Table of contents:
- Common features of all ficuses
- 1. Fig, wine berry, or Ficus carica
- 2. Ficus rubbery, or elastic
- 3. Wall ficus
- 4. Ficus Benjamin
- 5. Ficus binnendiyka, or willow
- 6. Ficus dwarf
- 7. Ficus arrow-shaped
- 8. Natal ficus
- 9. Ficus rough
- 10. Ficus lyre
- 11. Ficus sacred
- 12. Equivalent ficus
- 13. Bengal ficus
- 14. Small-fruited ficus
- 15. Ficus Palmer
- 16. Ficus petiolate
Among 800 species of ficuses, everyone can choose a pet to their liking. Ficus rubber, fig or Benjamin's ficus are perhaps the most famous representatives of these plants. But among the ficuses you can find compact species, and giants, useful and poisonous plants, large-leaved, small-leaved and even caudex. All ficuses are united by unpretentiousness, good adaptability and relatively simple care. But still they remain different, and sometimes peculiar plants.
Common features of all ficuses
Ficuses are one of the most popular and famous genera of indoor plants. The genus Ficus, belonging to the Moraceae family, includes shrubs, vines and woody plants, ornamental and industrial, perennial, with woody shoots and very dense, leathery, glossy leaves.
The sizes of ficuses can exceed 3 m in the largest indoor plants and are limited to 30 cm in compact species and varieties. They became famous for the beauty of heart-shaped, oval, lanceolate, lyre-shaped, rhombic, triangular leaves with a solid or notched edge, from 1 to 70 cm long, short and long-petiolate. Sikonium inflorescences of ficuses are similar to fruit-berries with holes at the top.
Despite the enviable diversity, different types of ficuses have much more in common than you might think:
- all ficuses are consistently decorative, attractive all year round;
- the leaves of the ficuses are alternate;
- plants adapt perfectly to indoor conditions, including warm wintering conditions, although a slight coolness remains the ideal;
- ficuses are undemanding to lighting, apart from their dislike for strong shading;
- all species are not very fond of turning and shifting;
- tolerate low air humidity well;
- nevertheless, ficuses are demanding on soil moisture - stable, light and constant;
- they react to drought with yellowing and partial shedding of leaves;
- love cleanliness - regular "wet" dusting and showering (if the size allows);
- for ficuses, a universal nutritious and loose soil mixture with a pH of 6.5 to 7.0 is needed;
- the transplant is carried out only if necessary - the development of the substrate by them;
- easily reproduce - by rooting the tops of shoots, cuttings, layering and even seeds.
But, despite all their similarities, ficuses differ in the main thing - in decorativeness. The appearance of plants is so bright that similar and different plants at the same time are not always easy to mistake for relatives. Let's take a closer look at the most popular types of indoor ficuses.
1. Fig, wine berry, or Ficus carica
Fig, wine berry, or Ficus carica (Ficus carica) is a tree with light bark. Partially sheds for the winter large, with beautiful grooves along the edge, three-, five- or seven-lobed, hard and dark leaves with a slight edge. It is very interesting to observe how shoots with inflorescences develop from dormant buds in the leaf axils, and then amazing pear-shaped inflorescences are tied, hiding thousands of seeds.
Self-pollinating indoor varieties require bright lighting and cool wintering, careful care, but are capable of producing a crop twice a year.
2. Ficus rubbery, or elastic
Ficus rubber or elastic (Ficus elastica) is a legendary vine with very strong, straight and powerful shoots and large, up to 30 cm oval leaves with a noticeable central vein. It adapts well to different lighting conditions, requires shaping and control.
3. Wall ficus
Wall ficus (Ficus parietalis, still better known under the old name Ficus cerasiformis) is a beautiful shrub with orange-brown shoots, elongated oval leaves up to 23 cm in length with a light vein and rare white specks. It is famous for its rough edge and orange fruit-like fruit. Shade-tolerant, thermophilic and perfectly tolerates a single drought or waterlogging.
4. Ficus Benjamin
Ficus benjamina (Ficus benjamina) - small-leaved, with a beautiful graceful spherical crown and densely branched shoots slightly drooping at the ends, a bush or tree. It has oval-pointed, medium-sized leaves and a grayish bark with brown strokes. There are many varieties with different variegated colors - fast-growing, light-loving, adoring stable humidity.
5. Ficus binnendiyka, or willow
Ficus binnendijkii, or Ivolistny (Ficus binnendijkii) - a species with very long and thin leaves, as if slightly folded along the central vein. This ficus is appreciated for its gracefulness, height up to 1 m, rapid growth, bizarrely curving shoots. Photophilous, thermophilic, undemanding species, easily changing shape and size.
6. Ficus dwarf
Dwarf ficus (Ficus pumila) - climbing liana, clinging to the support with suckers. Forms two types of leaves - young, delicate and small, creating a decorative effect and age, large and hard - on thick branches. The latter are capable of producing fruits. Juvenile leaves are only up to 4 cm in length, on short stalks they seem surprisingly elegant - heart-shaped, lanceolate, rounded, with a wavy or even edge, of different colors in varieties. This is one of the most light-loving species of ficuses, sensitive to waterlogging and drought. Easily formed into shapes, pillows, ampels and cascades.
7. Ficus arrow-shaped
Ficus sagittata (Ficus sagittata), or Rooting Ficus (Ficus radicans) is a beautiful liana with graceful lignified shoots and small rough leaves of an ideal teardrop or heart-shaped shape. The species has many variegated varieties. Loves high humidity and is most often used for walls.
8. Natal ficus
Ficus natalensis (Ficus natalensis), or Ficus triangularis (Ficus triangularis) - graceful plant with almost triangular, reverse-heart-shaped leaves on thin shoots. Grows best in moderate temperatures, suitable for bonsai.
9. Ficus rough
Rough ficus (Ficus aspera) is a compact woody species with large lanceolate, oval or heart-shaped leaves with a rough surface and a wavy edge. The varieties are characterized by marble and speckled patterns. This is a lover of soft lighting and coolness. Afraid of drafts and sudden changes in conditions.
10. Ficus lyre
Ficus lyrata (Ficus lyrata) is an evergreen tree species with dense leafy shoots and stunningly large, violin-like leaves up to 60 cm in length. Hard, dark, slightly wavy, the leaves shine brighter than all other species. This ficus loves spraying and careful grooming.
11. Ficus sacred
Sacred ficus (Ficus religiosa) is a "weeping" type of ficus with cordate, leathery, with a very long tip, leaves up to 18 cm long, which sit on twice as large petioles. Afraid of dampness, direct sun, cold, drafts and changes.
12. Equivalent ficus
Equivalent Ficus (Ficus rubiginosa) is an evergreen species with a very dense hemispherical crown and powerful aerial roots that cover the lower part of the gray trunk. Bright apical buds, large broadly oval leaves with a rough surface and a blunt tip appear red in youth. The species is extremely sensitive to water temperature, waterlogging, temperature extremes.
13. Bengal ficus
Ficus Bengal, or Banyan (Ficus benghalensis) is a powerful species with beautiful aerial roots. After rooting, they woody and create an amazing multi-stem effect. Its ovoid leaves with light veins are often colored with variegated ripples. This species is more often grown in bonsai form or kept in check by constant pruning and potting restrictions.
14. Small-fruited ficus
Small-fruited ficus (Ficus microcarpa) is the most popular type for bonsai, easy to prune, with beautiful bark, bare rhizome, numerous aerial roots and small oval-pointed leaves. Shade-tolerant, warm and moisture-loving, requires high humidity.
And if the classics are not to your liking, then take a look at the most original ficuses from among the caudexes.
15. Ficus Palmer
Ficus Palmer (Ficus palmeri) forms a powerful thickened light beige bottle-shaped trunk and a small crown in the form of a bunch of leaves at the ends of the shoots. Large, cordate, leaves up to 15 cm in diameter are quite light. The species is hardy, but does not like changes and contrasts.
16. Ficus petiolate
Petiolar ficus (Ficus petiolaris) is a spectacular caudex species in which bizarre thickened trunks are combined with very large gray-green leaves, pink petioles of which turn into a bright pink network of veins. Requires careful tracking of the plant's "signals" and the selection of a bright "stable" place.
Dear Readers! In this article, we talked about the most popular types of ficuses for indoor floriculture. If you are growing a ficus that we did not remember, we will be glad if you share your experience.