Methods Of Dealing With The Colorado Potato Beetle. How To Get Rid Of? Means

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Methods Of Dealing With The Colorado Potato Beetle. How To Get Rid Of? Means
Methods Of Dealing With The Colorado Potato Beetle. How To Get Rid Of? Means

Video: Methods Of Dealing With The Colorado Potato Beetle. How To Get Rid Of? Means

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Colorado Potato Beetle Management 2023, January
Anonim

Colorado beetles are said to have been carried by the wind. Indeed, adult representatives of the leaf-gnawing pest family are able to travel more than 15-50 km per day, driven by the wind. The speed of an independent summer in calm weather is 4-8 km / h. The main summer of adults begins in autumn in search of places suitable for wintering. Our article is about the peculiarities of the reproduction of Colorado potato beetles and, of course, about methods of control and prevention with them.

Colorado beetle
Colorado beetle

Content:

  • Features of life and reproduction of Colorado beetles
  • Ways to deal with Colorado beetles
  • Varieties that are not afraid of the Colorado potato beetle

Features of life and reproduction of Colorado beetles

For winter, adult beetles burrow into the soil beyond freezing (70 cm and deeper). Part of the reserve of adult beetles remains in the ground for 2-3 years. In the spring, when stable warm weather is established and the air temperature rises to + 15 ° C, adults go to the surface. This is approximately the period of mass flowering of dandelions, active growth of weeds from the nightshade family (black and red nightshade, dope, belladonna, henbane).

Greedily eating the young leaves of the desired weeds, the beetles later fly from old eaten plants to young plantings of tomatoes, eggplant, and potato tops. Here, on the underside of 1-2 tiers of leaves of cultivated crops, the female lays eggs in heaps of 10-30 pieces.

The harmfulness of beetles is extraordinary fertility and great appetite. One female lays 400-2500 yellow eggs in her life. Each beetle eats more than 4 g of young leaves per month, and the larva eats more than 1 g, leaving only skeletonized residues of green mass.

After 5-17 days, dark-brown adults hatch from the eggs, which change color to yellow-orange or bright orange within 15-27 days of life. They go into the ground, where they pupate and come to the surface in the form of a young, formed individual. Over the summer, Colorado beetles are able to give 2-4 generations, so beetles of different stages of development can develop on 1 bush. The damage they cause can be as high as 100% crop loss.

Ways to deal with Colorado beetles

Ways to control the Colorado potato beetle are divided into:

  • preventive,
  • biological,
  • chemical.

An important role in reducing the number of leaf-eating pests is played by preventive measures, which include agrotechnical and other methods of pest control. Of great help in the economy are folk methods of fighting the pest.

Preventive

Agrotechnical measures

An important method of dealing with the Colorado potato beetle is the correct management of the garden economy. Potatoes and other vegetable crops (desirable for the pest) should return to their original place no earlier than 4-5 years. Consequently, a crop rotation (crop rotation) is needed, which would regulate the correct alternation of vegetable crops in the optimal mode, contribute to the timely processing and preparation of the soil for planting or sowing a subsequent crop.

Colorado potato beetle larvae
Colorado potato beetle larvae

This requires:

  • make a crop rotation with the maximum variety of crops that will attract natural enemies of the Colorado potato beetle (birds, ladybirds, ground beetles and others) to the garden and ensure the return of nightshades to their original place no earlier than a 4-5 year break;
  • never place crops of the same family as predecessors of nightshades (for example: potatoes after eggplant, tomatoes and vice versa);
  • after harvesting the predecessor, the soil must be well watered to provoke weed shoots. Apply mineral and organic fertilizers to the seedlings and dig up the soil on a shovel bayonet (25-30 cm) on black soil with a seam turnover. Avoid overgrowing the garden with weeds after harvesting;
  • during the growing season, keep the fields free from weeds, using the latter as mulch after loosening.

Traditional methods of protection

Before the advent of chemicals, farmers widely used methods of controlling the Colorado potato beetle, developed as a result of observing the cycle of development and reproduction of pests.

An old "novelty" in potato farming

Today, gardeners are returning to the old tried and tested method of growing potatoes on mulch. To do this, a high layer of mulch is raked for potatoes on a plot prepared in the fall (free from weeds, fertilized and dug up). These can be fallen leaves, hay, straw, young (not seeded) weeds, and other materials. During the winter, they settle from natural decomposition processes and under the pressure of the snow layer.

In the spring, the thickened layer of mulch is slightly pushed apart, the potato tubers are laid out and again covered with a layer of mulch, 25-30 cm high. As the mulch shrinks, add mulch, maintaining a high layer of covering material.

Overwintered beetles catch the smell of fresh potato greens, but they cannot get to it through a layer of mulch and die. In the fall, mulch is raked from the beds, tubers are harvested. The mulch that has half-matured over the summer is scattered over the site and buried in the ground as organic fertilizer. According to reviews of Russian summer residents and American farmers, with this method of growing potatoes, there is practically no pest damage.

Growing potatoes under straw
Growing potatoes under straw

Infusions, decoctions and baits

Infusions and decoctions of herbal insecticides are not as harmless as most authors write, offering alternative methods of protection against pests. Therefore, they must be used carefully and it is imperative to apply safety measures, especially for asthma and allergies.

  • After planting potatoes, and during the period of single shoots, cut potato tubers are laid out throughout the site (if it is small). Beetles crawl to the smell of potatoes. It remains to collect and destroy them.
  • In the potato plantings, various containers are added flush with the soil, at the bottom of which there is a "Colorado delicacy" - peeling potatoes, especially with seedlings. Traps should be checked 1-2 times a week. The caught beetles are collected in a separate bucket with soapy water or kerosene filling and destroyed.
  • In small areas, it is possible to significantly reduce the number of pests by shaking them into a basin, at the bottom of which a strong saline, kerosene or other solution poisonous to beetles is poured.
  • Wood ash is boiled for 0.5 hour in a ratio of 1 kg / 10 l of water, insisted for 2 days. 40-50 g of laundry soap shavings (without bleaching properties) are added to the strained solution and after its complete dissolution, the concentrate is again diluted with 10 liters of water. The resulting working solution is sprayed on the plants. If necessary, spraying is repeated, preferably after the emergence of the Colorado potato beetle imago.
  • Boil 200 g of dandelion flowers and horsetail plants in 10 liters of water for 15-20 minutes. Cool, drain. Dilute 0.5 liters of the resulting concentrate in a bucket of water and sprinkle the planting of nightshades.
  • You can prepare a universal nut concentrate that affects a large list of leaf-eating pests. In autumn, a galvanized or wooden barrel is stuffed with fallen walnut leaves, green walnut shells and poured with boiling water. During the winter, a nut extract concentrate is formed. 1-2 liters of concentrate are diluted with 10 liters of water and the planting is sprayed with a working solution of the required concentration. Concentration test is carried out in the following way: dilute working solutions of different concentrations (1:10, 2:10, 1.5: 10.) And spray 1-2 plants of tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants. After 1-2 days, they look after which working solution there are no burns on the treated bushes, with that solution they process the entire area. Application efficiency is high.

Insecticide plants

The Colorado potato beetle is good at distinguishing between attractive and repulsive plant odors. The latter are called natural insecticides. This method of protection was used by gardeners at a time when there were no pesticides. Insecticidal plants include: calendula, beans, sedun beans, bush beans, coriander, garlic.

Planted along the edge of the garden bed and under individual bushes, these plants reliably protect vegetable crops from the invasion of the Colorado potato beetle. However, keep in mind that 1-2 plants will not be able to protect the crop from the pest.

Clutch of Colorado potato beetle eggs
Clutch of Colorado potato beetle eggs

Application of chemical protection measures

Biologicals

Biologicals are made on a bacterial or fungal basis. They are harmless to warm-blooded animals and to a limited extent harmless to humans. Biologicals Bitoxibacillin, Bicol, Colorado, Fitoverm, Agrovertin, Boverin destroy mainly young larvae. The effectiveness of the preparations is associated with weather conditions and requires repeated spraying after 20-25 days. Doses and method of administration are described on the packaging and on the corresponding sites on the Internet.

Chemicals

Of the chemicals, Decis-Profi, Confidor, Commander, Corado, Aktara, Iskra, Lightning and others are effective. The drugs are most effective when processing plantings during the period of mass release of larvae. As a rule, these drugs belong to the 3-4 class of hazard, and you need to work with them very carefully, observing all personal protective measures. As for biological products, the preparation of working solutions and methods of application are described in detail on the packaging and the corresponding Internet sites.

Varieties that are not afraid of the Colorado potato beetle

On garden plantings, among the usual varieties of potatoes, there are always several bushes that are practically not populated by the Colorado potato beetle. As a rule, these bushes have a hard, elastic leaf blade, the leaves are directed upward at an acute angle, and are illuminated by the sun all day. Leave these bushes on the seed potatoes.

Gradually, you will develop a variety that is more beetle resistant than the original. The beetle is mainly affected by sick and weakened bushes with a horizontally spread leaf blade, very convenient for laying eggs.

Plant eaten by Colorado potato beetle larvae
Plant eaten by Colorado potato beetle larvae

Breeding work on breeding a variety that opposes the pest began in the 90s of the last century in the Russian Federation, Belarus, and Ukraine. Currently, breeders have proposed varieties that are 100% resistant to the aggression of the Colorado potato beetle. These are the following varieties offered by Belarus and Ukraine: Morning, Bryansky reliable, Lasunok, Kamensky, Orbita, Belorussky-3.

Of the Ural varieties, the Temp and Antizhuk varieties appear on the market. All varieties are distinguished by the coverage of the vegetative organs of the bush with hard hairs and the almost vertical arrangement of the leaf blades. This structure prevents the pest from feeding and laying eggs. Potatoes do not need protection, since the Colorado potato beetle does not settle on them.

In mass sale for planting in large areas of seed is still not enough, but for summer cottages, varieties are already available to gardeners. You can buy planting material in specialized stores or online stores of special sites and grow an absolutely environmentally friendly staple food product at home.

From the offered varieties, pay attention to the Morning variety. It is highly drought-resistant, is not affected by late blight and scab and is absolutely inedible for Colorado beetles. Of the early varieties, Lasunok is in the lead. High-yielding, with good taste and keeping quality, it forms up to 12 tubers per 1 bush weighing 100-200 g each.

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