Dates Of Sowing The Main Garden Crops In Open Ground. When To Plant Vegetables Outdoors? Table

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Dates Of Sowing The Main Garden Crops In Open Ground. When To Plant Vegetables Outdoors? Table
Dates Of Sowing The Main Garden Crops In Open Ground. When To Plant Vegetables Outdoors? Table

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At the summer cottage, a wedge is necessarily allocated for garden crops, the main part of which is vegetable. Each culture is distinguished by its biological characteristics, formed in the climate of the area of ​​origin. The main condition for the successful cultivation of vegetable crops in an environment unusual for them is the sowing time associated with the temperature of the soil and air, the brightness of the lighting and the duration of the daytime. The article proposes to get acquainted with the approximate timing of sowing seeds of the main vegetable crops in open ground for regions with different climatic conditions.

Spring sowing of vegetables in open ground
Spring sowing of vegetables in open ground

Content:

  • Soil temperature is the main indicator of the start of sowing
  • Lighting is the second most important indicator of the start of sowing
  • Sowing dates of vegetable crops in open ground
  • Features of the selection of the timing of sowing vegetables in different regions
  • Table 1. Sowing dates for the Southern region
  • Table 2. Sowing dates for the Central Black Earth Region
  • Table 3. Sowing dates for the Far Eastern region
  • Table 4. Sowing dates for Siberia and the Urals
  • Table 5. Sowing dates for the North-West region
  • Table 6. Sowing dates for the Central strip and the Moscow region

Soil temperature is the main indicator of the start of sowing

The indicator of the beginning of sowing is the temperature of the soil at the depth of occurrence of the bulk of the roots of a particular culture. Its change and the rate of heating are influenced by snow cover, groundwater, soil type, and its moisture content. It is the heating of the soil in the root layer that provides the possibility of obtaining an early harvest.

If you sow seeds in cold soil, then even cold-resistant crops can sprout, but they will not be able to form a crop. Roots in cold soil cannot function normally to provide conditions for the development of the aboveground mass.

In order to preserve sowing, heat-loving crops are sown only when constant warm weather sets in without recurrent spring frosts. When they are threatened, the seedlings are covered with any cover material (spunbond, lutrasil), which is removed the next morning with the onset of warm weather. Sun heating of the covered bed can adversely affect seedlings and young seedlings.

Naturally, the sowing dates for the regions may not coincide in the numerical data of the spring-summer months. Therefore, the main reference point for the beginning of sowing in open ground in regions with a short warm period and early onset of cold weather will be soil temperature, light intensity and the establishment of a frost-free period.

A stable, recommended soil temperature for several days is a signal to start sowing. In order not to sow vegetables in cold soil, they use different methods to determine its temperature in the root layer.

Determination of soil temperature using thermometers

For this purpose, Savinov TM-5 elbow thermometers, exhaust thermometers and probe thermometers are used.

It is more convenient for novice gardeners to determine the temperature of the soil layer by layer with thermometers. Remember that they are used only in the warm period, and when the temperature drops at a depth of 5 cm to 0 ° C, they are dug up and removed into the room. The measurement procedure is specified in the recommendations.

Determination of soil temperature by plants

They take into account the state of the crown of trees, the above-ground mass of shrubs, the onset of flowering of perennial wild-growing herbs.

Take note:

  • Blackcurrant buds have blossomed, vegetables and flower crops can be sown.
  • The buds of the warty birch have unfolded, which means that the soil at a depth of 5 cm warmed up well, it was time for sowing early greens, planting early potatoes. The leaves turned around a little - it's time to sow radishes, carrots, and other root crops. Birch is preparing for flowering - the soil has warmed up to 10 cm depth. It's time to sow tomatoes in open ground.
  • Dandelions bloom when the temperature in a 10 cm layer of soil warms up to + 6 … + 8 ° С, and in a layer of 10-40 cm - only up to + 3 ° С.
  • Bird cherry blossoms - it's time to plant potatoes.

Determination of soil temperature by the physical condition of the soil

This method is often used by experienced gardeners. A handful of earth is squeezed into a ball. If a liquid appears on the surface of the lump, it is too early to sow, and the lump is scattered, the early sows. Has fallen, but scattered into lumps - you can start planting early cabbage and potatoes, salads, radishes.

Sowing vegetable seeds in early spring in open ground
Sowing vegetable seeds in early spring in open ground

Lighting is the second most important indicator of the start of sowing

In the complex of main conditions, the next is light. It is regulated by a much larger list of requirements: sowing time, air temperature, standing density, timely thinning, destruction of tall weeds that shade plants.

Each type of plant normally grows and develops in natural conditions at a certain length of daylight hours.

For some crops, the length of daylight hours does not affect the germination and development of plants. Such crops can be sown practically during the entire warm season. Others are quite sensitive to changes in lighting. Breeders, breeding new varieties, always accustom them to the climatic conditions of a certain area and, accordingly, recommend approximate sowing dates, which must be observed.

Culture groups that react differently to lighting

Neutral. The cultures of this group practically do not react to the amount and period of received solar energy. These include peas, beans, some varieties of tomatoes and cucumbers, as well as watermelons, asparagus and others. The list is constantly updated by breeders who "instill" the ability to not react to the length of daylight in new varieties and hybrids.

Short-day. In a shortened day (10-14 hours), plants bloom faster and move on to fruiting. These are certain varieties and hybrids of tomatoes, beans, cucumbers. The same group includes other pumpkin (squash, pumpkin, squash), corn, sweet and bitter peppers, eggplants. The green group quickly turns to flowering (flowering) (dill, parsley, lettuce, spinach, sorrel, onions on a green feather).

Long-day. Plants of this group, with sufficient duration of illumination (more than 14 hours), move to the flowering and fruiting phase. This group of plants includes all types of cabbage, radishes, rutabagas, radishes, northern varieties of turnips, parsnips, carrots, vegetable peas, and beets. If long-day plants are created for a short day using early seeding or darkening, their development will be inhibited. They will not be able to move to the flowering and fruiting phases. They stop at the formation of lush rosettes of greenery (vegetative organs).

Seedlings of vegetables sown in spring in open ground
Seedlings of vegetables sown in spring in open ground

Sowing dates of vegetable crops in open ground

Early spring crops (mid-March - mid-April)

This group of plants is made up of crops with low and medium demand for light. Sowing of early spring greens and vegetables can be done in stages, after 10-12-15 days, which will prolong the receipt of fresh produce.

The list of crops for sowing at a soil temperature of 7-10 cm layer within + 3 … + 5 ° С.

  • Green (gingerbread) - dill, parsley, coriander, fennel, parsnips, mustard, celery, asparagus, lemon balm and others.
  • Leafy vegetables and with above-ground yield formation - all types of salads, horseradish, spinach, rhubarb, peas, early cauliflower, broccoli, early maturing white cabbage.
  • Bulbous and root vegetables - onion sets and black onions for feathers and onions, early carrots, radishes, radishes, turnips, rutabagas.

Mid-spring crops (mid-April - second decade of May)

If the spring is cold and wet, the sowing is postponed to a later date (5-8 days). Like cold-resistant crops, these crops can also be sown in stages, after 10-12-15 days, which will prolong the receipt of fresh produce.

When the soil warms up in the root layer from + 5 ° C, you can continue sowing some crops that are low and medium-demanding to the conditions of sun supply.

The list of crops for sowing at a soil temperature of 8-15 cm layer within + 5 … + 8 ° С.

  • Green - leaf celery, petiole, root, chicory salad.
  • Vegetable - all types of cabbage: medium white cabbage, red cabbage, Brussels sprouts, Savoy cabbage, kohlrabi and others. Potatoes are planted early, medium, leeks, spring garlic. Sow onion sets and beans, beans. Closer to May, sugar corn and sunflowers are sown.
  • Root crops: beets, medium carrots.

Late spring crops (last decade of May - mid-June)

Sowing of vegetables in open ground is carried out in the third decade of May – June, with the onset of constant warm weather without recurrent spring frosts. For example, in the central zone of Russia, Siberia, and the Urals, warm weather without frosts is established after June 10-15. The soil in the root layer warms up to + 12 … + 15-17 ° С. That is, open ground crops of even early cold-resistant vegetable crops are shifted to the pre-summer or early summer.

In these regions, it is more expedient to use early varieties, necessarily zoned for the local climate, to use temporary shelters and growing vegetables in greenhouses in the autumn.

Heat-loving crops, which are sown at a soil temperature of 10-15 cm layer up to + 13 … + 15-17 ° С

With the onset of a stable warm period, tomatoes, beans, melons (melons and watermelons), sunflowers, basil, marjoram, root crops (carrots, beets) are sown. Seedlings of nightshade (tomatoes, eggplants, sweet and bitter peppers) and pumpkin crops (cucumbers, zucchini, squash, pumpkin) are planted in open ground.

Thus, specialists have identified groups of plants that require a certain soil temperature, frost-free weather, and the amount and duration of solar energy intake for germination and normal development.

Spring sowing of vegetable seeds in open ground
Spring sowing of vegetable seeds in open ground

Features of the selection of the timing of sowing vegetables in different regions

When choosing the timing of sowing vegetables on your site, it should be borne in mind that some short-day varieties need a factor of darkness, but only at the beginning of the growing season (at this time they are shaded). They develop normally with age and form fruiting in long day conditions. If short-day plants are provided with a day length of more than 14 hours, then their development will slow down, and the vegetative mass will begin to develop intensively. This property is used in green forcing to quickly obtain fresh greens and early vegetable production.

In cold regions, shifting the sowing of vegetable crops to an earlier date, it is necessary to use temporary shelters, prepare warmed beds.

The Far East has a special temperature regime. Vegetable growing is concentrated in the Amur region, Primorsky and Khabarovsk territories. A humid warm summer allows you to harvest fairly high yields of cold-resistant varieties of sweet peppers and melons bred specifically for this zone, as well as cabbage, carrots, which can be grown in open ground, sowing after June 15, that is, the crops will be pre-summer.

Green products of gingerbread vegetables grown in the open field are obtained only with summer crops. In these regions, it is more expedient to use early varieties, necessarily zoned for the local climate, to use temporary shelters and growing vegetables in greenhouses in the autumn.

Prepared tall beds for spring sowing vegetable seeds
Prepared tall beds for spring sowing vegetable seeds

Table 1. Sowing dates for the Southern region

Name of crops Early spring sowing in open ground (March 15 - April 15) Mid-spring crops in open ground (April 15 - May 20) Late spring sowing in open ground (May 20 - June 15)
Dill, fennel, parsley, celery 1-25 March - June 5-15
Leaf salad March 5 - April 15 April 15-May 10 -
Onions on a feather, onions on a turnip March 10-30 from April 15 -
Cucumbers - April 10 - May 10 May 25 - June 15
Spring garlic March 1-10 - -
Potatoes March 1 - April 10 from April 20 (medium ripening varieties) -
Carrot April 5-25; April 15 - May 30 May 25 - June 10
Radish March 15-30 - -
Parsnip April 5-10 April 20 - May 10 -
Peas March 1-30 - -
Sugar corn - April 20 - May 10 -
Beans - May 15-20 -
Beet April 5-15 April 15-30 May 25 - June 10
Tomatoes March 15-30 from April 15 (medium ripening varieties) -
Eggplant, sweet and bitter peppers - April 15 - May 20 May 20-June 10
White cabbage March 1-25 (early ripening varieties). March 10-20 (medium-ripening varieties). April 10 - May 20 (late ripening varieties) -
Zucchini, squash - April 20 - May 10 -
Watermelons, melons - - -

Table 2. Sowing dates for the Central Black Earth Region

Name of crops Early spring sowing in open ground (March 15 - April 15) Mid-spring crops in open ground (April 15 - May 20) Late spring sowing in open ground (May 20 - June 15)
Dill, fennel, parsley, celery 1-25 March April 15 - May 20 May 20 - June 15
Leaf salad March 5 - April 15 April 20-30 May 20-30
Onions on a feather, onions on a turnip March 10-30 April 20 - May 20 May 20 - June 15
Cucumbers - April 20 - May 20 May 20 - June 15
Spring garlic March 1-10 May 11-20 May 25 - June 5
Potatoes March 1 - April 10 May 20-15 May 11-20
Carrot March 15-30, April 5-25; April 25 - May 10 May 20-30
Radish April 5-10 April 20-28 -
Parsnip March 1-30 April 10 - May 1 -
Peas April 5-15 April 20-30 April 20 - May 25
Sugar corn - April 20-30 May 20 - June 1
Beans - - May 10-30
Beet March 15-30 April 20 - May 10 May 20-30
Tomatoes From April 15 (under cover) April 25 - May 5 May 15 - June 15
Eggplant, sweet and bitter peppers From April 15 (under cover) April 15-25 (under cover). Track the weather from 20 May May 20 - June 15
White cabbage March 1-25 (early ripening varieties). March 10-20 (medium ripening varieties) May 20-30 (medium ripening varieties) May 20-25 (medium and late ripening varieties)
Zucchini, squash - May 10-15 -
Watermelons, melons - May 10-15 -

Table 3. Sowing dates for the Far Eastern region

Name of crops Early spring sowing in open ground (March 15 - April 15) Mid-spring crops in open ground (April 15 - May 20) Late spring sowing in open ground (May 20 - June 15)
Dill, fennel, parsley, celery March 20-30. Re-sowing April 10-20 May 15-20 May 25 - June 10
Leaf salad March 1-20. Re-sowing April 1-20 May 15-20 May 25 - June 15 (under cover)
Onions on a feather, onions on a turnip April 25 - 10 May 15-20 May 25 - June 15 (under cover)
Cucumbers - May 15-20 (under cover in a warm bed) from June 15
Spring garlic April 10-15 April 15-30
Potatoes April 1-15 (under cover). If the cold spring is April 10-15 from April 15 to May 20 (under cover) from May 20 (early ripening varieties)
Carrot March 20-30 (early ripening varieties). April 10-20 (medium ripening varieties) April 15 - May 20 (medium ripening varieties); you can continue sowing varieties of early ripening from May 25 (late ripening varieties). May 20-25 (sowing medium ripening varieties)
Radish March 20-30 from May 20 (under cover due to the lengthening of the day) May 25 - June 15 (under cover)
Parsnip March 20-30 - -
Peas March 15-April 15 from May 15 (under cover) from June 15
Sugar corn - - -
Beans - - -
Beet April 10-20 - from May 25
Tomatoes - - -
Eggplant, sweet and bitter peppers - - -
White cabbage - May 15-20 (early ripening varieties for shelter) from 20 May
Zucchini, squash - - from June 15
Watermelons, melons - - from June 15

Table 4. Sowing dates for Siberia and the Urals

Name of crops Early spring sowing in open ground (March 15 - April 15) Mid-spring crops in open ground (April 15 - May 20) Late spring sowing in open ground (May 20 - June 15)
Dill, fennel, parsley, celery - April 20 - May 20 May 25 - June 15
Leaf salad - April 20 - May 20 (under cover) June 1-15 (under cover)
Onions on a feather, onions on a turnip - from 20 May June 1-15 (under cover)
Cucumbers - May 20 - June 10 (in warm beds or under a temporary shelter) May 25 - June 15
Spring garlic - May 12-15 -
Potatoes - April 28 - May 10 May 10 - June 1
Carrot - April 25 - May 20 May 20 - June 10
Radish - - May 25 - June 15 (under cover)
Parsnip - - -
Peas - - -
Sugar corn - - -
Beans - - -
Beet - May 15-30 May 15-30
Tomatoes - April 15 - May 5 (under cover) -
Eggplant, sweet and bitter peppers - - -
White cabbage - May 10-15 (early ripening varieties for shelter) From June 1 (under cover)
Zucchini, squash - - -
Watermelons, melons - - -

Table 5. Sowing dates for the North-West region

Name of crops Early spring sowing in open ground (March 15 - April 15) Mid-spring crops in open ground (April 15 - May 20) Late spring sowing in open ground (May 20 - June 15)
Dill, fennel, parsley, celery - May 15-25 May 25 - June 15
Leaf salad - May 15-20 (under cover) June 1-15 (under cover)
Onions on a feather, onions on a turnip - May 15-20 June 1-15 (under cover)
Cucumbers - - May 20 - June 10 (in warm beds or under a temporary shelter). June 15 - open ground
Spring garlic - - -
Potatoes - April 28 - May 10 (early ripening varieties) May 10 - June 1
Carrot - April 25 - May 20 May 20 - June 10
Radish - - from May 25 (under cover)
Parsnip - - -
Peas - - -
Sugar corn - - -
Beans - - -
Beet - - May 15-30
Tomatoes - April 15 - May 5 (under cover) -
Eggplant, sweet and bitter peppers - - -
White cabbage - May 10-15 (early ripening varieties for shelter) From June 1 (under cover)
Zucchini, squash - - -
Watermelons, melons - - -

Table 6. Sowing dates for the Central strip and the Moscow region

Name of crops Early spring sowing in open ground (March 15 - April 15) Mid-spring crops in open ground (April 15 - May 20) Late spring sowing in open ground (May 20 - June 15)
Dill, fennel, parsley, celery - May 1-10; (celery May 10-20) May 15-30
Leaf salad - May 5-10 May 20-30
Onions on a feather, onions on a turnip - May 10-20 May 11-20
Cucumbers - May 10-20 (under cover) May 20 - June 15 (under cover)
Spring garlic - May 10-20 May 11-20
Potatoes - May 10-20 May 15-25
Carrot - May 5-10 May 20 - June 10
Radish - May 1-10 from May 25 (under cover)
Parsnip - May 5-10 -
Peas - May 5-10 from June 10
Sugar corn - May 8-15 -
Beans - May 8-15 from June 10
Beet - May 5-10 May 15-30
Tomatoes - April 15 - May 5 (under cover) -
Eggplant, sweet and bitter peppers - - -
White cabbage - May 1-10 (early ripening varieties for shelter) -
Zucchini, squash - May 15-20 (under cover) May 20-30 - June 5-10
Watermelons, melons - - -

Dear Reader! The article provides approximate data on sowing in open ground. Regardless of the region of the country, the main criterion for sowing dates is soil temperature, the onset of a frost-free period, and the intensity of sunlight. If you have other guidelines and approaches that justify themselves, write in the comments. This material is very interesting and necessary for readers.

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