Table of contents:
- A prim variety of noble colors
- Types of decorative leafy begonias
- Caring for decorative leafy begonias at home
- Transplant and substrate
- Diseases and pests
- Propagation of deciduous begonias
Video: The Luxury Of Deciduous Begonias Patterns. Growing And Caring At Home. Types, Varieties. Photo
2023 Author: Ava Durham | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 07:13
Deciduous begonias are one of the most traditional indoor plants. Some consider them cold and almost aggressive, others incomparable and noble. But be that as it may, the beauty of the decorative leafy species of these prim aristocrats does not leave anyone indifferent. Offering to admire the unique colors and shades, conquering the luxury of patterns on the leaves, begonias, with all their diversity, are still very unpretentious plants. Their cultivation is within the power of beginners, and the ability to recover from these crops is only surprising.
- A prim variety of noble colors
- Types of decorative leafy begonias
- Caring for decorative leafy begonias at home
- Transplant and substrate
- Diseases and pests
- Propagation of deciduous begonias
A prim variety of noble colors
Begonias are one of the most diverse genera of indoor plants. Tuberous and bush, ampelous and rhizome, flowering and decorative deciduous - there is plenty to choose from. But if flowering begonias are considered modern and fashionable plants, then deciduous ones have long been awarded the status of "golden classics". And this is true: these plants have been used in interiors for a long time, have won the hearts of fans, managed to survive several periods of unpopularity.
But today “grandmother's” begonias are back in fashion. Indeed, in the beauty of textures and colors with metallic effects, no one beats them. And even the fact that most begonias are poisonous plants (the substances contained in the leaves irritate the mucous membranes and skin), does not prevent them from remaining very popular crops.
Ornamental-deciduous representatives of the genus Begonia are herbaceous perennials, the bushes of which are limited in height to 20-40 cm. But there are exceptions to this rule. Miniature and medium varieties of begonias are considered more popular than gigantic ones, the height of which is not even limited to 1 m. In the begonias developing from rhizomes (see materials on rhizome begonias), inimitable leaves with a diameter are formed on thick, fleshy, shortened and most often pubescent shoots from 5 to 25 cm.
They can be both relatively simple lanceolate and rounded, arrow-and heart-shaped and even lobed, like maple leaves. The pointed tip is elongated in some begonias, while in others it is almost invisible. It is not easy to see the shape of the leaves: the contours of the leaf blades are “hidden” by luxurious large and sharp teeth along the edge, ruffles and edging.
The carved edge was once the reason that begonias were listed as an "aggressive" plant, but that reputation has vanished like a haze today. But the jagged edges of the leaves really give stiffness and nobility. Thanks to them, begonias look both elegant and like a real proud room "aristocrat". Whatever the shape of the leaves, they are asymmetrical in begonias: a thick vein in the middle divides the leaf plates into two unequal halves. And this imperfection only emphasizes the features of color and texture.
And they are inimitable in begonias: magnificent velvet or satin of pubescent, matte or glossy leaves surprises with the play of not only colors, but also textures. It is in begonias that allusions with luxurious metals are most pronounced: gray patterns appear silver, and red patterns appear copper or golden.
The color palette of begonias is completely unique: dark brown, green and red colors seem to be real black, and the most diverse noble variations of green, red, purple, white, silver, chocolate, pink conquer with their unusualness.
The fact that begonias are deciduous does not mean that plants are unable to bloom. Discreet and modest, incomparable with flowering species and varieties, cream flowers on plants are often removed without admiring them. Tall deciduous begonias have more beautiful and bright flowers than low bushy begonias.
Types of decorative leafy begonias
Today, it is believed that the number of open species of begonias exceeds 1500 plants, and the number of hybrid forms and varieties has long exceeded the two thousand mark. And a little less than half of the begonias are decorative leafy ones. Deciduous begonias are native to South America and Mexico, but some species were first discovered in Asia. In nature, begonias are considered typical inhabitants of tropical forests.
Today, the number of varieties and hybrids of begonias is so large that among the magnificent deciduous queens you can find crops with any color, leaf shape, effects and textures. Lovers of the classics will like begonias with color transitions along the contour of the plate, for a modern interior there are begonias with variegated ripples or strict patterns, and those looking for originality will be surprised by begonias with spirals and stars on the leaves …
And if you remember about the most diverse color combinations, then you can really talk about the variety of begonias endlessly. In short, there is plenty to choose from.
If we owe such an enviable variety to some species of begonia, then it is the royal begonia (Begonia rex), which we also often call the botanical name Rex. This is the most varied begonia in leaf colors, which has inspired endless experiments in breeders. Their appearance has become the standard for all deciduous beauties.
Sometimes in the classifications of begonias, all decorative deciduous varieties are divided into two groups - varieties and hybrids of the royal begonias and begonias of the diadem group. The latter are derived from the same name which caused much controversy type begonias - Begonia diadem (Begonia diadema). This plant still has a controversial status today.
Some scientists consider this begonia a separate species, while others - just a form of royal begonia. Tiaras are easy to distinguish by the similarity of the leaf shape to maple green: leaf plates are cut into 7 (or more) pointed lobes.
But don't forget about other types of begonias
Bauer's begonia (Begonia bowerae) is the most spotted of all begonias. The pattern on the leaves is always variegated and disordered, cheerful, contrasting spots appear on the leaf plates, causing associations with the skins of wild cats.
Mason begonia (Begonia masoniana) - view from the unique black-and-green color, the beauty of which leaves streaks can enjoy forever.
Ringed Begonia (Begonia annulata), also known as Begonia Griffith (Begonia griffithi) is stored and velvet thick leaves, and clearly defined areas of color strips. Its dark center is combined with the silvery color of the middle part of the leaf and a darker border, and all the "spots" repeat the contour of the most heart-shaped leaf plate with a slightly spiraling base.
Flesh colored begonia (Begonia incarnata), today the once considered separately Metallic Begonia (Begonia metallica) has been included in the species - a species with prominent veins, metallic surface reflections and powerful bushes from half a meter to 80 cm high.
Begonia goegoensis is a rarer species, the velvet leaves of which are most often flat, rounded with a pointed tip, reminiscent of precious stones due to luminous light streaks and cobwebs on a dark background.
One of the highest begonias - Begonia spotted (Begonia maculata), which forms an impressive clumps with strong stems. The leaves are most often heart-shaped, sometimes with a base twisted into snails. Begonia got its name because of the variegated spots on the dark base background of leaf plates, contrasting ripples of patterns. Unlike the lower begonias, it also boasts pretty pink flowers.
But the species begonias on sale today are superseded by hybrids and varieties, each of which has its own memorable features.
Fashionable varieties of incomparable deciduous aristocrats:
- Variety "Snail" (Escargot) - a variety with dark gray-green leaves of an almost solid heart-shaped shape, in which the base of the leaf blades seems to twist inward, creating a coil, and a gray-silver light wide strip along the contour of the plate only emphasizes the spiral-snail;
- Variety 'Rohceart' - round-leaved begonia with spirally twisted leaves, unique color and transition from silver to silver-green to the thinnest black edge;
- Variety 'Namur' - a silver-green "snail" variety with the finest edging and veins in the center;
- Variety 'Lospe-Tu' - with the base of bright green leaves also twisted by a snail, along the edge of which dark veins resemble sewn stitches;
- Variety 'Benitochiba' - a densely bushy begonia with silver maple leaves, against which purple and green veins glow brightly, accentuated by the pearlescent and pink tint of the carved edge of the leaves;
- Variety 'Maid Marion' - a medium-height, silvery-leaved "snail" variety with a very rich raspberry-green border;
- Sort 'November Frost' - a silvery cultivar with the finest network of dark green veins;
- Variety 'Charlotte Chiffon' - delicate multicolor variety, in which the leaf blade in the center is nacreous pink, along the edge - silvery-pearl, and the border, veins and wavy edge - dark green;
- Variety "Tiger" (Tiger) - Bauer's begonia variety with bright light green, dazzling round spots along the edges of kidney-shaped almost black leaves;
- Variety 'Pearl de Paris' - pearl-silver variety with heart-shaped leaves and a thin dark net on the corrugated surface;
- The cultivar 'Nordic Glacier' is a highly toothed pearlescent cultivar with a dark center and black, radially diverging veins turning into a thin dark border;
- Variety 'Meisterstuck' - pearlescent pink striped variety with black veins;
- Variety 'Dewdrops' - satin begonia with a pearl-gray color, twisted into a snail at the base of the foliage flaunts with a dark border and spider-like dark veins;
- Variety 'Chocolate Cream' - a classic hybrid with rounded, spiral-shaped leaves at the base with an elongated tip, a carved edge, decorated with a dark brown border and veins, memorable and dark center, and silvery-pink stripes in the middle;
- Variety 'Baby Dress' - a large-leaved, but low begonia with a bright rich green tone of large leaves with a red-brown "quilted" edge-ruffle, twisted into a double snail at the base of the leaves;
- Variety 'Green Gold' - a round-leaved variety with a wavy surface, twisted in a very steep spiral bases, silvery color, unique dark green veins, diverging in the center of the leaf and echoing with the thinnest border around the edge;
- Cultivar 'Fireworks' - a touching cultivar with heart-shaped leaves, in which the black core of the leaf diverges along the veins into a dark green color with silver spots and a purple border;
- Variety 'Black Fang' - a miniature velvet-black begonia with a carved pubescent edge, glowing malachite veins in the center and a double snail at the base of the leaf;
- Cultivar 'Charm' - an unmatched strict variety with a spirally twisted base and a pointed tip of a heart-shaped leaf, on which black ruffle is combined with small silver spots on a dark green background;
- The cultivar 'Helen Lewis' is a velvety-leaved begonia with a heart-shaped leaf, which has an almost black border and center of leaves combined with silver and green stripes between them;
- 'Lillian' - Similar to the previous variety, but with a corrugated edge and a double snail at the base;
- Variety 'Silver Jewel' - striped begonia with dark velvet leaves and silvery "zebra" veins;
- Variety 'Little Brother Montgomery' - a maple-leaved variety playing on the contrast of silvery green with a dark green center and border;
- Variety 'Hallelujah' - a very compact variety with a snail-like shape with a dark purple color, which literally makes a silvery stripe in the center of the leaf plates sparkle (visually separating the leaf into a border and center);
- Variety 'Dollar Down' - a unique variety with an almost black border and scarlet color of the leaves;
- Variety 'Five and Dime' - pearl pink variety with green and black ruffle;
- Variety 'Gryphon' - variety with maple leaves, large, with a glossy metallic sheen of dark leaves with silver streaks between veins;
- The variety 'Merry Christmas' is a very beautiful variety, in which the stripes are almost strict and brightly separated from one another - from a black center and pink base to a silvery spot in the middle, turning into a rich green edge and a dark thin border;
Caring for decorative leafy begonias at home
Deciduous begonias are unpretentious and hardy plants. They can react to misses in care and various problems with loss of leaves and depression, but as soon as you correct your mistakes, they quickly recover. Still, it is better not to go to extremes in growing deciduous begonias.
If you provide them with regular and attentive care, then begonias will reveal all their unprecedented beauty and become a true decoration of the collection. Moreover, it is not at all difficult to adhere to the "norms": deciduous begonia does not require either a cool wintering or measures to humidify the air.
Lighting for deciduous begonias
Due to their undemanding lighting, begonias make it possible to use luxurious variegated leaves to decorate not only window sills, but also the interior (not only in living rooms, but also in bathrooms). Strong shading will affect the beauty of the patterns, and the density of the bushes, and the size of the leaves. But in any light or semi-shaded place, begonia will only delight.
The only thing that needs to be paid close attention is protection from direct sunlight. Begonia needs diffused lighting, even the morning sun can leave spots on the leaves and spoil their attractiveness.
Begonias with beautiful leaves thrive in room temperatures. They do not like cold or heat. The most comfortable environment is limited to 15-20 degrees. Temperatures should not drop below 15 degrees, even for a short time in winter. The heat negatively affects the beauty of the foliage, the plants may suffer from drying out of the tips, but if it is not possible to provide more restrained indicators, then you can normalize the environment for begonias by simple measures to humidify the air.
Some difficulties in growing decorative deciduous begonias cause the plants to dislike drafts. But it is enough to put the bushes in a protected place and additionally protect begonias when airing - and no problems will arise. You need to ventilate the room with begonias more often: access to fresh air is necessary for the formation of very beautiful leaves.
Begonias should not be taken out into the open air, placed on balconies in the summer, and even more so in the garden.
Watering and air humidity
These gorgeous beauties need a simple approach to watering: for deciduous begonias, they do not allow stagnant water, but maintain uniform light moisture, without bringing the soil to dryness. The winter watering regime is adjusted in accordance with changes in the rate of drying of the substrate, slightly reducing the frequency of procedures and be sure to check how dry the soil is before the next watering.
Some varieties of begonias require a dormant period, and watering for them needs to be adjusted more significantly (when buying, it is worth clarifying the care regimen in winter). But most deciduous beauties do not need such measures. Plants are watered with water at the same temperature as air.
When watering deciduous begonias, you need to be very careful: plants cannot tolerate the ingress of water on the leaves and stems, even small drops leave behind spots (this is why begonias cannot be sprayed).
Begonias with decorative leaves, despite their origin, cannot be called typical moisture-loving tropicans, which vitally need high levels of air humidity. But their endurance has its limits: too dry air affects the beauty of the leaves, and extreme dryness during the operation of heating devices should be avoided, taking measures to compensate for it. Also, additional measures to increase air humidity will have to be taken if begonias are at temperatures from 21 degrees Celsius.
For begonias, spraying is not an option. You can increase air humidity by simple measures - installing bowls, pallets with wet moss, pebbles, expanded clay, decorative soil (playing with textures can be used to emphasize the beauty of begonia leaves).
The function of a humidifier for begonias can be played by moisture-loving neighbors (rump, cyperus, and other species that require damp conditions), and indoor fountains, and paludariums, or aquariums. If you only need temporary measures and want to increase the humidity with a simple spray, then spray it from a considerable distance above the plant, using the smallest possible spray.
Top dressing for deciduous begonias
Fertilizers for these plants are applied exclusively from March to October. It is advisable to use a special fertilizer mixture for decorative deciduous plants. But if you managed to find special fertilizers for begonias, then choose them (usually such funds are found in the product lines of manufacturers who have fertilizers not only of basic types, but also for certain varieties of indoor plants - palms, orchids, etc.) …
Transplant and substrate
Begonias of the decorative leafy type are transplanted only as needed, when the plants become too crowded in old containers. The transplant is carried out by increasing the pots by 2-3 cm compared to the previous one. Wide, flat pots are preferred (height less than diameter). The optimal dates are February or March.
For begonias, it is necessary to select nutritious, loose substrates. The optimal pH values are 5.8-6.5. You can use ready-made universal soil mixtures. When self-mixing, use:
- a mixture of equal parts of sand, leaf and humus soil with a double part of soddy soil;
- a mixture in equal parts of leaf, sod, humus soil, peat and sand.
When transplanting, the level of deepening of begonias remains the same. For the plant, a shaded location must be provided for a few days after the procedure.
Diseases and pests
Deciduous begonias, unfortunately, cannot be attributed to the most persistent indoor plants. They are affected not only by aphids, spider mites or thrips, but also by powdery mildew, gray rot. It is one of the most sensitive indoor crops to soil nematodes. On these plants, the fight should be started with the use of insecticides or fungicides, since treatment in the form of mechanical washing away of insects for deciduous begonias is unacceptable.
Common growing problems:
- shedding leaves in dry air or when the substrate dries out;
- blanching of leaves with brown tips in dry air and with poor watering;
- stretching and crushing leaves with strong shading.
Propagation of deciduous begonias
Non-flowering begonias allow you to choose different breeding methods to obtain new specimens, and, as a rule, rooting takes place quickly and without problems. But you need to start breeding deciduous begonias during the spring. The best breeding methods for deciduous begonias are:
- Separation with rhizomes during transplantation into large parts (you can divide large begonias with your hands, and by cutting the trunk, but you must definitely monitor the presence of a powerful bundle of roots and one or more bud and shoot in each division).
- rooting of cuttings "with a heel" or parts of the leaf (in begonias, you can cut the leaf plates along the main veins, laying the cut site with the lower side on wet sand and pinning or pressing with stones; rooting is carried out with lower watering, light moisture and in a bright place).
- Separation of apical cuttings with 3-5 leaves (after processing the slices, they are placed in water or planted in a substrate common for begonias and, with light soil moisture, are rooted in a bright place at room temperature).
- Rooting parts of the leaf.
Any method of grafting involves rooting for a month. When propagating by parts of a leaf, you need to wait not only for the formation of roots along the cut of the vein, but also for the appearance of strong plants, which, after growing, can be separated from the leaf.
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