Table of contents:
- Black currant
- Red and white currants
- Golden currant
- Concepts used in the article
Video: Autumn Care Of Berry Bushes According To The Rules. Raspberries. Currant. Gooseberry. Honeysuckle And Others. Photo
2023 Author: Ava Durham | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 07:13
Autumn time is the time of completion of not only the growing season of plants, but also the preparation of horticultural crops for winter. And here you shouldn't hope for luck. It is necessary to help the berry bushes to leave the winter cold correctly. Feed, cut, charge with moisture, mulch the trunk circle in time, and where necessary, hide it under warm winter shelters. This will keep the garden healthy and will significantly reduce the many worries in the spring.
Let's look at what raspberries, black, red, white and golden currants, gooseberries, blueberries, yoshta, irga, honeysuckle need in the autumn months. How to properly prepare them for the rest period? How to use the coming cold weather to your advantage, as a prevention of diseases and protection from pests?
- Black currant
- Red and white currants
- Golden currant
- Concepts used in the article
The features of caring for a raspberry tree in the autumn period depend on the general principles of caring for the crop, selected and used by the gardener. Someone else in the summer carved out fruiting shoots on their raspberries, while someone had time for this only now. In any case, at the end of the growing season, the culture must be examined with a pruner in hand: remove damaged and diseased shoots, thin out. With a covering form of cultivation, group the bushes and bend them to the ground, and after the onset of frost - cover with lutrasil.
If the raspberries were planted in well-filled planting trenches or holes, there is no need to feed them for five years. If the plantings need additional feeding, then in the fall you can apply mineral fertilizers (superphosphate 60 g / bush and potassium salt 40 g / bush) or rotted manure (4-5 kg / m2) under the raspberry tree.
It is worth removing old mulch and leaf litter in the raspberry field for the winter, especially if diseases have been observed on the culture. To loosen the soil in the rows, dig up the row spacing to a depth of 15 cm. However, after injury, the root system needs two weeks to recover, so loosening must be done in advance, before frost.
Before the frost begins, it is necessary to carry out water charging and watering. It will give the raspberry roots a charge of moisture and slow down the freezing of the soil somewhat. Keep the root system and fresh mulch from freezing - it is placed under the plants with the arrival of negative temperatures.
Black currants need special attention during the autumn months. In September, it is cuttings. Healthy lignified one-year-old twigs are cut from the mother bush, from two-, three-year-old shoots, as thick as a pencil. Leave 15-20 cm for the cutting and either put it away for storage, or drop it at an angle of 45 ° so that only the upper bud remains above the ground.
They are fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers: ash (200-300 g per bush), humus, compost, superphosphate, potassium salt in combination with potassium sulfate (20 and 30 g, respectively).
After the foliage has fallen, they start pruning. With a sharp pruner, cut out broken, drooping to the ground, intertwined, diseased and striving to grow inward shoots. As a rejuvenation, branches over 3 years old are cut off. Remove zero shoots. After pruning, the crown of the bush should consist of 9-12 branches, some of which are new (zero or replacement shoots), and some are annuals. Such pruning allows the black currant to fully form the crop and slows down the aging of the bush, prolonging its good fruiting.
Preparing the currants for winter, they collect leaves from under the bushes, loosen the trunk circle to a depth of 6–9 cm. This technique is a good prevention against wintering forms of pests and diseases.
Water charging is also important for black currants. It must be carried out before frost. But the high hilling (12 cm) of the bushes should be carried out only after a cold snap - this agricultural technique will not only protect the roots from the cold, retain moisture, but also play a role in the fight against moth.
If the planting of currants this year was strongly affected by aphids, you can treat them with Fitoverm, and against various other fungal diseases - with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid or 1% solution of copper sulfate.
Red and white currants
Cuttings of red and white currants are carried out in August, therefore pruning remains the main task of caring for crops in autumn. However, in this case, they approach it somewhat differently than with regard to black currant.
Cutting off red and white currants, they focus on the growth of branches. If it is full, about 30 cm, the branches are not touched, they are able to give a good harvest. If it is weak, up to 15 cm, such branches are removed. In addition, branches over 8 years old are cut out as a rejuvenation of the bush. And as a sanitary pruning, they remove all shoots that tend to grow inside the crown, to the ground, having a break, dry, affected by diseases.
An obligatory autumn method for these crops is annual feeding. The general rule is that nitrogen is prohibited, only the mineral phosphorus-potassium group, as well as ash, compost, well-rotted manure.
In preparation for winter, both red and white currants need water-charging irrigation, foliage harvesting, soil loosening, and when cold weather sets in, high hilling (12 cm). Hilling in this case is carried out both as an event against frost, and in order to combat moth.
If the bushes are sick, it is worth treating the branches and the ground with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid, 1% copper sulfate solution or 7% urea solution. Fitoverm or any other insecticide with a wide spectrum of action is used against pests.
Autumn is the best time to prune gooseberries. In the spring, his buds wake up very early, and therefore it is quite difficult to have time to prune before the start of sap flow. After the foliage has fallen from adult gooseberry bushes, in order to thin out, heal and remove shading as much as possible, the damaged, diseased, adjacent to the ground, thickening the crown, intertwining branches are removed. Cut branches over 7 years old. Since the crop produces the main crop on 3-6-year-old branches, they make sure that the bush has shoots of different ages: removing unproductive branches, they leave the same number of young shoots for replacement.
In early autumn, gooseberries are cuttings. If in the spring the cuttings were dug in the bushes for rooting, they are separated from the mother plant and either planted in a permanent place, or, if the root system is not sufficiently developed, they are planted on a separate bed for growing.
In order to prevent diseases and pests, the root zone of the gooseberry is freed from leaves and weeds, loosened to a depth of 6 cm. Abundant watering is carried out, and with a cold snap - high hilling, up to 12 cm high.
Gooseberries are fed a year later using phosphorus-potassium fertilizers: potassium salt (20 g) in combination with superphosphate (30 g), wood ash (2-3 glasses under a bush).
If during the season the gooseberry bushes are strongly affected by aphids, moths, sawfly in the fall can be treated with "Fitoverm" or any other insecticide with a wide spectrum of action. If fungal diseases were noticed on the leaves, the plant is treated with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid, 7% urea solution.
Golden currant is a rather rare inhabitant of garden plots. However, the low prevalence of culture is completely unjustified. Caring for her is simple. She is sick less than her “relatives”. Practically not damaged by pests.
A little hassle with golden currants in the fall months. In autumn, you can plant young shoots from the main bush. After the foliage has fallen, carry out water-charging irrigation, clean and loosen the root zone. Sanitary pruning can be done if desired. But it is better to leave the formation of plants in the spring.
Diseases and pests in this species are the same as in ordinary currants. Therefore, if a lesion was observed on the bushes in the summer, treatment with the same preparations can be carried out.
Yoshta appeared from crossing currants and several types of gooseberries, but, unlike "relatives", they cut it in the spring. In the fall, only sanitary pruning is carried out, removing old, diseased or glass-infected branches. They dig out the layers rooted over the summer, divide the bush when transplanting it.
In mid-September and until the end of October, cuttings are cut from the yoshta. To do this, take semi-lignified twigs 15-20 cm long with 5-6 buds. They are dug in at an angle of 45 ° so that only 2 buds remain above the ground. Then watered and mulched.
In the autumn, yoshta continues to be watered, fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers: ash (2-3 glasses under a bush), 20 g of potassium salt and 30 g of superphosphate, and the older the plant, the more it needs potassium. Loosening of the trunk circle is periodically carried out.
In preparation for winter, foliage is removed under the bushes, and water-charging irrigation is provided. Since the culture is resistant to frost, shelter is usually not used.
Despite the fact that yoshta is less susceptible to diseases than its "parents", if there are signs of disease in the fall, it, like gooseberries and currants, is treated with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid, 1% solution of copper sulfate or 7 % solution of urea.
Blueberries are a complex but interesting culture. Caring for her requires knowledge, however, and the reward is pleasant - blue berries of an extraordinary taste with a storehouse of vitamins.
Autumn care for blueberries consists of continuing watering, the plant does not like drying out of the soil and therefore it often lacks natural precipitation. The plant requires water charging and soil acidity adjustment. Blueberries are pretentious in terms of pH, so in autumn their bushes are mulched with coniferous litter or sawdust of coniferous species, which also serves as a shelter for the root zone for the winter period.
Pruning on culture is carried out optionally in two terms - in the spring or after the foliage has fallen. On the 3rd-4th year of the development of the bushes, all weak, too thickened shoots located near the ground are removed from the plants. Forms a comfortable crown. Branches older than 4-5 years are completely cut out. Pinch strongly growing twigs.
Blueberries, like other plants, are often affected by diseases. Against cancer, phomopsis and fungal diseases, from autumn the bushes are treated with a 0.2% solution of "Fundazol" with a three-fold repetition in a week, then according to the same scheme in the spring, until the buds open.
The game is a culture known not in all regions, but loved by many for a particularly useful vitamin composition, as well as high decorativeness, winter hardiness, drought resistance and longevity.
The formative pruning of irgi is more often carried out in the spring. In the fall, shoots are planted or removed. Cut off dry branches affected by diseases, shoots thickening the bush. Rejuvenation is carried out every 3-4 years.
Preparing the plants for winter, they remove the fallen leaves, loosen the trunk circle. Starting from the fourth year, organic and mineral dressings are introduced: 300 g of ash, up to 200 g of potassium sulfate, 200-300 g of superphosphate. When cold weather sets in, young seedlings are covered with nonwoven material or spruce branches. Adult plants are not afraid of frost, they easily cope with temperatures down to -50 ° C.
Irga rarely gets sick. But, if fungal diseases were noticed on the bushes in the summer in the fall, you can treat the plants with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid or 1% solution of copper sulfate.
A feature of honeysuckle is early awakening in the spring. For this reason, if the honeysuckle needs to be transplanted to a new place or to divide the bush, they do it in the fall. In addition, in the fall, do not forget to water the shrubs, as they cannot stand the drying out of the soil. And if necessary, pruning is carried out every few years.
The culture has no special rules for shaping a bush, the main thing is to make sure that the plants do not thicken and do not interfere with neighboring plantings. Therefore, after leaf fall, the honeysuckle bush is carefully examined and strongly intertwined shoots, branches growing in the direction of the ground, falling on neighboring plants, are removed. In general, the bush should consist of 6-8 well-developed branches.
Honeysuckle should be well fed every few years. For this, ash (several glasses under the bush), compost (bucket), well-rotted manure, potassium salt (20 g) in combination with superphosphate (30 g) are suitable.
A positive characteristic of honeysuckle is its resistance to most diseases and pests, however, pathogens that affect other crops can winter in its fallen leaves, so it is better to remove litter. Due to their high frost resistance, edible honeysuckle varieties do not need shelter.
Concepts used in the article
Moisture charging irrigation
It is a late autumn watering, when there are almost no leaves left on the plants, with large amounts of water. Approximately 4 to 7 buckets of water are poured under the bush, depending on the intensity of plant development.
Mulching the trunk circle
Reception retains moisture and promotes slower soil freezing in the root zone. The layer of mulch can be different, from 2 to 8 cm, depending on the looseness of the material used. For mulching, bark, peat, sawdust, compost, leaves, etc. are used.
It is carried out with a nonwoven material (lutrasil, sponbond) or spruce branches after the onset of stable frosts (-10 … -15 ° C).
Group of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers
These fertilizers are applied under shrubs in September-October. They help plants to form flower buds, strengthen their immunity, promote wood maturation and root growth. It can be superphosphate, potassium salt, potassium sulfate, potassium magnesium, as well as organic matter - ash, compost, well-rotted manure.
Phosphate and potash mineral fertilizers are used together, and organic fertilizers are used as a supplement. First, along the projection of the crown, the plants are scattered into the prepared grooves with mineral fertilizers. Close them up. Watering. Then, after a while, organic matter is introduced.
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