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Video: How To Help A Seedling To Take Root In A New Place? Problems, Mistakes, Landing. Photo
Seedlings are bought by everyone from whom the area still allows, and most of those from whom no longer allows. This is such a specific disease of gardeners. The acquired seedling warms the soul. And if it's cheap, it's even nicer. That is, seedlings are sometimes acquired stale, overdried, with bare roots and sometimes frankly unviable. Demand creates supply. This article will be about seedlings, their problems, planting and mistakes.
- Long-suffering saplings
- How to help a purchased seedling?
- Gentle landing
- My observations
The vast majority of seedlings are bought with an open root system. That is, a plant that has taken root in a nursery is dug out of the ground, small suction roots are cut off and large ones are cut. In the best case, the roots are dipped in a clay mash to retain moisture and sold as such. The best cases are rare, most often the roots end up in a plastic bag, well if with wet sawdust.
That is, the cohabitation with soil fungi, bacteria and protozoa, gained over the years in the nursery, is down the drain. Small suction root hairs that supply water and microelements to the whole plant are, in most cases, half cut off. To be honest, I am amazed at the vitality of the plants!
After that, planting begins in a new location, with new soil and new microbiota in the soil. Local fungi, bacteria and protozoa, of course, are not delighted with the new settlers and at first they will try to deal with the newcomers (this is about the roots), releasing all sorts of unpleasant substances. The poor fellow-seedling is already not good - a new place, a different orientation of lighting, less than half of the roots remain, and then the locals hunted it down.
If the crown does not correspond to the root system (it can be noticeably larger), the roots of the blossoming leaves cannot be watered, there will not be enough strength. There are options - either the whole plant dies at once, or sacrifices individual branches or even most of the trunk, awakening the lower dormant buds.
Plants are tenacious, and the seedling will still try to take root in a new place, sacrificing part of the crown and roots. The roots, by the way, also die off, if the crown is left small - the leaves will not be able to feed the root system. Therefore, for a plant in the first year after planting, the main task is to survive, the second is to take root.
To return to its normal state, the seedling needs to acquire new suction root hairs, a new rhizosphere (this is the name of the soil around the root hair). The rhizosphere is inhabited by friendly microorganisms that help the plant fight a hostile environment, extract water and trace elements.
But friends need to be fed, on this plant sometimes spends up to 30% of the assimilated carbon dioxide, converted by photosynthesis into nutrients. That is, there is no way without leaves, and the larger the leaf surface, the more “friendly” the rhizosphere.
Plants are also thrifty. They spend accumulated reserves for the initial formation of root hairs and bud break. They will survive and take root, of course, if these reserves are enough.
Container seedlings do not have any problems, but there are fewer of them. Root hairs with the rhizosphere in place, the crown is intact. You just need to take root in the new climatic and soil conditions. "Disassembly" with local microorganisms is inevitable, but it is much easier for an intact plant to do this.
How to help a purchased seedling?
Water plays a decisive role in the life of plants, therefore, immediately after purchasing the seedling, it is advisable to wrap it in something so that it does not lose moisture. If the roots are not provided with moisture, place them in wet sawdust or simply in a plastic bag and add some water.
After arriving at the site, you need to match the roots and the upper part. The plant's only long root is nonsense. Such roots serve to anchor in the soil, and a fibrous root system is needed for nutrition. By the way, one long root speaks far not in favor of the seller, because normal nurseries form a fibrous root system.
So about the compliance: the length of the branches should approximately correspond to the length of the roots (the trunk does not count, there are requirements for the boles). If the branches are long, you need to shorten them. If the crown is small and the roots are large, also shorten.
Then the seedling needs to be watered. It is the water that carries out the connection between the tops and the roots, dragging everything you need back and forth. The easiest way is to put it in a bucket of water for a day.
Submerge the container seedling half the height of the container in water until the earthen ball is completely saturated. But do not hold for a long time so that the roots do not suffocate.
All these manipulations should be performed in a quiet, shady place: the sun for the seedlings is still completely useless. The same as the drying wind - and so there is not enough water.
Under normal growth conditions, heteroauxin, a stimulant of growth and cell division, accumulates in the upper parts of both stems and root hairs. In a seedling with an open root system, in which the roots are torn off and the tops are cut off, it is almost absent. It is desirable to add. After saturation with water for an hour, immerse the roots in a heteroauxin solution (it is always available for sale). The water with which the seedling is already saturated will "pull" it along the tops and roots.
It should be borne in mind that when the dosage is exceeded, heteroauxin begins to inhibit growth processes, so you must act exclusively according to the instructions.
Much has already been written about what kind of land, how to plant, how to water, I will not repeat myself. I will only remind you that you do not need to apply any fertilizers to the planting pit. The plant first needs to get used to it. The main requirement for the soil is that it must be loose, structural, so that the plant can grow suction roots without unnecessary stress and expenditure of reserves.
For container plants, especially those imported from abroad, the main problem is a sterile substrate, in which there are no microorganisms. Therefore, when planting in the ground of a garden, difficulties with the development of the substrate are also inevitable. Here, too, loose nutrient soil around the roots is important, so that the roots begin to develop outside the container substrate. It happens that in the container, due to the long maintenance, the roots are twisted in a spiral - they need to be gently "stirred" and evenly distributed in the planting pit.
By the way, container plants, especially from sterile soil, are very often unwilling to germinate into the surrounding soil. They are scared and strange. The process can be accelerated by placing a small amount of mineral fertilizers at a certain distance from the root ball around the perimeter - the roots will definitely stretch there. Mineral water is familiar to them.
The surface of the ground around the plant in hot and dry regions must be mulched immediately to retain moisture. It is good if the mulch is organic, but not very active (dried cut grass without seeds, hay), there is no need for an extra crush of microorganisms in this place.
It is good to spray the plant itself with "Epin", again, not exceeding the recommended doses, and cover it, for example, with a medium density spunbond. So the above-ground part will not dry out, and the hot sun (during spring planting) will not torment him. And the microclimate under the shelter will be smoother. In a week, you can open it from the north side - let the world look. Open completely in cloudy and rainy weather. But, if the sun shines continuously, a two-week quarantine, as in the case of coronavirus, must be endured.
If the planting is autumn, with the onset of cold weather, it is advisable for the seedling to make an air-dry shelter. In the first season, without having time to really get used to a new place and prepare for winter, the seedlings are very vulnerable. Even the most frost-resistant.
Having started a new gardening life in a new place, we undertook to plant all sorts of different plants, both fruit and decorative. We immediately organized an electronic catalog to know where it came from, when it was received, where it was put and what the result was. And how many, by the way, re-grading.
This thing turned out to be useful. After three years, it turned out that the loss of seedlings was about a fifth. There was no fundamental difference between fruit and ornamental in this regard. But there was a difference between seedlings with ACS (open root system) and container ones. If the container dropout is about 13%, then the seedlings with ACS - almost 30%.
The vast majority of seedlings were received by mail, the roots of seedlings with ACS are either packed in wet sawdust or in clay, and they looked much more decent than those that I see in seasonal markets.
By the way, the analysis of the loss of seedlings from different shipment suppliers did not show any dependence on the distance. Self-respecting nurseries take a very responsible approach to packaging. So far or near is not as important as the responsibility of the supplier.
We also found nurseries with whom it is better not to cooperate - 100% (!) Re-grading. Moreover, a change was also sent to replace it, until I was tired of pushing unknown seedlings in the corners that did not take root to burn, and I did not stop contacting them.
This is what I see now, living in the Kuban and writing out within the European part. During the period of residence in the Far East, seedlings from the Urals and Altai turned out to be surviving, seventy percent died from the European part. The country is large and such distances are already playing a role. For example, parcels from Krasnodar to Khabarovsk take three weeks. A rare plant will withstand it.
In order not to torment the plants and not suffer then yourself, it is better to look for reliable nurseries nearby, reviews on the Internet will help. For those who are thirsty for exotic things (such as this itself), it is better to prescribe container plants - there are less disappointments and it is easier to care for them.