatibility of vegetable crops when grown in a greenhouse

Basic culture Crops with excellent and good compatibility Cultures incompatible with the base
Tomatoes Cabbage, onions, garlic, beans, lettuce, radishes, spinach, celery for herbs, parsley, sweet pepper, eggplant Cucumbers, dill
Cucumbers Zucchini, squash, Peking cabbage, kohlrabi, onions for herbs, garlic, beans, salads, beets, celery for herbs, spinach, mint, Tomatoes, radishes
Cabbage Tomatoes, cucumbers, carrots, radishes, lettuce, beans, dill, celery for herbs, spinach, mint Onions, parsley
Prefabricated bed Onions for green feathers, parsley and dill for herbs, salads, mint, spinach, radishes, celery for herbs, etc. Tomatoes, cucumbers, beans and other tall crops or crops on a trellis

For cucumbers, zucchini, squash will be good neighbors, and again, like seals along the edges, you can sow green ones (dill, parsley, mint, watercress, etc.). But keep in mind that with such a selection of combined crops, there is the possibility of cross-pollination of cucumbers with other pumpkin seeds.

In this case, thinking in advance which crops will be planted in the greenhouse for the base one, select varieties that are resistant to over-pollination, diseases, and environmental requirements. So, dill can not be sown to tomatoes, but to cucumbers you can. Cucumbers hate radishes, and cabbage hates parsley.

It is more practical to carry out replanting and overseeding to the base culture with different varieties of culture, which will allow you to choose the most suitable ones over time. Incompatible crops are planted in different areas of the greenhouse.

Rules for the location of crops in the greenhouse

The main conditions for the normal growth and development of crops in a closed room are lighting, the level of humidity in the air and soil, ventilation and shade tolerance. It is difficult to combine these requirements for different cultures in one room. Having carefully familiarized yourself with the agrotechnical requirements and biological characteristics of crops, you can select crops for the zone according to the main limiting factor.

Plants that need bright lighting are planted on the south side of the greenhouse, requiring ventilation - near the vents and doors, high humidity - in a more isolated area. In greenhouse conditions, the method of alternating tops and roots is optimal (cabbage – tomatoes – carrots or beets), that is, the alternation of crops is selected according to the removal of nutrients with the harvest.

In large greenhouses, the height of the crop is the main factor limiting the growth and development of plants. If tall tomatoes are planted on the edge beds or cucumbers and beans are raised on a trellis, and low-growing ones (sweet peppers, eggplants, salads, beets, cabbage) are placed in the middle garden, then the latter will lack lighting. As a result, diseases will appear, pests will multiply. The same result is expected for too thick plantings. The best option would be to place tall crops in a medium garden bed, and on the sides of the greenhouse - undersized.

How to increase the productivity of the greenhouse?

In small greenhouses, where usually 2 beds are located, some novice greenhouses plant tomatoes on one, and on the contrary - cucumbers. In this case, both cultures suffer, as they require different conditions for growth and development. Therefore, it is better to divide the interior into 2 zones with a dividing curtain, thereby reducing the interdependence on the growing conditions of the neighboring crop.

It is possible to increase the productivity of a small greenhouse by compacting the base crops by planting undersized combiners with a superficial root system. Several crops can be harvested. With the first turn, sow several varieties of radish into the greenhouse (April). After harvesting, plant tomato or cucumber seedlings in May. After sowing and harvesting early cold-resistant greens (radishes, dill for herbs, onions for feathers), plant cabbage, salads or tomatoes, cucumbers.

Vegetables of the same type in the same zone of the greenhouse are best grown for different ripening periods (early, middle). After harvesting the early ones, plant the next early maturing crop with the same environmental requirements (cabbage, salads, greens, radishes, onions on a feather). To increase the productivity of the greenhouse on one bed, you can use a mixed, compacted, repetitive type of planting.

So, you can plant cucumbers with dill, cabbage with radishes at the same time in the garden. Tomatoes and bell peppers can be compacted with herbs, onions on feathers, radishes. Re-sowing beds can be cultivated in different ways. First, sow early varieties of radish, after harvesting, plant salads and greens. After harvesting, sow late varieties of radish or feather onions and other green crops again. You can grow early cold-resistant greens in the garden and, after cutting, plant early white cabbage and beans.

Placing various crops in the greenhouse
Placing various crops in the greenhouse

Using the greenhouse for growing seedlings of vegetable crops

Greenhouses with stationary heating are commonly used in the north, in regions with short, cold summers. They are usually operated all year round. In the southern, central chernozem and other regions with a fairly long warm period, greenhouses for the winter are frozen (open the roof) or allowed to rest and are put into production from February to grow seedlings of vegetable crops.

It is convenient to grow seedlings for a small greenhouse at home. For growing large quantities of seedlings of different vegetable crops, it is more practical to use one of the zones in the greenhouse. After the selection of seedlings, the vacated area is occupied by a vegetable crop. Removable seedling racks can be used.

Using the greenhouse for growing plants

In regions with the early onset of autumn cold weather, some vegetable crops do not have time to mature in the open field and, with unfavorable temperature jumps, they die. Growing in a greenhouse allows you to extend the growing season of the crop and get a full harvest. More often, cauliflower, leeks, celery, parsley and other vegetables that have not matured need to grow.

Plants intended for growing are carefully dug out with a soil clod and transferred to pre-prepared planting holes. Before planting in a greenhouse, damaged and yellow leaves are removed from plants, and the main root of parsley and celery is shortened. The well is filled with fertilizers (nitrofoskoy, kemira), watered and the crop is planted.

Care consists in watering and maintaining the required temperature. Temperature jumps, high air humidity, the appearance of dew on plants should not be allowed. When mold islands appear, you should immediately pollinate the soil with ash and dry the top layer with dry sand.

Thus, if the greenhouse is used from growing seedlings to growing vegetables that have not had time to ripen, then its workload will be maximum, and the family will be provided with fresh vitamin greens and vegetables for a long time.

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