How And What To Feed Pigs? Types Of Feed, Diet, Photo

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How And What To Feed Pigs? Types Of Feed, Diet, Photo
How And What To Feed Pigs? Types Of Feed, Diet, Photo

Video: How And What To Feed Pigs? Types Of Feed, Diet, Photo

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Video: What to Feed Pigs: Complete Feeds 2023, January
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Piglet fattening is a very profitable undertaking. Piglets, for example, grow 3 times more efficiently than calves. If you need more than 10 kg of feed to obtain 1 kg of beef, then per kg of pork - from 3.6 kg of feed. Even taking into account the relative high cost of concentrated feed compared to coarse feed, pigs pay off better feed. You can feed pigs using several technologies. They are uncomplicated, differ, basically, only in the set of feed. How and what to feed pigs, I will tell you in my article.

How and what to feed pigs?
How and what to feed pigs?

Content:

  • How to feed the nursery pigs?
  • Features of fattening pigs for meat
  • Vitamins and mineral supplements
  • Pig feeding technologies for meat
  • Feeding mode
  • Types of feed by consistency

How to feed the nursery pigs?

A healthy and strong piglet will grow well. Signs of health: a broad back, a long body, a back not drooping, and strong legs. The piglet runs actively, breathes well, eats with appetite (does not suck and does not have enough).

Piglets after weaning are called weaning, and the period of growth before fattening is called rearing. Piglets get used to dry and wet feed during this period. The digestive system is developing rapidly, and it is very important to properly prepare the piglets for further successful feeding.

In order to avoid growth retardation, it is necessary to observe the feeding regime and conformity of the diet to the needs of the growing organism. Piglets should receive fresh, nutritious food three times a day. Throw away anything not eaten. Intestinal diseases in fattening are unacceptable.

For fast growth, piglets need to eat protein-rich foods. In the form of bone meal, fish meal, skim milk or milk. For full development, vitamin and mineral supplements are also needed.

When growing, it is undesirable to give the weaners corn, buckwheat, bran of wheat, barley and rye. These feeds increase greasiness prematurely. If the piglets are overfed with cake, soy or oats, then the meat can become loose, and the fat yellow.

Two-month weanings should receive approximately:

  • 150 g of grain
  • 250 g carrots or fodder beets,
  • 600 g of low-fat milk or skim milk,
  • 500 g of boiled potatoes and porridge from ground grain or tarts,
  • 100 g herbal flour
  • 10 g salt
  • 15 g of chalk.

Gradually, you can add food waste, vegetable cleaners, grass and vegetable tops.

If possible, piglets should be grazed. First for an hour, then up to 6-8 hours a day. In winter, you can accustom yourself to silage, hay dust, vegetables.

By the way! It is forbidden to feed pigs with bananas, citrus fruits, coffee grounds and tea leaves. Cakes from cotton and from castor bean nuts can be especially dangerous. They are rich in the poison of the alkaloid glossypol.

If yes, piglets need to be grazed
If yes, piglets need to be grazed

Features of fattening pigs for meat

Grown pigs are transferred to fattening when they get used to all types of feed. This occurs at the age of 3–4 months, with a weight of 25–30 kg. A piglet properly prepared for fattening can give up to 700 g of weight gain per day.

You need to feed regularly, at the same time. Two, maximum three times a day. Feeding too often promotes the deposition of fatty tissue.

It is good if this period falls on spring or summer. Walking and pasture are a good feeding aid. In addition, the initial feeding period should consist of a third of green juicy feed.

Access to clean water must be permanent. Depending on the age and feed consistency, the pig can drink up to 8 liters of water.

The temperature in the finisher should not drop below + 15 ° C. Humidity is at least 60-70%. In such conditions, pigs have better appetite and health.

When fattening, do not feed pigs to the dump. Excess feed is used for fat formation. Feeders should be empty and clean between feedings.

Grass, tops and vegetables should be crushed. Small parts of plants are better absorbed. Legumes are very good for fattening: alfalfa, clover, sweet clover. Of the crucifers, rape, turnip, cabbage are desirable. Cabbage should not be given before slaughter, stop for a month, otherwise the meat will be sour. Nettle, quinoa, vetch, burdock, dandelion, peas, beet tops, squash and pumpkin leaves are very beneficial for both the piglets and the feeding budget. Piglets and any weeds are eaten.

Pigs have a good nose, and they avoid poisonous plants. But this is in the pasture, and in the heat of group feeding they can grab anything. Therefore, it is necessary to exclude the ingestion of celandine, lily of the valley, caustic buttercup, soapwort, milkweed, horse dill, black nightshade, pickleberry, dog parsley and others into the feed.

Food waste must be thermally processed without fail. Untreated, they turn sour and cause poisoning and, consequently, diarrhea.

Meat and fish waste is given to pigs only in boiled form. Salted fish should be soaked from salt before feeding, then boiled. A month before slaughter, do not give fish - otherwise the meat will smell unpleasant; oats, oilcakes, soybeans and millet are also excluded before slaughter.

Avoid feeding on boiled beets, raw potatoes, moldy or parasitic food. Potatoes, corn, and wheat bran give the meat a loose, unpleasant taste. On the contrary, barley and dairy products give the meat a pleasant taste.

Food temperature should not exceed 40 ° C. Hot food should be cooled before feeding. The pigs themselves do not know how to wait, they will burn their esophagus and stomach

Vitamins and mineral supplements

The feed should be mixed with minerals, salt and vitamins. There are many of them - bone meal, chalk, table salt, eggshells, tricalcium phosphate, coal and charcoal, wood ash, shell rock, sapropel, lime tuff, travertine, turf. They are rich in macro- and microelements - phosphorus, iron, chlorine, sodium, calcium, zinc, sulfur.

Growth and development of piglets is impossible without micro and macro elements. Their presence in the stern is mandatory. But it's easier to buy ready-made vitamin and mineral supplements. Their cost is much less than the benefit obtained from the increase in weight gain due to the use of mixtures.

Wet food is the most beneficial food for pigs digestion, as it requires a lot of water to digest food
Wet food is the most beneficial food for pigs digestion, as it requires a lot of water to digest food

Pig feeding technologies for meat

Depending on the feed, three types of pig feeding are used:

  • Concentrated potato: grain mixtures - 70% of the diet, potatoes - 30%.
  • Concentrated root vegetable: in this diet, three quarters of grains and a quarter of root crops.
  • Concentrated: All-grain ration.

Fattening piglets are fed with concentrates 2 times a day. The combined feed is given three times a day. Potatoes and root vegetables can be partially replaced with combisilos, grass, legume hay or grass flour. Up to a third of the feed can be replaced with food waste.

Feeding mode

There are 2 main modes of feeding and feeding:

1. Quantitative feeding:

a) Feeding ad libitum. The piglets are given more feed than they can eat. It is used for young animals and when using dry feed mixtures that are not subject to acidification. Once a week, the feeders are cleaned of residues. What does not turn sour may become moldy.

b) Feeding according to the norms. Three times a day, set the amount that the pigs will definitely eat in 2 hours. This is how lactating queens and fatteners are fed.

c) Restricted feeding. So you need to feed pregnant pigs. The same method is used to obtain lean meat. It is achieved with low-calorie food, in which there is more roughage, as well as with a decrease in feed rates.

2. Fattening according to age norms:

a) Pregnant queens are fed once a day. To fill the stomach and free time, they are added another roughage feeding. Since they especially cannot gain weight.

b) Sows after weaning, lactating and mating gilts are fed twice a day.

c) Weaners, gilts and fattening pigs are fed three times a day. During preparation for slaughter, they switch to two-time feeding in three days; on the last day, only roughage is given. A different regime would be a waste of feed. And excess waste during slaughter.

When feeding with dry feed, access to water for pigs should be mandatory, free and constant
When feeding with dry feed, access to water for pigs should be mandatory, free and constant

Types of feed by consistency

Wet feed

Wet food is the most digestive food for pigs as it requires a lot of water to digest food. The food usually contains boiled potatoes, steamed compound feed, fodder roots, as well as food waste and chopped fresh grass or steamed hay. Wet food has the fastest absorption. A small expenditure of strength and energy for such digestion strengthens the immunity of piglets. With this kind of feeding, fattening takes place on a tight schedule.

Such a mash is easy to prepare if there is a sufficiently equipped feed shop. It is only necessary to rinse the feeders from food debris. Sour food is a source of flies and intestinal problems.

There are sometimes cunning pig breeders who add the antibiotic "Bitsillin" to the feed. Problems with digestion in piglets may be decreasing, but then we eat meat with antibiotics ourselves.

Wet feeding is very efficient, but just as time consuming. In addition to the feed itself, you also have to carry water, with which the feed is diluted. Moreover, wet food is not just a mash of food and water. Everything must, at least, be steamed, or even cooked. And this, again, is the cost of labor, time, and electricity.

A pig is an omnivorous animal, but only concentrated feed can effectively digest. For fattening, pigs must have protein in their diet. Protein rich in pulses, oilcakes, nutritional yeast, reverse, fish meal. Feeds with such additives are very nutritious, but spoil quite quickly. Therefore, they should not be left in the trough for more than an hour.

If a refrigerator is not provided in the pigsty and no one pretends to be scraps, the remaining feed is thrown away. However, if there are more than two piglets, there is always someone who wants to buy the remains.

Dry food

The most common type of feeding. It is used on industrial farms, therefore this type is very popular among the population around these farms. With this type, a complete feed is used. It is rich in calories, vitamins and minerals.

This is its main advantage. That is, the feed preparation process has already been passed by the manufacturer, and the pig breeder saves a lot of his time. Labor costs are also lower, since dry food is much lighter than wet food. But, with such feeding, access to clean water should be mandatory, free and constant.

Dry food keeps well and is easy to prepare yourself. Another plus of such feeding is that it is drier and cleaner indoors.

Tab. I. Comparison of the quantitative characteristics of the daily allowance for grain and compound feed

Cereals Unit rev. Feeding rate per head 50 kg Feed per day Fodder units in 1 kg of feed Sut. gain
Barley kg 2.3-2.5 two or more 1, 21 500 g
Millet kg 2,3 two or more 0.96 500 g
Wheat kg 2.1-2.4 two or more not less than 1.2 500 g
Oats kg 2.1 two or more 1 500 g
Rye kg 2 two or more 1.18 500 g
Peas kg from 2 two or more 1.17 500 g
Corn kg up to 2 two or more 1.34 500 g

The disadvantage of such feeding is that it is dangerous for the respiratory tract. The smallest piglets are most susceptible to respiratory pathologies from inhalation of small particles. Therefore, you need to monitor the presence of flour in the compound feed. The less it is, the less problems with respiratory diseases will be.

The disadvantages can also be attributed to its high cost.

Granulated feed

Pellets are very similar in their effects to dry feeding. But there is absolutely no mealy fraction in it, so it is good to give it to small pigs. It is excellent to use it for fattening.

Concentrated feeding

Concentrates are a mixture of mineral and vitamin complexes, as well as protein supplements. Concentrated feeding can also be classified as dry feeding, but it is completely balanced.

The only downside is its high cost.

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