Amur Grapes Are The Most Frost-resistant. Description, Varieties And Hybrids, Cultivation Experience. Photo

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Amur Grapes Are The Most Frost-resistant. Description, Varieties And Hybrids, Cultivation Experience. Photo
Amur Grapes Are The Most Frost-resistant. Description, Varieties And Hybrids, Cultivation Experience. Photo
Video: Amur Grapes Are The Most Frost-resistant. Description, Varieties And Hybrids, Cultivation Experience. Photo
Video: WOW! Amazing New Agriculture Technology - Grape 2023, February
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When I moved to Komsomolsk-on-Amur, I could not imagine how many botanical discoveries this harsh land would give me. The richest taiga with the most amazing plants for me, a native of the Moscow region: honeysuckle, blueberry, actinidia (in the local interpretation it is called kish-mish), lemongrass, aralia, Manchurian nut …. And the cherry on the cake - the grapes that grow in the forest! I will tell you about this amazing, very frost-hardy Amur grape in my article.

Amur grapes are the most frost-resistant
Amur grapes are the most frost-resistant

Content:

  • Where did the grapes come from in the Far East?
  • What are Amur grapes?
  • Varieties and hybrids of Amur grapes
  • My experience of growing Amur grapes

Where did the grapes come from in the Far East?

Amur grapes (Vítis amurensis) have remained in the Far East since the pre-glacial period, when there were subtropics in these places. The Far East itself survived the Ice Age more easily than, for example, the European part. The conditions, apparently, were milder, which allowed the representatives of the subtropical flora to survive: Amur grapes, ginseng, Manchurian aralia, lemongrass, velvet tree, etc. They survived and adapted. Although today the conditions in the places where these plants grow are very different and very difficult.

Amur grapes grow from the southern regions of China to the lower reaches of the Amur (Lake Bolshie Kizi, 500 kilometers northeast of Khabarovsk). Of course, throughout this vast territory, the grapes, although Amur, are different. It is customary to distinguish three ecological types: northern - Khabarovsk, southern - Vladivostok, and Chinese - the one in the southern regions of China.

The most frost-resistant, of course, is the northern one. Just around Komsomolsk-on-Amur. The climate looks like this: the absolute minimum of -45.5 ° С does not happen every year, but 40-degree frosts are not uncommon. The snow cover lasts about 6 months. The absolute maximum + 35 ° С is also not every year, but the summer 30-degree heat is normal. The maximum amount of precipitation falls in summer, in August, the typhoon season. And wind. This is almost constant, while the wind speed is higher in winter. "Black frosts" are not uncommon - the temperature drops below -20 ° C in the absence of snow.

The southern (Vladivostok) one has its own difficulties: here the absolute minimum is -31.5 ° C, but it happens very rarely, on average, winter temperatures are -10 … -20 ° C, often with thaws. Summers are less warm (absolute maximum + 33.6 ° C) and much wetter. That is, the main problems here are dampness, noticeably less sun and heat in summer, thaw.

And if the Amur grape grows normally and bears fruit in such conditions, then it can be successfully grown in other "non-grape" regions of our country.

First, my Amur grape (Vítis amurensis) braided the fence, then climbed onto the poplar and hangs from there
First, my Amur grape (Vítis amurensis) braided the fence, then climbed onto the poplar and hangs from there

What are Amur grapes?

A woody liana with a trunk up to 10 cm in diameter and 15-25 meters long (these are the southern, northern version is shorter, 10 meters). The bark is dark, scaly.

The leaves are different in shape and size, rough, dark green, covered with bristles below. In autumn, they become bright, red, yellow, orange - very elegant!

Flowers in grapes are small, melliferous, collected in small loose clusters. By autumn, the fruits ripen - black, purple or dark blue balls with a bluish bloom, up to 12 mm in size and different in taste - from very sour to very sweet. The bunches are also completely different - from cylindrical to winged. Grapes there, in the taiga, have been independently engaged in their selection for many millennia, and therefore many different options have turned out.

Amur grape is a dioecious plant, sometimes monoecious specimens are found. By the way, in this matter, Amur grapes are capable of presenting many surprises. There are references from breeders about the transformation of the female form into the male, obtaining a bisexual form when pollinated by a male plant of a female, fruiting of any forms - with both functionally male and functionally female types of flowers.

Surprises, however, are not only in this matter. For example, in the literature it is noted that the Amur grapes are moisture-loving. But in the Amur taiga, it grows mainly on the slopes of the hills, where the water does not stay. I have grown grapes near the fence (the birds, apparently, tried) under the poplar, where, due to dryness, the grass hardly grows. First, he braided the fence, then he climbed onto the poplar and hangs from there. Fruits with small blue sweet and sour berries, which taste closer to European varieties than American ones.

Another very useful quality of northern Amur grapes is resistance to mildew and powdery mildew. And many other purely grape sores. Like all savages, he has excellent immunity. By the way, resveratrol, which is wildly popular today in gerontology, cardiology, immunology and cosmetology, is produced in the Amur grapes in the largest quantities.

Of the shortcomings - it is poorly rooted by cuttings. But it takes root. So there is no need to lose hope.

That same wild pick-up grape of mine, having dropped the twigs to the ground in August, in the rainy season, rooted perfectly. That is, it should multiply well by layering.

Grapes "Russian Concord"
Grapes "Russian Concord"
Grapes "Amur Potapenko 1"
Grapes "Amur Potapenko 1"
Grapes "Marinovsky"
Grapes "Marinovsky"

Varieties and hybrids of Amur grapes

Amur grapes have been involved in hybridization for a long time, since the time of Michurin. Extraction forms prepared varieties: "East", "Taygovy", "Siberian yielding", "Boar large", "Monastirskiy", "Amur Purple", "Amur Large-», «Amur Potapenko" (1, 2, 3, 4, 5), "Amursky-2" and many others. One of the sweetest - "In memory of Thor Heyerdahl" - with 25% sugar!

Hybrids with cultivated grapes, with a slightly lower winter hardiness and with a sugar content of 22-23%: "New Russian" (ultra early), "Kishmish Potapenko", "Avgustovsky", "Marinovsky", "Rant", "Saperavi Severny", "Arctic”, “Buyur”, “Zarya Severa”, “Korinka Michurina”, “Russian Concord”, “Northern Black”.

Hybrids with the participation of North American species - "Shasla Ramminga", "Far Eastern Ramminga", "Suputinsky 174", "Primorsky" - these varieties have high winter hardiness (-39 ° C) and strong immunity.

By the way, Amur grapes are the donor of "high taste" in hybridization. Unlike North American varieties, which inherit the "fox" taste, so despised by Europeans, Amur grapes convey extremely noble, nutmeg, and sometimes "chocolate" notes.

Amur grapes in September
Amur grapes in September

My experience of growing Amur grapes

The grapes lived on the site long before I appeared there. As the family tradition says, he was planted by her husband's parents in the 70s of the last century, brought from Ussuriisk. Since Ussuriisk is much closer to Vladivostok than to Khabarovsk, it is noticeably warmer there, and they nursed the grapes: removed from the support for the winter, cut off and covered.

And not so that thoroughly, but, rather, to clear the conscience: the vine was laid on the boards, on top - a tarp so that the ends remained open, and pressed down with boards. It was my husband's responsibility and I did not interfere. In the spring in May, the vine was opened, after a week or two they were hung on a support and then the vine lived its own life: it bloomed, tied fruits, and grew young shoots.

The grape shoots are growing violently, so I cut it 3 times over the summer, in September, at the time of ripening - strongly, so that the bunches get more sun.

The grapes, as a rule, hung on the vine until the first frost - so it became tastier. From this bush of grapes it was enough to eat, treat friends and relatives, put wine. By the way, the wild grapes, which the local population picks in the forest, are used for wine - both color and taste are very good.

After the autumn pruning, I handed out the shanks to friends and acquaintances, and it was from them that I heard complaints about poor rooting. I tried it myself - 3 out of 10 pieces took root. This is if in February the shanks stored in the basement are cut and put into water.

But then such an incident happened: once in the fall, planting an ornamental shrub, she poked grape clippings around it so that the cat and dog would not poke around there. The next year, all (!) Stuck grape sticks started growing and turned green. I had to urgently dig up and distribute.

I left one vine for experiments. I planted it in a dry place near the fence of the eastern exposition, tied a rope so that he had something to cling to, and left it to fate.

A year later, the grapes gave the first brush, after three they closed 6 m 2 of the fence, rolled over to the other side and began to grow wildly there and bear fruit to the delight of local children. With these grapes, I did nothing at all - did not remove, did not cover, did not cut and did not process anything. Only the harvest was harvested from its side of the fence.

I have already mentioned the one that climbed the poplar. But it grew from a seed and a tassel, it is noticeably smaller and looser, and the berries are sour. However, under these conditions (dryness, shade, very poor soil), even good grapes would probably not look better.

In general, this grape can be grown in most of the country! And, I think, there are a lot of useful phenolic compounds in Amur grapes. It has no competitors among other grapes in this regard. Maybe if we learn to make wine out of it and drink it regularly, the “French paradox” will be renamed to “Russian”?

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