How And What To Feed Goats? Main Types Of Feed, Choice Of Pastures, Feeding And Drinking Regime. Photo

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How And What To Feed Goats? Main Types Of Feed, Choice Of Pastures, Feeding And Drinking Regime. Photo
How And What To Feed Goats? Main Types Of Feed, Choice Of Pastures, Feeding And Drinking Regime. Photo

Video: How And What To Feed Goats? Main Types Of Feed, Choice Of Pastures, Feeding And Drinking Regime. Photo

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Video: WHAT WE FEED OUR GOATS - Feed, browse, or both? 2023, January
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Feeding a goat is easy. There are no problems with feed in summer. If there is a pasture, then the question of feeding, in general, disappears. The edge of the forest, an abandoned field, an ownerless flower bed or lawn - nothing special is required for a goat. Sedge, acacia and any grass goat goes to food. In nature, goats pluck mountain slopes that are very poor (in terms of food). With the stall keeping of goats, the issue of nutrition is more complicated, but quite solvable. How and what to feed and feed goats in winter and summer, we will tell in this article.

How and what to feed goats?
How and what to feed goats?

Content:

  • Where to graze goats in summer?
  • The main types of feed for goats
  • The danger of overeating
  • What to exclude from the diet of goats?
  • Feeding the goats
  • The diet of goats
  • How to increase milk yield by feeding?
  • What to give goats to drink?
  • Mineral and vitamin supplements

Where to graze goats in summer?

If there is a choice of pasture, then it is better to graze goats where they grow:

  • clover;
  • alfalfa;
  • sweet clover;
  • wheatgrass;
  • sagebrush.

If the pasture is sown, then it is good for goats to sow it with the following crops:

  • common hedgehog;
  • two-source,
  • bonfire,
  • meadow foxtail,
  • marsh and meadow bluegrass,
  • ryegrass,
  • American wheatgrass,
  • creeping clover,
  • alfalfa sowing and sickle.

If the soil permits, you can diversify the crops: legumes, forage cabbage, cereal grass are suitable. The best hay for goats is sown hay - from legumes. When feeding legumes with hay, the amount of grain in the feed should be reduced.

In the process of evolution, the goat has formed an excellent digestive apparatus - a 4-chamber stomach. It allows the goat and branches, and sedge, and needles, and algae to digest.

A goat cannot live without roughage. She needs at least 1 kg of them per day, and optimally 3-5 kg, branches can replace up to 30% of roughage.

There are three main types of food. Rough, juicy and concentrated.

The digestive apparatus allows goats and branches, and sedges, and needles, and algae to digest
The digestive apparatus allows goats and branches, and sedges, and needles, and algae to digest

The main types of feed for goats

Roughage for goats

Roughage is the most natural food for goats. After the end of the growing season of plants, goats have to be content with hay, twigs, straws.

Hay is stored at the beginning of flowering plants. Then it contains the maximum of its vitamin and trace element composition. The grass, damp from dew and rain, is dried. The most valuable is hay from field meadows.

You cannot stock up on hay on city lawns and on roadsides. Hay from swamps, forests and lowlands is no better than straw. And the straw of grain crops cannot be substituted for hay. You can give it a maximum of a quarter or a third of the amount of hay. And this is about the straw of spring crops. Winter straw is even less nutritious.

In winter, you can feed your goats with grain fodder - wheat, barley, rice, oats, corn. The grain is ground and added to the hay. You can mix different grains, but not more than 0.5 kg per head per day.

Barley is better suited for fattening beef breeds. Milk goats from barley gain excess weight. This deteriorates milk production in goats, and in goats, breeding qualities decrease. Only mature oats are suitable. If it is puny, then it is poorly digested and absorbed.

Grain should not be overused. No more than 300-500 g per day per goat. The grain is given dry so that the goats chew it for a long time. Goats cannot digest porridge, porridge is for animals with a single stomach.

In order not to damage the teeth of animals, cereals are crushed or ground.

Tree branches are also roughage. They are given in half with hay, it is better not to give them separately, they are low in nutrition. It is best to take for the preparation of twigs:

  • birch,
  • willow,
  • willow,
  • linden,
  • alder,
  • hazel,
  • poplar.

Their goats willingly eat. It is good to harvest branches to replace hay in winter.

Roughage - the most natural for goats, including tree branches
Roughage - the most natural for goats, including tree branches

Juicy goat food

In summer, grass is a juicy food for goats. In winter, it is replaced with pumpkin, cabbage, carrots, beets. Succulent feeds are distinguished by their milk efficacy.

Root vegetables are given raw, but washed and chopped. Moreover, the whole root crop with tops and roots is eaten. All root vegetables are given raw, except for potatoes. It must be boiled. And give no more than 500 g per day.

In the summer, goats are given apples and pears. Goat apples are very fond of, but you cannot give them a lot. They are sour. Provide goats with overripe cucumbers and zucchini, as well as cracked tomatoes and peppers. The vegetables are chopped to prevent the goats from choking. Dirty vegetables should be washed, and rotten vegetables should be trimmed.

When feeding vegetables and tops, chalk must be added to them. Since by themselves they are sour.

Silage is a great alternative to grass for the winter

Silage is an excellent winter juicy forage. Silage is harvested in pits or insulated containers. The pits are insulated with a layer of earth and straw. Nowadays, harvesting in a pit in a polyethylene sleeve is considered a progressive and resource-saving method. The temperature of the silage process is from 5 to 35 degrees, the humidity is from 60 to 70%. At the same time, lactic acid bacteria convert the fiber and carbohydrates of plants into nutritious and aromatic silage.

The main crops suitable for ensiling include plants with a high sugar content:

  • corn;
  • sorghum;
  • clover;
  • Sudanese grass;
  • sunflower;
  • winter rye;
  • soy;
  • perennial legumes, peas;
  • perennial cereals.

Plants with a low sugar content are not ensiled. For example, young alfalfa, nettle, tops of potatoes, tomatoes, watermelons, pumpkins, many weeds.

Conditions for obtaining good silage:

  • The term for laying is no more than 2-4 days, the faster you clog the grass in a bag, the better.
  • Fine grinding, thorough tamping and anaerobic conditions.
  • The temperature inside the pit is not higher than + 37 ° С. The microflora heats up the silage.
  • Silo insulation: plastic wrap + 8-10 cm layer of earth + sowing of weeds (to protect the silage from moisture) + 80-100 cm straw (protection against hypothermia in winter).

Silage preparation is easy. Finely chopped fresh hay, tops, cabbage leaves, meadow grass, stems, as well as legumes, sunflowers, and corn are placed in a prepared container or sleeve. Raw materials that are too moist and too acidic are poorly silage. Wet can be dried, and sour can be alkalized with chalk (1 gram per kilogram of greens).

Silage is a very cheap substitute for pasture. Therefore, it can be harvested as much as possible (up to 600-800 kg per goat).

Silage is prepared simply - finely chopped fresh hay, tops, cabbage leaves, meadow grass, stems are placed in a prepared container or sleeve
Silage is prepared simply - finely chopped fresh hay, tops, cabbage leaves, meadow grass, stems are placed in a prepared container or sleeve

Concentrated feed

Compound feeds are considered to be a fully balanced feed, for example for pigs or poultry. That is, for animals with a single stomach. The digestive system of goats is adapted for the digestion of roughage. In the rumen, the hay is digested by microorganisms, while heat is released - the microflora of the hay heats the goats.

The goat feed should be added a little at a time. No more than half a kilogram per head per day. In excess, concentrates lead to kidney stones and disrupt the digestion of goats.

The goat feed is OK-80. It is important to keep track of the release date of the compound feed. It is stored for no longer than 3 months. This feed contains herbal granules, which can reduce the portion of hay.

You can prepare the compound feed yourself. For goats during lactation (with a daily milk yield of 4 liters), the following composition of the mixture is recommended:

  • barley 30%;
  • corn 20%;
  • oats 22%;
  • wheat bran 11%;
  • dry feed yeast 1%;
  • sunflower cake 12%;
  • table salt 1%;
  • premix for lactating goats 1%;
  • feed chalk 2%.

Other food for goats

Beet pulp, molasses, oil cakes, meal, feed yeast and other waste from the food industry can be added to goat feed. But you need to monitor the quality of waste. Oilcakes and meal can become rancid and moldy.

Yeast should be given carefully, it can change the microflora of the stomachs and even "stop" the digestion of goats. Do not give spoiled feed to goats under any circumstances!

If there is a pasture, then in the summer the question of feeding goats, in general, disappears
If there is a pasture, then in the summer the question of feeding goats, in general, disappears

The danger of overeating

You can feed your goats to your heart's content But this is fraught with overeating, as well as bloating. It often comes from mixing different feeds in one meal. Vegetables, roots, fruits, grain mixtures simultaneously being in the rumen can lead to abundant reproduction of microflora and bloating. The feed should be broken up and the goats should be fed more uniformly. And give more nutritious food in the morning.

Bloating can also overtake animals at the beginning of the grazing period. For prevention, just before pasture, goats need to be fed with hay. Otherwise, they will overeat the tasty young grass. There may be a digestive upset. The stomach may "stop" from bloating. And this is very dangerous. Up to death.

What to exclude from the diet of goats?

Poisonous plants. Plants possess the most dangerous and even deadly poisons:

  • fern (in any form) - fraught with internal bleeding;
  • hellebore (especially in hay) - respiratory tract damage;
  • wolf bean or lupine (in hay) - depending on the dose: from infertility to death from respiratory arrest.

Less dangerous, but can also poison goats:

  • nightshade;
  • wild rosemary;
  • red clover;
  • thigh;
  • dope grass;
  • feather grass;
  • trailer;
  • setaria (bristle);
  • sprouted potatoes (especially green ones);
  • cake of flax, hemp, rapeseed, mustard, rape, camelina;
  • rotten, sour, infected with fungi, mold, ergot;
  • plants containing insects (aphids, caterpillars, whites, barn weevils, ticks).

We exclude all this from the diet of goats.

Downy breeds of goats are prohibited:

  • Crimean burr;
  • cockleburs;
  • succession;
  • burdocks;
  • black root;
  • bonfire;
  • Velcro.

Milk can be spoiled:

  • sorrel;
  • tansy;
  • marigold;
  • wormwood;
  • cabbage leaves;
  • celandine;
  • sugar beet;
  • garlic;
  • wild garlic;
  • madder;
  • anemone (anemone);
  • chamomile;
  • rape;
  • horsetail;
  • bedbug.
Eating ferns can cause internal bleeding for goats
Eating ferns can cause internal bleeding for goats

Feeding the goats

The goat must be fed so that it is strong, strong, but not fat. Even during the grazing period, it needs to be fed. Good hay from legumes, juicy silage, cake, fruits, peas, carrots, boiled eggs, beets are suitable for this. In general, you need to give about 4 kg of feed per day, of which half the hay.

Instead of water, it is good to give goats back. For immunity and good seed, goats should be given multivitamins and trace elements. In winter, goat walking is required.

The diet of goats

In summer, the goats organize their own day at the pasture. You just need to organize watering and feeding. And in winter they need to be fed regularly, every 6-7 hours.

Moreover, in the morning it is necessary to give more nutritious feed, for example, compound feed and potatoes, in the afternoon - hay or silage, in the evening - brooms or straw. Twigs fit on a broom:

  • poplar;
  • willow;
  • aspen;
  • hazel;
  • mountain ash.

As fillers add:

  • heather herbs;
  • nettle leaves;
  • meadowsweet herbs;
  • fireweed.

Calculation per animal per day: hay - 10 kg, concentrates and root crops - 3 kg. It would be good to chop hay, chopped hay is better absorbed.

How to increase milk yield by feeding?

There are milk-suppressing plants in the pasture, such as celandine, milestones, cicuta, forest lily of the valley, coniferous twigs, horsetail, hogweed. They must be avoided.

But there are also milk-producing ones: this is nettle, caraway seeds, chamomile, wormwood, oregano, yarrow. A pasture with these grasses is good for milking goats. Such herbs should be harvested in brooms and given with food in winter, as well as hung on fences and bushes for walking. But the ties from the brooms must be removed. And then the goats will eat them too.

Approximate lactic acid diet

Stern Live weight, kg
45 60 75
Clover hay 1.5 1.8 2
beet 2 2.5 3.5
Bran 0.9 0.9 0.9
Salt, g 3 4 4
Phosphates, calcium, g ten 12 12

What to give goats to drink?

Goats often suffer from dehydration. At the same time, they refuse water. This is because in nature, goats drink the purest mountain water. And they have high water requirements.

This problem can be solved simply. Making teas for them by brewing herbs.

You need to start training with water for the kids. Compotes are cooked for them. Orange peel, potato peel, apple peel - nothing special. Just a flavored drink. Goats love hazy water. Preferably warmed over a fire with birch logs. Yes, although they are unpretentious, goats can be very capricious.

The temperature of tea in winter should be at least 45 ° C. Goats won't drink iced tea. One goat needs up to 6 liters of water per day.

The goat must be fed so that it is strong, strong, but not fat
The goat must be fed so that it is strong, strong, but not fat

Mineral and vitamin supplements

Vitamins are an indispensable component of goat nutrition. They regulate the absorption of minerals, the formation of immunity, and stimulate productivity. In summer, goats almost completely satisfy the body's needs for vitamins on lush grass under the summer sun. For full supply of elements, you need to keep freely available - lick salt.

In winter, goats are threatened with vitamin deficiency. With a lack of vitamins in goats, it is noted:

  • decrease in milk production,
  • dry skin and mucous membranes,
  • decreased appetite and weight gain,
  • stunted growth
  • the birth of weak kids,
  • tearing and blurred vision.

Vitamins of groups D, E are of great importance. With a lack of vitamin D, signs of rickets are noted: the kids' hooves are tucked, the hair becomes thinner, and bald patches appear. Vitamin D accumulates in hay when dried in the sun.

For medicinal purposes, fish oil is given - 45 ml per adult animal. Fish oil will be delicious when served on black bread with salt. For natural production of vitamin D in winter, erythema emitters can be installed in stalls. One emitter under the ceiling is enough for 20 m 2 of the room.

For the prevention of rickets, you need to add to the feed:

  • a piece of chalk;
  • table salt;
  • bone meal.

Vitamin B12 is needed by goats for the absorption of iron, it affects blood formation. It is especially necessary for growing kids. In summer, with pasture feeding, there are no problems with it, and in winter you need to add multivitamins.

  • Eleovit is a fully balanced mixture for artiodactyls. Enough injection of 1 ml 1 time in 2 weeks (for prophylaxis), 1 time in 7 days (with vitamin deficiency).
  • "Tetravit" is a vitamin complex for the growth of livestock. The kids are given 1 ml 1 time in 14 days (prophylactically), 1 ml in 7 days with vitamin deficiency.
  • Kalfostonik is another multivitamin complex. The norm is 10g per 1 head of young stock. The course is 3 weeks.

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