Plants-insecticides And Their Use. Plants From Pests. Preparation Of Decoctions And Infusions. Photo

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Plants-insecticides And Their Use. Plants From Pests. Preparation Of Decoctions And Infusions. Photo
Plants-insecticides And Their Use. Plants From Pests. Preparation Of Decoctions And Infusions. Photo

Video: Plants-insecticides And Their Use. Plants From Pests. Preparation Of Decoctions And Infusions. Photo

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The spring-summer period is the most troublesome time for summer residents. You need to manage to cultivate the soil, destroy weeds, feed, water and protect garden crops from pests and diseases. To help farmers, the chemical industry produces a large number of different drugs, the purpose of which is to feed and protect. But, helping plants, chemicals often cause intoxication of the human body, which is accompanied by poisoning with subsequent diseases and sometimes quite severe.

Joint planting of vegetables and flowers that repel insect pests
Joint planting of vegetables and flowers that repel insect pests

The search for new forms of protective agents has led to the emergence of biological products, which are based on fungal and bacterial Effective Microorganisms (EM). Their distribution and use is constantly increasing. But they do not always work, and the reason is not in this or that biological product, but in the conditions of their "work": multiple use is required (sometimes the entire growing season up to harvesting), the optimal temperature for each type of biological product is different, correct dilution, since an increase in the concentration of the solution will lead to the dwarfism of the plant, and not to an increase in yield (Baikal EM-1).

In connection with the increase in the number of private farms with a natural type of land use, an increasing number of gardeners are paying attention to the possibility of increasing soil fertility, protecting plants from pests with the help of the plants themselves, without the use of chemicals. They are called natural insecticides or plant insecticides. When used correctly, they are highly effective and harmless to humans. At the same time, the harmlessness of natural insecticides is rather arbitrary. Infusions and decoctions from poisonous plants are poisons for humans. Many of the natural insecticides are known to summer residents and are even cultivated as garden plants, but they are destroyed, being considered weeds among other crops (for example, dill).

Content:

  • The main groups of natural insecticides
  • Periods of effectiveness of insecticidal plants
  • Rules for the collection and storage of insecticide plants
  • Vegetable and insecticide plant compatibility
  • Types of preparations made from natural insecticides
  • Preparation of decoctions and infusions of natural insecticides

The main groups of natural insecticides

Natural insecticides can be roughly divided into 3 groups:

  • garden crop insecticide plants,
  • flowering plants-insecticides,
  • wild plants-insecticides.

Almost all garden insecticide plants emit phytoncides that inhibit pests, and decoctions effectively destroy them. Vegetable garden insecticides include garlic, onions, celery, horseradish, hot pepper, basil, mustard, fennel, dill, parsley, caraway seeds, tomatoes, potatoes and other crops.

Marigolds, calendula, chrysanthemums, mattiola, nasturtium, petunia, pelargonium, lovage, sage and other flower crops, which are powerful insecticides, grow on flower beds, rabatkas, in mixborders at every dacha. Their cultivation among garden crops expels pests, and decoctions are effective drugs that contribute to the destruction of pests.

The list of wild plants used as insecticides includes hundreds of species. And they, as a rule, do not expel, but destroy pests. These include wormwood, creeping bitterness, celandine, elderberry, tansy, chicory root, bird cherry, tobacco, yarrow, burdock, euphorbia, larkspur and others.

When choosing insecticidal plants for the treatment of crops, it is necessary to avoid clearly poisonous plants, since they negatively affect (up to severe poisoning) on ​​people and useful fauna: hogweed, aconite, black henbane, Dalmatian (Caucasian) chamomile, common dope, Lobel's hellebore, celandine and others.

There are a sufficient number of plants, the toxicity of which is lethal for harmful fauna and does not affect the health of people and animals and beneficial insects (bees, bumblebees). At dachas, in order to avoid accidents, it is better to use only preparations of non-poisonous plants.

Marigolds are an excellent decorative insecticide
Marigolds are an excellent decorative insecticide

Periods of effectiveness of insecticidal plants

Only when properly harvested will insecticidal plants show their effectiveness in pest control.

The toxicity of insecticides is most pronounced during certain phases of growth and development. In the vast majority of natural insecticides, it manifests itself from the phase of 2 - 3 leaves to the beginning of mass flowering. The second wave of increased toxicity takes place from the beginning of seed ripening to harvest. At the end of the growing season, the necessary substances accumulate in the roots, rhizomes, bulbs, which are used for decoctions and infusions.

The period from the end of mass flowering to the beginning of ripening is used by the plant to accumulate substances in order to protect itself from pests. Thus, with the end of flowering and before the seeds ripen, it is inappropriate to use decoctions and infusions of natural insecticides. Their toxicity to pests will be minimal.

Natural insecticides quickly lose their toxic effect on pests, since they do not accumulate in plants and are easily washed off by rains. Multiple repetitions of crop treatments are required, and, hence, a decent stock of plant material. You can prepare concentrates with a certain shelf life (up to 1-2 months) or dry herbs, tops, roots, rhizomes and use in the form of dry biological preparations. Working solutions are used on the day of preparation. They cannot be stored. For the preparation of infusions and decoctions, only healthy plants should be used. Otherwise, the protective effect may not be obtained.

Dry material can be harvested in advance and used in the form of powder pollination of plants and soil, powders or additives in holes and furrows when planting seedlings and sowing seeds.

Rules for the collection and storage of insecticide plants

To preserve the insecticidal properties of plants, they need to be removed only during certain phases (see above).

The collection of material is carried out in sunny weather after the dew has melted and before the beginning of the midday heat or after 15-16 hours in the afternoon.

Healthy aerial mass, roots, rhizomes, onion and garlic husks, the bulbs themselves are dried in the shade and packed in air-permeable bags (not film) or nets. Store in a dry place to prevent mold. Some plants are tied in loose sheaves and hung in a prepared dry room.

In the spring-summer period, working solutions are prepared or finely chopped leaves, inflorescences and flowers, stems and introduced into the planting furrows, holes during planting seedlings or sowing and planting seed material (flowers and leaves of chrysanthemums, pyrethrum, dry celandine, tobacco dust, powder paprika and others). Some are used to powder the soil (tobacco dust, pyrethrum powder, tansy).

If possible, prepare a concentrate in the fall. It is stored as working solutions until use. For example, 2/3 or completely fill a barrel (wooden, galvanized) with autumn fall of walnut leaves and pour boiling water over it. Close tightly. During the winter, the leaves are fermented. A liquid concentrate is obtained. 1-2 liters of concentrate are diluted in 10 liters of water, a working solution is obtained with which plants are sprayed from aphids, ticks and other pests. First, the working solution is tested on 2 - 3 plants, so as not to burn the entire crop when spraying. If necessary, add water to reduce the concentration of the working solution.

The tops of tomatoes and potatoes are used only healthy, fresh and dry. Working solutions are prepared in the form of decoctions from the aboveground mass, which are immediately used for processing plants. You can prepare a concentrate and dilute it as needed to a working solution (see below "Preparation of solutions").

It is inappropriate to use working solutions from several insecticidal plants to destroy the same type of pests (for example, aphids). You can prepare tank mixes from different insecticide plants used against different types of pests (gnawing and sucking). Tank mixtures will reduce the load on the plant and reduce the number of treatments.

Fragrant alyssum flowers will attract beneficial insects
Fragrant alyssum flowers will attract beneficial insects

Vegetable and insecticide plant compatibility

Keeping a garden, berry or vegetable garden in absolute cleanliness means condemning it to constant treatment with pest preparations. Therefore, on the one hand, weeds, flowering and garden plants with insecticidal properties are simply necessary in joint cultivation. On the other hand, when using insecticide plants in garden and garden plantings, it is necessary to monitor their "good neighborliness". Some plant insecticides inhibit the culture or, conversely, are oppressed by the culture, which means they are useless in joint plantings.

For example, caraway and sage do not tolerate wormwood. Mustard is a good defense for peas. Celery effectively protects cabbage from cabbage butterflies. Horseradish, bush beans, coriander, beans planted next to or between potato bushes will effectively protect the crop from the Colorado potato beetle, potato scoop, aphids, potato moths and other pests.

Spraying with broths of basil, tansy, black poplar leaves, mint is used on all pest-affected plants from the beginning of mass shoots to the budding phase and after flowering.

Ideal neighbors are tagetes (marigolds) and calendula (marigolds). They reliably protect cabbage, strawberries, phlox, gladioli and many other plants from damage to the root system by nematodes. They can be planted in a row, row spacings, and a garden bed can be planted on all sides. The nematodes will leave, but they will not die.

Slugs and snails cannot stand the smell of parsley. Aphids do not tolerate the scent of pelargonium. Onions and garlic in plantings of tall flowering plants will rid them of aphids. Dill, parsley, fennel and other umbrella plants attract beneficial entomophages that destroy many types of pests. They are attracted by flowering plants with flowers and inflorescences of yellow and orange colors. Sage is useful next to carrots. It is useful to propagate tansy and wormwood bushes under fruit crops and between berry bushes. Their unpleasant odor will drive away aphids and scoops, whose larvae and caterpillars can destroy most of the crop. Precursors will save potatoes from wireworm - beansor peas.

If the crop rotation is correct, then some treatments will not be needed. Plants themselves "drive out" pests.

To rid the garden of pests, to protect vegetable crops, more effective measures are needed, which are the processing of plants in order to destroy them. For treatments, decoctions, infusions, powder preparations from insecticide plants are used.

Will help to maintain the garden and in the garden a natural positive balance between the amount of harmful and beneficial insects following field and flowering plants and crops: Melilotus officinalis, tansy, thyme, garden buckwheat, calendula, fennel, dill, lavender, Mattioli, sage, chicory, nasturtium, wormwood, caraway seeds and many others.

Dill is also an active insecticide
Dill is also an active insecticide

Types of preparations made from natural insecticides

For self-preparation of natural insecticidal preparations, 3 methods are used:

Working solutions based on soap or other adhesives. In the prepared working solution of a natural insecticide from herbal insecticides, 30-50 g of household or green soap grated on a fine grater, which is an adhesive, is added to 10 liters. Stir the solution until the soap is completely dissolved. You can use dish detergent as an adhesive. It is not recommended to use washing powders, especially those containing bleaching and other ingredients that negatively affect plants.

Recently, special solutions of adhesives have been used, the so-called surfactants or surfactants: EPAA-10, liposam, OP-7, OP-10, BIO glue and others. Using surfactants as adhesives

  • fixes insecticidal solutions on the leaves of vegetative plants for up to 30 days,
  • does not allow the insecticidal solution to drain from waxy or smooth leaves,
  • prevents rapid loss of moisture on the sheet surface.

When preparing working solutions using surfactants, it is possible to extend their storage in the refrigerator up to 1-2 weeks without losing the activity of influencing pests.

Working solutions based on Neem (Neem) oil or its ingredients. Neem oil is a natural insecticide that effectively destroys more than 400 species of insects (scale insects, moth larvae, cabbage caterpillars, whiteflies). The oil itself is a bioinsecticide and does not affect human and animal health. Neem oil is obtained from the aboveground and underground parts of the Indian tree Margoza, also known as the Indian tulip tree.

To obtain an oil-based insecticidal solution, 30 ml of oil is diluted in 10 liters of a warm solution of herbal insecticides with the addition of 30 ml of detergent, stir well, and spray the plants.

You can make an insecticidal solution from neem oil with lavender and rosemary essential oils. For 8 liters of warm water, use 50-60 ml of Neem oil, 5 ml of essential oils, add 30 ml of any detergent and mix thoroughly. When spraying, use a fine spray. The solution in the container is constantly shaken so that there is no separation of oil and water. The working solution is sprayed on all the plants in the garden after 5-7 days for 2-5 weeks. The solution kills larvae and adult pests. Use the solution until the culture blooms.

You can buy neem oil or its ingredient Azadiractin, other special insecticidal liquids based on neem oil, at a herbal store, pharmacy, specialized supermarket departments, and other retail outlets.

Pyrethrum Powder Insecticides… Feverfew is also called Dalmatian chamomile. This flower is also known under the names Caucasian or Persian chamomile and some taxonomists attribute it to chrysanthemums. Real chrysanthemums are also natural insecticides. All feverfews contain pyrethrins, which cause muscle paralysis in insects. It should be noted that the action of pyrethrins is short-term and if the concentration of the powder is insufficient, the duration of fumigation is insufficient, the paralysis passes, and the insect remains alive. Therefore, using pyrethroids, you need to act strictly according to the recommendations. They destroy pyrethroid powders and solutions of ants, ticks, various flies and other gnawing (roots and leaves) pests. Chemical production produces the biological product Inta-Vir. Many gardeners call it weak.Low toxicity to pests in most cases is associated with its incorrect and untimely use.

Harvesting chamomile for use as an insecticide
Harvesting chamomile for use as an insecticide

Pyrethrum is used in the form of a powder for pollination, dusting the soil, additives in the holes when planting and sowing plants. During the growing season, you can cultivate the soil around the plants, as well as treat manure and compost heaps from flies.

Collect during flowering and dry in loose sheaves all types of daisies, including colored ones growing in the country. Grind dry inflorescences into dust. The finer the grinding, the higher the effectiveness of the product. You can process it with powder from a spray gun or prepare an insecticidal solution. Add 50-60 g of powder to 8 liters of warm water, add 6-8 ml of sesame oil or up to 10 ml of detergent. Stir the mixture, leave for 3-4 hours. Spray plants in cool weather. In hot weather, pyrethrins degrade quickly and become ineffective.

Preparation of decoctions and infusions of natural insecticides

For decoctions and infusions, the aerial part of plants is used, fresh or dried, collected before flowering or during the period from the beginning of seed ripening to harvest. The underground part is always harvested in the fall and is also used fresh or dry. Below are some examples of hot and cold preparation of decoctions and infusions. Using other insecticide plants for decoctions and infusions, you can use the given amounts of ingredients.

To prepare 10 liters of a working solution in a hot way from fresh aerial parts of insecticide plants, finely cut 300-400 g of plant mass, add boiling water to a full bucket, insist from 4 hours to a day. Sometimes the mixture is boiled under a lid for 20-30 minutes over low heat. The cooled solution is filtered through a coarse and then fine sieve and sprayed with 1-2 plants. If a burn of plants does not appear in a few hours (sometimes they wait a day), the whole culture is sprayed with the prepared solution. If the leaves are grafted or spots have appeared, add 2-3 liters of water to the solution (reduce the concentration of the solution). When preparing solutions from dry mass, its amount is reduced by half.

You can prepare a decoction of celandine for the treatment of all plants from gnawing pests. 400-500 g of fresh aboveground mass of celandine or 200-250 g dry, pour water and boil for 20-30 minutes under a lid over low heat. Cool, filter and spray the plants. Spraying is repeated after 4-5 days. It is necessary to work with celandine very carefully. All parts of the plant are poisonous. Attention! It is better not to use poisonous plants at home.

You can prepare extracts or infusions in a cold way. For the concentrate, the mixture is prepared as follows. For 10 liters of water use 500 g of yarrow, 250 g of dandelion and tansy, you can add 250-300 g of milkweed with roots, 250-300 g of nettle. The mixture of herbs is insisted, stirring, for 5-7 days. The resulting concentrate is filtered. 1-2 liters of concentrate are diluted in 10 liters of water and sprayed on crops. You can prepare a different composition, but select the collection so as to cover as many different types of pests as possible.

Preparation of insecticide solution from plants
Preparation of insecticide solution from plants

Soap or other adhesives are added to all types of decoctions and infusions before processing plants.

Some plants can be used as live insecticides in planting between crops. So, root secretions of tagetes (marigolds) or calendula (marigolds) protect the vegetable root system from nematode damage.

In the row between vegetable crops, 2-3 plants are planted per sq. m or between rows. You can plant a bed with calendula. In the fall, collect, dry and use as a decoction for the next year.

Infusions can be prepared cold from one type of insecticide plant.

Nettle (0.8-1.0 kg), collected before flowering, is finely chopped, poured with 10 liters of water and insisted for 5-8 days. Filter the fermented mass, add 5-8 liters of water. Used for aphids.

Before summer (flight) white women, moths, cabbage moths prepare burdock infusion. Fill 1/3 of the bucket with fresh burdock leaves and pour water to the brim. Insist 3-4 days. Strain and process the cabbage with the resulting solution after 2-3 days for 3 weeks.

Copperhead, aphids and mites die from the infusion of horse sorrel roots. Finely chop 250-350 g of roots and pour 10 liters of water. Insist 3-4 hours, drain. Treat the plants 2-3 times in 3-4 days.

From general recommendations. Before flowering, garden and garden crops are treated with working solutions after 5-7 days, sometimes more often. During the flowering period, processing is not carried out so as not to interfere with pollination. From the second half of the warm season, during the beginning of the growth of fruits and before harvesting, the frequency of treatments is reduced by 2 times. It is better not to use decoctions and infusions of poisonous herbs in summer cottages and adjoining areas.

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