What Greenhouse Crops To Sow In The Greenhouse? Names. Agrotechnics. Photo

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What Greenhouse Crops To Sow In The Greenhouse? Names. Agrotechnics. Photo
What Greenhouse Crops To Sow In The Greenhouse? Names. Agrotechnics. Photo
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Almost every dacha has a greenhouse or greenhouse. They are used mainly for the purpose of extending the use of fresh vegetables and green crops in the menu of the owners, or for growing seedlings. The greenhouse is a special world where systems of plants, insects and soil interact closely. A limited list of cultivated crops removes the same nutrients from the soil, in a short time depleting and disrupting the optimal ratio of nutrients. Sowing greenhouse greenhouse regularly helps to avoid this problem. What siderates and when to sow in the greenhouse, we will tell in this material.

Greenhouse siderata
Greenhouse siderata

Content:

  • Why do greenhouse crops need greenhouse crops?
  • Which greenhouse crops are suitable for sowing in a greenhouse?
  • Agricultural technology for growing greenhouse crops in a greenhouse
  • Do you need fertilizers for green manure?

Why do greenhouse crops need greenhouse crops?

Growing plants in a greenhouse gradually destroys the fertility and structure of the soil. After several years of permanent use, fertile soil turns into sterile mineralized soil. In a confined space, negative microflora accumulates, affecting greenhouse crops with fungal, microbial, viral and other diseases. The yield drops sharply.

Of course, there are ways to solve the problem of soil infertility, reduce contamination with negative microflora and other negative consequences. The most famous and used by the owners of summer cottages are the following methods - the introduction of manure, soil replacement (full or partial), disinfection of the interior of greenhouses and soil. But they are laborious, take time and effort, and to one degree or another affect the family budget.

In natural nature, plants independently, without human participation, help themselves, enrich the soil with organic matter due to the decomposition of the aboveground and underground mass, create a favorable environment for beneficial microflora and destroy the disease-causing one.

What if closed spaces are needed to get fresh vegetables and herbs? What activities will provide a positive result; will reduce labor and time costs when performing work on the care of soil and plants in greenhouses and greenhouses?

Nature itself suggested a way out. To create a cycle of ecosystems in a confined space, greenhouse technology has been increasingly used recently, which allows for a relatively short period to enrich the soil of greenhouses with organic matter, improve the structure, quality and fertility of the soil.

Siderata are fast-growing annual plants that in 2-4 weeks form a large green mass and a developed fibrous root system, located in the upper 30-40 cm layer of the soil.

The powerful roots of young plants "work" like a soil bioplow. A developing root system swells the soil, improving the access of moisture and oxygen. Green manure is actually an organic fertilizer, returning the basic nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium) and microelements to the soil during rapid decomposition, without requiring costs and funds for their purchase and application.

It is green manure crops, due to their biological characteristics, that quickly saturate the soil with humus - the main component of its fertility, create a favorable environment for beneficial microorganisms, worms, etc.

And most importantly: after the siderates, the soil does not need to be dug up. The siderat performed this procedure for you. The soil after them is airy, saturated with oxygen and nutrients in a form accessible to plants, it is disinfected and practically does not need additional anti-infective treatments. Naturally, there will be no such global changes in 1 year of using green manure, but after 3-4 years you will see that they work better than a shovel.

Mustard in the greenhouse
Mustard in the greenhouse

Which greenhouse crops are suitable for sowing in a greenhouse?

About 400 herbal annuals can be used as green fertilizers both in the open field and in the greenhouse. In practice, summer residents use about 20 crops to achieve the following results:

  • for loosening the soil;
  • receiving mulch;
  • increasing fertility;
  • disinfection of soil;
  • pest protection.

Greenhouse crops can be sown in a greenhouse all year round, but there are several rules, compliance with which increases their efficiency:

  • plants of the same family with the main greenhouse crop cannot be used as greenhouse crops;
  • green manure must be mowed before budding, otherwise they will become common weeds.

The table lists the useful properties of green manure and their compatibility with the main plants (Table 1). The use of material from the table will allow you to choose the optimal combination of the main crop and green manure, which will reduce the acidity of the soil, increase natural fertility, disinfect the soil, and eliminate pests.

Table 1. Characteristics of the most common types of greenhouse greenhouses

Siderat Beneficial features Culture
Cruciferous family
Mustard, spring and winter rapeseed, rape, oil radish Suppress weeds and pathogenic microorganisms, loosen the soil well, destroy wireworms, slugs, enrich with phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, organic matter. Oil radish additionally destroys root rot, nematode. Nematodes settle under the rapeseed. If the soil is contaminated, it is better to sow rapeseed mixed with mustard. The mixture will stop the nematode from breeding. Tomatoes, sweet peppers, eggplants, cucumbers, zucchini, carrots, parsley, dill
Family of cereals
Oats, rye, barley, annual ryegrass, wheat, gray wheatgrass They increase the content of organic matter, moisture permeability of the soil, the content of nitrogen and potassium, and destroy the nematode. Oats and rye cleanse the soil from fungi and infections, including late blight. Wireworm settles under the rye. To expel it, it is better to use this green manure in a mixture with mustard and rape. Tomatoes, sweet peppers, eggplants, cucumbers, zucchini,
Buckwheat family
Buckwheat Reduces acidity, increases the content of phosphorus and potassium. Recommended for heavy soils. For all greenhouse crops
Legume family
Vicat, peas, beans, lupine, clover, alfalfa, lentils Increases the content of organic matter and nitrogen in the upper soil layers. They loosen the soil well. Peas protects the soil from nematodes, pathogens, removes sparingly soluble phosphates. Tomatoes, sweet peppers, eggplants, cucumbers, zucchini, radishes
Borage family
Phacelia A universal green manure, after which any vegetable crop develops effectively. Sowing phacelia on 1 weave replaces 300 kg of manure in terms of efficiency. All types of vegetables grown in greenhouse conditions

Green manure crops can be sown separately or in mixtures. Green manure mixtures should contain the maximum amount of cereal seeds (50-60% of the total mass). During decomposition, they enrich the soil with potassium. Such crops should contain approximately equally (10-15%) vetch, white mustard, phacelia.

Vetch increases the nitrogen content, and white mustard - phosphorus and, in addition, it effectively disinfects the soil from pathogenic microflora (late blight). Phacelia well suppresses weeds introduced earlier in the greenhouse, and destroys pathogenic microorganisms, contributes to soil deoxidation. Rapeseed (5%) is added to the mixture to increase the green mass. Like phacelia, rapeseed kills harmful microorganisms.

In a greenhouse, it is impossible to observe crop rotation of crops so that the return to its previous place was no earlier than 3 to 5 years, but you can successfully calculate the crop rotation of green manure and gradually heal the soil, saturating it with the necessary elements, organic matter, disinfect it, and against this background, successfully grow necessary crops.

If the greenhouse consists of two beds, then you can adhere to the following scheme for using green manure (Table 2). Over a 5-year period, 5 compositions of green manure mixtures will pass through the beds, which will help the main plants to develop in good conditions and free summer residents from a number of heavy manual labor.

Table 2. Scheme of crop rotation of green manure (approximate)

year Main culture Mix or separate green manure (sow after harvesting the main crop
1 Radishes, carrots, parsley, green (dill, parsley, etc.) Clover, spring vetch, mustard, winter rape
2 Peas, beans, cucumbers Buckwheat, mustard, phacelia, oats, vetch.
3 Any nightshade, incl. tomatoes, sweet peppers, eggplant Lupine, sweet clover, alfalfa. Separately - mustard, oats, barley.
4 Zucchini, cucumbers, green, carrots Mustard, oil radish, phacelia. Can be replaced with vetch-oat mixture.
five Greens (salads), peas, tomatoes of different ripening periods. Vetch, rapeseed, oats or buckwheat, phacelia oats, rape. You can repeat the first year mixture.

Some owners in the last month of growth and development of the main crop (for example, tomatoes in August), sow mustard under it. While the main crop yields its last fruits, mustard restrains phytophthora (usually fierce by this time), disinfects the soil and is ready for cutting and turning into humus. And next spring (see table 2) you can sow vetch with oats.

Siderata can be sown in a greenhouse instead of mulch
Siderata can be sown in a greenhouse instead of mulch

Agricultural technology for growing greenhouse crops in a greenhouse

The timing of sowing siderates in the greenhouse

You can sow greenhouse greenhouse in early spring (late February, March), using cold-resistant and fast-growing crops (vetch, sweet clover, phacelia, rapeseed, mustard, oil radish, oats, rye). The most cold-resistant green manures are vetch and rape, which can be sown at temperatures of -5 ° C and -8 ° C, respectively. The same crops can be sown in the summer (June, July).

In autumn in September, it is better to sow rye, oats, rapeseed, phacelia, vetch.

Sowing options for siderates

  • independent;
  • compacted;
  • backstage.

In the first method of sowing, the main crop is sown or planted after the planting of green manure.

In the second case, the main crop (seedling) is planted in the aisles of the green manure. Can be planted directly into the holes formed in the sowing of green manure. Siderata are pruned at a height of 10-15 cm and remain in the garden as mulch.

With the third, the bed is divided into rows where the main crop is planted, and in the aisles, like a curtain, green manure grows.

The main culture after green manure is planted in 2-3 weeks, which is due to its rotting.

Spring sowing of green manure

When sowing siderates in spring, they first throw snow into the greenhouse or otherwise saturate the soil with moisture. Seeds are scattered chaotically on wet soil, slightly embedded in the soil. If you plan to sow green plants or plant seedlings, it is better to loosen the topsoil (5-7 cm), form grooves, sow green manures, sprinkle with soil and water with warm water.

On the 3rd-7th day, seedlings of green manure crops appear. The entire period before mowing green manure, it is necessary to keep the soil moist, which will accelerate the emergence of seedlings and the rapid growth of green mass by plants. When the height of the aboveground mass of green manure is 15-30 cm (until the buds appear), cut it off and seal it into the topsoil with a Fokin flat cutter or a hoe.

For better decay, systematically water the soil, but avoid stagnant water. After 2-3 weeks, you can plant / sow the main crop, between the rows of green manure.

Autumn sowing of green manure

Autumn sowing of siderates is most effective, especially if the greenhouse is not used in winter. After harvesting and putting the greenhouse in order, the greenhouse beds are sown by scattering, the seeds are embedded in the upper 1-3 cm layer of soil, and watered. If the autumn is warm, the green manure will have time to form a root system and frost will not damage the plants.

If the sowing date is missed, then you need to sow frost-resistant crops - vetch, rapeseed, rye, oats. Mustard and radish won't do. Sowing in the fall has its advantages. Siderat “works” on the main culture all winter. The roots loosen the soil, the green mass is processed into humic substances. In the spring, the cut serves as mulch, which allows the main crop to be planted earlier.

Autumn sowing of green manure is most effective, especially if the greenhouse is not used in winter
Autumn sowing of green manure is most effective, especially if the greenhouse is not used in winter

Do you need fertilizers for green manure?

The question is, of course, interesting and timely. Mineral fertilizers in the early years will be necessary for foliar dressing. Ash is effective, providing the main crops with additional micro and macro elements. Before the flowering of the main crop, it is possible to add nitrophoska or kemira in minimal quantities, no more than 5 g under a bush of nightshades, pumpkin, 5-10 g per running meter in the form of aqueous solutions under radishes, carrots, salads and other small crops.

To accelerate the mass germination of green manure, after sowing, the soil can be treated with biological preparations "Baikal EM-1", "Vostok-M". These drugs promote the multiplication of beneficial effective microorganisms that destroy the pathogenic microflora. They help green manure to cleanse and disinfect the soil, develop a large root system, which, when rotted, leaves microchannels that contribute to the enrichment of the soil with oxygen.

These preparations can be sprayed on plants during the growing season in order to protect them from fungal and bacterial diseases. And together, green manure and biological products will provide a good high-quality harvest of vegetables and other garden and horticultural crops without the use of chemicals.

Dear Readers! Have you found the answers to your burning questions? What else would you like to know about greenhouse greenhouse greenhouse cultivation? Share your methods of nutrient enrichment and decontamination of greenhouse soils in the comments to the article or on our Forum.

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