The Timing Of Sowing Vegetable Crops For Seedlings For Different Regions. When To Plant Seedlings? Tables

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The Timing Of Sowing Vegetable Crops For Seedlings For Different Regions. When To Plant Seedlings? Tables
The Timing Of Sowing Vegetable Crops For Seedlings For Different Regions. When To Plant Seedlings? Tables
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For lovers of home gardens, the pre-summer time begins. The future harvest of favorite vegetable crops is laid, which in cold regions can only be grown through seedlings. How to set the optimal time for sowing seeds in order to timely receive and plant healthy seedlings in open ground or in a greenhouse? Experienced gardeners, by trial and error, through many years of experience, have quite accurately established for themselves the dates of sowing seeds of different crops for seedlings. Newbies in seedling growing can take advantage of our recommendations.

Seedlings of vegetable crops
Seedlings of vegetable crops

Vegetable crops, as a rule, owe their origin to continents and countries where the warm frost-free period lasts almost all year round and the crops have time to complete their entire development cycle in the open field. In Russia, such regions include only the south of the country, where the warm season with a sufficient amount of active positive temperatures lasts about 180 days a year (Table 1).

The main territory of Russia includes regions where the sum of positive temperatures, the length of the warm period, the timing of the onset of the warm season and the first frosts differ significantly from those required for vegetable crops. Namely, the period of the year depends on these indicators when it will be possible to sow vegetable seeds for seedlings, and then in open or protected ground.

Table 1. The onset and duration of the frost-free periodby regions of Russia

Region / zone name Number of frost-free days per year Start of frost-free period, date The beginning of autumn frosts, date Note
Southern regions About 180 April 10th 10 october All vegetable seedlings are planted in open ground.
Central black earth region About 130 May 10 September 20 Vegetable seedlings are planted in open ground. The early ones are under temporary shelter.
Middle zone About 90 June 10th 10 September Vegetable crops are planted in open ground with a growing season of no more than 80–85 days. Earlier planting is carried out in greenhouses or temporary shelters are used.
Ural and Siberian regions About 65 June 15th 20 August Some cold-resistant vegetable crops are planted in open ground, at first they use temporary shelters.
Far East About 120 May 20 September 20 The duration of the frost-free period ranges from 90-170 days. Spring frosts end on May 10-30, and autumn frosts come on September 15-30.

In the northern regions and in the middle zone of Russia, the number of frost-free days ranges from 65 to 90 days, which limits the receipt of vegetable products through cultivation in the open field, especially those crops whose growing season exceeds 90 days or more (Table 2). In cold regions, vegetable production of crops with a long growing season can be obtained only through seedlings, which 1/3 and sometimes 1/2 of their growing season will grow and develop in artificially created greenhouse conditions.

Table 2. The growing season of some vegetable crops

Culture Growing season
Early tomatoes 65-80
Medium tomatoes 80-130
Late tomatoes 100-150
Eggplant 90-150
Sweet pepper 80-140
Cucumbers 60-90
Head salad 40-70
Late cabbage 180-190

The long warm period of the southern regions does not exclude the use of protected soil for growing vegetables through seedlings in greenhouses. But in this case, the main goal is to obtain products for commercial purposes all year round for sale or the earliest products for the market and the family.

Seedlings of vegetable crops
Seedlings of vegetable crops

Table 3. Estimated timing of sowing vegetable seeds for the southern regions of Russia and the CIS

Name of culture Sowing seeds for seedlings, date The emergence of seedlings, days Seedling age (from germination to planting), days Landing in open ground, date
Early tomatoes February 25 - March 5 4-6 45-50 April 25 - May 10
Medium tomatoes March 1-10 4-8 55-60 May 10 - 15
Eggplant February 5-10 8-10 70-85 May 1 - 20
Sweet pepper February 5-10 8-10 70-85 May 1 - 20
Cucumbers April 10 - 15 2-4 25-30 May 10 - 12
Early white cabbage February 10-15 4-6 45-55 March 25 - April 5
White cabbage medium March 20 - 25 4-6 35-40 April 30 - May 5
Zucchini, zucchini, squash May 1 - 10 4-5 20-25 May 25 - June 6

Breeders always “tie” the development of new varieties of vegetable crops to the climatic conditions of a region or district. This makes it possible to breed a variety that is brought up and accustomed to the weather deviations of the area. The approximate or tentative sowing date is always indicated on the package with seeds and in special zoned catalogs of varieties and hybrids of vegetable crops.

For early ripening crops, the approximate timing of sowing seeds for seedlings (broccoli, head lettuce, cucumbers and other crops) have a large take-off, which implies several crops at a certain time interval in order to increase the period of obtaining fresh garden products (Table 4).

Table 4. Approximate terms of sowing vegetable seeds for the Central Black Earth region of Russia

Name of culture Sowing seeds for seedlings, date The emergence of seedlings, days Seedling age (from germination to planting), days Landing in open ground, date
Early tomatoes February 25 - March 5 4-6 45-50 From 20 to 25 April under cover
10 - 25 March May 25 - June 10
Medium tomatoes March 1-10 4-8 55-60 May 20 - 25
April 1 - 10 June 1 - 10
Eggplant February 10 - March 15 8-10 60-70 05 - 25 May (Shelter will be required in bad weather)
Sweet pepper February 10 - March 15 8-10 70-80 05 - 25 May
March 20 - April 05 60-65 May 25 - June 10
Cucumbers (for the greenhouse) 05 - 30 April 2-4 27-30 01 - 25 May (Provided the soil warms up to + 12 ° С).
Cucumbers (for open ground) 01 - 15 May 2-4 27-30 From June 05 (Provided the soil warms up to + 12 ° С; temporary shelter may be required).
Early white cabbage 01 - 15 March 2-4 45-50 April 15 - May 10
White cabbage late March 25 - April 15 4-6 35-40 May 10 - 25
Zucchini, zucchini, squash April 25 - May 15 4-6 25-27 May 20 - June 10 (When the soil warms up more than + 12 ° C).
Common pumpkin 05 - 25 May 4-5 25-30 May 25 - June 15 (Provided the soil warms up at least + 11 ° С).
Broccoli 01 March - 25 May 4-5 35-40 April 25 - June 30 (Sowing on several dates. Temporary shelter will be required for the first landing).
Head salad March 15 - July 20 4-5 35-40 April 20 - August 20 (Sowing on several dates. Temporary shelter will be required for the first landing).

The timing of sowing vegetable seeds for seedlings in cold regions is given taking into account the emergence of seedlings. If seedlings appear in the south on days 3–10, then the slow warming up of the soil in the northern regions lengthens the time of emergence of seedlings to 20–35 days, which accordingly affects the readiness of seedlings for planting in the ground.

Adhering to the recommended timing of sowing seeds for seedlings, it is necessary to focus on changing weather conditions in the area. If the spring is early, sowing can be carried out 5-10 days earlier than the time indicated in the indications. In a cold, protracted spring, sowing is postponed to a later date. Accordingly, the date of disembarkation to a permanent place will also be postponed (Tables 5, 6).

Lettuce seedlings
Lettuce seedlings

Table 5. Tentative dates for sowing vegetable crops for central Russia

Name of culture Sowing seeds for seedlings, date The emergence of seedlings, days Seedling age (from germination to planting), days Landing in open ground, date Note
Early tomatoes March 10 - April 15 5-7 45-50 June 1 - 10
Medium and late tomatoes 11 - 20 March 5-7 65-70 June 5 - 15
Sweet pepper 11 - 20 March 12-14 65-75 June 5 - 10 Until June 5 in the greenhouse
Eggplant March 21 - 31 10-12 60-65 June 5 - 15 Until June 5 in the greenhouse
Head salad April 21 - 30 3-5 35-45 June 11 - 20
Celery 12 - 20 February 12-20 75-85 May 21 - 30
Zucchini, squash, April 11 - 20 3-5 25-30 May 21 - 31
May 10 - 15 June 10th
Cucumbers April 25 - 30 2-4 25-30 May 25 - 30 To the greenhouse without technical heating
May 1 - 10 June 1 - 10
Cauliflower 15 - 25 March 4-6 45-50 May 21 - 30
White cabbage, early 15 - 25 March 4-6 45-50 May 21 - 30
White cabbage, medium April 25 - 30 4-6 35-40 Disembarkation after early cabbage

Table 6. Approximate terms of sowing vegetable seeds for seedlings for the Urals and Siberian regions

Name of culture Sowing seeds for seedlings, date The emergence of seedlings, days Seedling age (from germination to planting), days Landing in open ground, date Note
Early tomatoes April 1 - 5 7-9 45-50 June 5 - 10 Depending on the districts of the region, sowing seeds can be carried out from February 20 - March 22. The date of landing in the ground will also change.
Medium and late tomatoes March 10 - 22 5-7 65-75 June 5 - 15
Sweet pepper March 10 - 20 12-15 50-70 June 5 - 10
Eggplant April 5 - 10 12-16 55-60 June 5 - 15 For greenhouse cultivation, the sowing date is 10-18 February.
Head salad April 25 - 30 4-5 35-40 June 5 - 10
Celery February 25 - 28 12-15 75-85 May 25 - 30
Zucchini, squash, May 10 - 20 4-5 25-30 June 5 - 10
Cucumbers April 25 - 30 3-4 27-30 May 25 - 30
Cauliflower, broccoli March 5-10 5-6 45-50 May 25 - 30
Early white cabbage March 5-10 5-6 45-50 May 25 - 30
White cabbage medium April 25 - 30 5-6 35-40 June 1 - 10

It is possible to clarify the finished tabular material on the timing of sowing seeds for seedlings according to the data of regional centers, because the regional average sowing period can differ in sowing dates up to 1 month due to the vast territories of the region with different climatic conditions. If we take into account the climatic features of each locality in the region, then the timing of sowing seeds and planting seedlings used by practitioners may significantly differ from the tabular material.

In cold regions, when growing seedlings, you can use another general indicative sowing time for seedlings. To grow a vegetable in a greenhouse, seedlings must be ready for planting on May 10–20, and in open ground - not earlier than the onset of a frost-free period, or June 10–15.

Planting seedlings in open ground
Planting seedlings in open ground

Table 7. Approximate dates of sowing vegetable seeds for seedlings for the regions of the Far East

The Far Eastern FD includes 9 subjects of the Federation, of which only some of them can cultivate vegetable crops in protected or open ground under temporary shelters. The duration of the frost-free period in the region ranges from 90-170 days. The best areas for growing vegetable crops are considered to be Primorsky Krai, Khabarovsk and Amur regions. The table shows the timing of sowing seeds of the main vegetable crops and the approximate timing of planting seedlings in protected ground or open ground for temporary shelters.

Name of culture Sowing seeds for seedlings, date The emergence of seedlings, days Seedling age (from germination to planting), days Landing in open ground, date Note
Early tomatoes March 1 - 25 7-9 55-60 May 1 - 25 Under cover
Medium and late tomatoes March 20 - 30 5-7 65-75 June 10 - 25
Sweet pepper March 1 - 15 10-12 60-80 May 25 - June 10 Landing in open ground after warming up the soil to + 15 ° С and air not lower than + 20 ° С.

In some varieties, the germination period can be 14-20 days. The date of landing in the ground will also change.

Eggplant February 25 - March 10 12-16 60-70 From May 20 For greenhouse cultivation, the sowing date, taking into account late shoots, can be postponed by 10-12 days. The date of disembarkation of seedlings will also change.
Celery February 25 - 28 10-15 75-85 May 25 - 30 They are planted in open ground at an air temperature of +8.. + 10 ° С.

Taking into account late shoots, the date of planting in the ground can be postponed by 10-12 days.

Zucchini, Zucchini, Pumpkin May 15 - June 10 4-6 25-30 From June 15
Cucumber April 1 - 15 5-6 25-30 May 25 - 30 To a greenhouse or shelter
Cauliflower, broccoli March 10 - March 25 5-6 45-60 (colored), 35-45 (broccoli) May 25 - 30 Under cover
Early white cabbage March 10 - 15 5-6 45-50 April 25 - May 30 Under cover
White cabbage medium March 20 - April 20 5-6 35-45 April 25 - May 25 Under cover

Today, breeders offer a huge selection of varieties, the sowing dates of which for seedlings vary significantly. Errors in timing the sowing of seeds can lead to planting too young or overgrown seedlings in a permanent place. The sowing time for seedlings is most clearly calculated taking into account corrections for local temperature features. You can use the calculation methods for specifying the timing of sowing seeds and planting seedlings in the ground, given in the article "Calculation of the timing of sowing vegetable seeds for seedlings."

Attention! Please write in the comments to this material when you sow your vegetables for seedlings. Do not forget to indicate the culture, region and landing conditions (open or protected ground). Thanks!

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