Eggplant In A Greenhouse - Growing Rules And The Best Varieties. Greenhouse Preparation, Planting Seedlings, Care. Photo

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Eggplant In A Greenhouse - Growing Rules And The Best Varieties. Greenhouse Preparation, Planting Seedlings, Care. Photo
Eggplant In A Greenhouse - Growing Rules And The Best Varieties. Greenhouse Preparation, Planting Seedlings, Care. Photo

Video: Eggplant In A Greenhouse - Growing Rules And The Best Varieties. Greenhouse Preparation, Planting Seedlings, Care. Photo

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Video: Amazing Eggplant Agriculture Eggplant Farming & Eggplant Harvesting Greenhouse Eggplant Cultivation 2023, January
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Eggplants are tall, erect plants with wide, heart-shaped leaves of dark green color and large bright fruits - they create a special mood in the beds. And in the kitchen they are a popular product for a wide variety of dishes: eggplants are fried, stewed and canned. Of course, growing a decent crop in the middle lane and further north is not an easy task. But subject to the agrotechnical rules of cultivation, it is quite affordable even for a novice gardener. Especially if you grow eggplants in a greenhouse. We will tell you about the agricultural technology of greenhouse eggplants in the article.

Eggplant in a greenhouse - growing rules and the best varieties
Eggplant in a greenhouse - growing rules and the best varieties

Content:

  • Preparing the greenhouse for growing eggplant in the fall
  • Spring soil preparation in the greenhouse for planting eggplants
  • Planting eggplant seedlings in a greenhouse
  • Eggplant care in the greenhouse
  • Which eggplants are suitable for growing in a greenhouse?

Preparing the greenhouse for growing eggplant in the fall

It will be just fine (although not necessary) if you prepare your greenhouse beds for growing eggplants in the fall. For this you need:

  • remove all post-harvest residues from the beds and take out of the greenhouse (burn, dig in, lay on decay),
  • with abundant watering, provoke weed shoots.

And then, according to the state of the greenhouse soil, you can act in different ways:

if the soil is fertile enough, then along the threadlike shoots of weeds, you need to disinfect the soil, for example, with a solution of copper sulfate, dig it up on a shovel bayonet and leave it until spring.

if the soil is poor, then the necessary organic and mineral fertilizers are first applied: per 1 sq. m of an area of ​​0.5 buckets of any organic matter (humus, biohumus), sprinkle (if necessary) the soil with dolomite flour (50 g / sq. m), add mineral fertilizers (more convenient at 60 g / sq. m nitrophoska). Then the soil is treated for disinfection with a solution of copper sulfate (3-4% solution is prepared in hot water). After a few days, the soil is dug onto a shovel bayonet and left until spring.

It will be just great if you prepare greenhouse beds for growing eggplant in the fall
It will be just great if you prepare greenhouse beds for growing eggplant in the fall

Spring soil preparation in the greenhouse for planting eggplants

If fertilizers were not applied in the fall and the soil was not prepared for planting eggplants, then in the spring, 20-25 days before planting the seedlings, humus and mineral fertilizers are introduced into the soil, per 1 sq. m of area: organics 4-5 kg, nitrophoska 50-60 g, magnesium sulfate 15-20 g (can be replaced with dolomite flour, 50 g).

Fertilizers are applied on a flat surface and the soil is dug to a depth of 20 cm. Then watering is carried out. The prepared area is covered with a film and after 3 weeks the seedlings are planted.

Attention! Spring preparation of the soil in the greenhouse for planting seedlings begins when the first real leaf appears on the seedlings of eggplant seedlings.

Planting eggplant seedlings in a greenhouse

Eggplant has very delicate roots. They are easily damaged during transplantation, which significantly lengthens the plant survival period. The least damage to the roots is obtained when growing seedlings in seedling cassettes. If possible, it is most practical to plant seedlings grown in peat-humus or peat pots without removing the plants.

Some gardeners advise you to carefully cut the pot on the sides. You can remove the bottom, so the root will grow freely inward and not bend until the bottom of the peat pot rotts in the soil.

Eggplants are heat-loving plants, the root system of which does not tolerate low temperatures. Therefore, before planting the plants, the soil in the greenhouse should warm up to a temperature of + 15 … + 16 ° С, and the air - up to + 18 … + 19 ° С, not lower.

Planting is best done in the morning or in cloudy weather. If the conditions are different, then it is necessary to shade the planted plants, especially in the first 3-4 days after planting.

Before planting (2-3 days), the soil must be leveled, watered to a wet (not wet) state. Watering is necessary, as the roots of the eggplant are very delicate and dry soil can damage them.

Eggplant bushes, even undersized ones, are quite voluminous, spreading, so planting is carried out in one row (with a small area allotted for culture), leaving a distance between the bushes of 40-45 cm.If the area allows, you can thicken the planting by placing the bushes in 2 rows in staggered with a distance between rows of 50-60 cm, and in a row 35-40-45 cm (depending on the type of bush).

Having chosen the planting scheme, prepare planting holes with a depth of 12-18 cm. A handful of wood ash is added to the hole, mixed with the soil. If the soil has not been fertilized, then fertilization can be applied to the hole before planting. Pour into the hole up to 1.0-1.5 liters of warm water (better - a light solution of potassium permanganate).

Seedlings are planted together with a soil clod. Bare roots will certainly be damaged and it will take 10-15 days for the survival of such plants, which will subsequently affect the timing of an early harvest. The plant in the hole is gently crushed (without pressure), lightly watered again from above. Planting is mulched with fine dry humus, high-moor peat, sawdust 2-3 years old or other mulching material.

Eggplant seedlings are planted with a soil clod
Eggplant seedlings are planted with a soil clod

Eggplant care in the greenhouse

It is better to grow eggplants in a greenhouse separately from other crops or arrange them so that it is possible to create the necessary temperature conditions and ensure sufficient soil and air moisture, additional lighting on cloudy days.

Air temperature and humidity mode

For eggplants, the optimum is the average daily air temperature in the range of + 24 … + 28 ° С. Varieties that are resistant to temperature changes develop well and bear fruit at a temperature of + 18 … + 24 ° C. A higher temperature causes shedding of flowers and a decrease in setting, and a lower temperature (especially a decrease to + 13 … + 15 ° C) stops plant growth. Reduce the temperature by airing or watering the paths with cold water, shading the sunny side.

The optimum air humidity ranges from 60-70%. During the fruiting period, it is advisable to reduce the air humidity to 60% in order to protect the overgrown bushes from fungal diseases that require high humidity.

Watering

Remember! Plants are watered only at the root to keep the leaves dry. If water gets on the leaves, it will damage them.

Plants need to adapt to new conditions, so the first watering is carried out no earlier than after 4-5 days.

Watering is carried out only with warm (+ 25 ° C) water, otherwise the beginning of flowering is delayed up to 10 days.

Lack of water (even short-term) causes the ovaries to fall off and plant growth to stop. Soil moisture, especially during the fruiting period, should be maintained at a level of 75-80%. During fruiting, watering is carried out every 3-4 days.

Watering is carried out in the morning, then the soil is necessarily mulched, and the room is ventilated so that a greenhouse fog with high humidity and drops does not form. Ventilation should be free of drafts. The watering rate depends on the condition of the soil. Water should wet the top (20-25 cm) soil layer.

The next watering is prescribed when the soil dries up in the upper 3-5 cm layer (phalanx of the index finger) or once a week (before the beginning of fruiting). With high temperatures and bright sunny days outside the greenhouse, the frequency of indoor watering is increased.

watered only at the root to keep the leaves dry
watered only at the root to keep the leaves dry

Top dressing

Eggplants spend a lot of nutrients on the formation of fruits, therefore feeding is mandatory, and they are carried out, depending on the fertility of the soil, 3-5 times per season.

Usually feeding is "timed" to the post-irrigation period (one day after watering). The first feeding is carried out after 2 weeks, when the established root system can fully supply the plants with the necessary nutrients. It is better to carry out it with a water-soluble complete fertilizer - "Solution", "Kemira" in a dose of 30-40 g / 10 l of water.

In the second feeding (overgrowth of plants), you can prepare an extract from organic fertilizers. For a bucket of water 2-3 kg of cow dung or poultry droppings, insist 3-4 days. Dilute the mother liquor in 10-15 liters of water and pour 1.0-1.5 liters under each bush. You can add a handful of wood ash under the bush (it contains a lot of trace elements).

In the next top dressing (beginning of flowering), plants need nitrogen-phosphorus fertilization. You can prepare a mixture of ammonium nitrate and superphosphate in a 2: 1 ratio and add a teaspoon with top or 45-50 g of mixture per sq. m. In order not to bother with preparing the mixture, you can use diammophos or nitrophos for feeding.

In the same period, to improve flowering, foliar dressing with boric acid can be carried out at the rate of 1 g of acid per 5 liters of hot water. Cool the solution and sprinkle on the plants.

With the onset of fruiting, plants need phosphorus-potassium supplements (a mixture of potassium nitrate and superphosphate). The mixture can be replaced with top dressing with nitrophos, with a norm of 45-50 g / sq. m. If fruiting is prolonged, then feeding with a nitrophosphate or nitrogen-phosphorus mixture is repeated. Wood ash is added additionally.

Huge plants require enhanced nutrition, so every 2-3 weeks foliar dressing (after watering) is also carried out with solutions of trace elements, infusions of fermented green herbs.

Currently, the fertilizer market offers new forms and combinations of nutrients in complex complex fertilizers. When using these forms for fertilizing crops, remember that in order for the crop to grow, and not the vegetative mass, nitrogen fertilizers should not prevail in fertilizers when feeding.

Loosening

Loosening when caring for eggplants does a double job: they destroy weeds and soil crust and increase oxygen access to the roots. They loosen the soil to a depth of 4-5 cm so as not to damage the roots close to the soil surface.

It is better to use ridge loosening or hilling (raking finely loosened soil to the plants). The soil is loosened, depending on the moisture level of its upper layer, usually 2-3 days after watering.

Garter and pinching of plants

For eggplants in greenhouse conditions, it is more practical to grow undersized varieties and hybrids. They do not require a garter, which often breaks fragile stems. It is better to leave 2-3 strong shoots on the main stem.

Eggplant pickling is optional. There is no need to injure the plants once again. If necessary, remove the lower infertile stepchildren and lateral shoots (up to the first bud), which proliferate and impede the formation of the first flowers.

Towards the end of the season, the emerging flowers and ovaries are removed from the upper branches and the tops of the shoots are pinched. In this case, nutrients will be directed to increase the mass of already growing fruits. It is best to leave 5-7 ovaries on one bush. The fruits will be larger.

With a weak fruit set, the method of artificial pollination is used. The pollen of an expanding flower is transferred with a soft brush from a yellow anther to the stigma of the pistil of another flower. If you are not sure of success, then it is more practical to shake the plants slightly in the morning. Eggplant pollen is heavy and spreads no more than 1 m, so this technique will contribute to a more complete pollination.

Towards the end of the season, the emerging flowers and ovaries are removed from the upper branches of the eggplant and pinched the tops of the shoots
Towards the end of the season, the emerging flowers and ovaries are removed from the upper branches of the eggplant and pinched the tops of the shoots

Protection from pests and diseases

Correct and complete preparation of the greenhouse for wintering, its disinfection will drastically reduce the level of plant damage by diseases and pests.

On eggplants, disease and pest control is difficult. It is a reusable crop that takes a long time. It is prohibited to use chemical means of protection on such crops.

It is possible to really reduce the level of damage to plants by diseases and pests with careful fulfillment of the requirements of agricultural technology and using biological agents during the growing season. Currently, biological preparations are entering the market of protective products that protect plants well from gluttonous pests and rapidly spreading diseases, and at the same time do not have a negative effect on human and animal health.

The most common eggplant diseases are late blight, anthracnose, rot, and verticillary wilting. From biological products during the growing season on the leaf, you can process eggplants in 10-12-15 days all season with biological products in tank mixtures, using Planriz, Glyokladin, Gamair, Fitosporin, Alirin-B, Baktofit and etc.

Using biological products it is necessary to follow the requirements of the recommendations. Otherwise, the positive effect may not appear.

The main pests of eggplant in the greenhouse - whitefly, aphids and ants, thrips, spider mites - are also destroyed by biological products. The most common are "Bitoxibacillin", "Fitoverm", "Lepidotsid", "Basamil" and others. "Aktofit" can be used for treating plants even during harvest, and "Mycoafidin", "Aversectin-S", "Avertin-N »Eggplant is more effective in the early stages of development.

Which eggplants are suitable for growing in a greenhouse?

According to the habit of the bush, eggplants are divided into 3 groups: undersized, medium-sized and tall. For a greenhouse or a tall greenhouse with temporary shelter, it is better to choose medium-sized or low-growing varieties. But keep in mind that undersized ones form a smaller yield. Tall ones are less suitable for greenhouses, as they occupy a large area and are best grown outdoors.

In terms of ripening in greenhouse conditions, it is more expedient to grow early and mid-early varieties, the technical fruiting of which begins in 90-110 days.

In terms of fruit quality, the optimum is a variety or hybrid that is resistant to temperature fluctuations (which is important if the greenhouse is not heated), is resistant to a complex of diseases, has good taste, and forms a high yield.

Recently, experienced gardeners give preference to hybrids. They are more resistant to temperature extremes, diseases and pests. Hybrids are more productive (especially tall ones), but they are inferior to varieties in terms of fruit taste (density of the pulp, its aroma, taste, etc.).

Below are the varieties and hybrids that I grow (or have grown) myself. I selected varieties and hybrids in such a way as to get a harvest in any summer weather.

Eggplant "Black beauty"
Eggplant "Black beauty"
Eggplant "Matrosik"
Eggplant "Matrosik"
Eggplant "Balagur"
Eggplant "Balagur"

The best varieties of eggplant for a greenhouse

Eggplant "Black Beauty" - mid - season, compact bush. Does not require high temperatures for growth and development. Differs in the location of the fruits in the lower part of the bush weighing 200-250 g. Ripens to technical ripeness with insufficient illumination in 110-115 days. The fruits are oblong-cylindrical in shape, the color of the peel is from dark purple to black glossy. The pulp is tender, medium density with a pleasant taste, light green hue. Resistant to disease. Used for all types of cooking and canning.

Eggplant "Matrosik" - for exotic lovers. Medium early variety. High (up to 1 m). Average yield (up to 8 kg / sq. M). Fruits are typical for eggplants in shape, weighing up to 500 g. The main color of the peel is light or dark lilac with a white stripe. The pulp is tender, the aftertaste is pleasant, without bitterness. You can also eat it raw. The use is universal.

Eggplant "Balagur" is a variety of Russian selection. Interesting in the location of the fruits. A cluster of 3-7 small fruits (50-130 g) is formed on each inflorescence. Fruiting is very early, no more than 6-7 kg per sq. m. The first fruits in technical ripeness are removed after 80-85 days. The color of the peel of the fruit is lilac, saturated, with a transition to light lilac. The shape is often drop-shaped, but it can also be oblong oval. The taste of the pulp is pleasant, very delicate. Resistant to tobacco mosaic and rot.

Eggplant "Marzipan" F1
Eggplant "Marzipan" F1
Eggplant "Bibo" F1
Eggplant "Bibo" F1
Eggplant "Bull heart" F1
Eggplant "Bull heart" F1

The best eggplant hybrids for the greenhouse

Eggplant "Marzipan" F 1 - early, compact bush. The hybrid is very productive. The fruits are roundish, bright purple in color. The pulp is very tender, has a pleasant sweetish-fresh taste, without bitterness. Used for cooking fresh fruit dishes and canning.

Eggplant "Bagheera" F 1 - early, compact, undersized bush. High-yielding hybrid. Forms up to 12 kg of fruits from 1 sq. m. Fast-growing, the fruits of technical ripeness are ready in 100-110 days. Fruit weight from 250 to 350 g, oval-oblong shape, dark purple color, greenish-white flesh, without bitterness. Practically does not get sick. It tolerates transportation and storage well. Bagheera can be grown in small containers on window sills and stands.

Eggplant "Bull's Heart" F1 - mid - season (the technical ripeness of the fruit occurs on the 110th day). The fruits are very large. Fruit weight is more than 500 g, skin color is purple, shiny. The pulp is white, firm, without bitterness. The fruits are stored for up to 2 weeks. They are used to prepare dishes from fresh fruits and eggplant caviar.

Eggplant "Fabina" F 1 - ultra- early, semi- spreading, low-growing bush. Resistant to verticillosis and other diseases, it is slightly damaged by spider mites. Fruits are elongated, dark purple, with a glossy shine, weighing 120-150 g, have a pronounced mushroom taste. The fruits have a long shelf life without losing their presentation and quality. Used for various fresh fruit dishes and for fermentation.

Eggplant "Bibo" F1 - for exotic lovers. Dutch selection hybrid. In terms of ripening dates from medium early to medium. Tall (1 m or more). High-yielding. The peel of the fruit is white, the shape is typical for eggplant. The pulp is without bitterness, white, tender, soft in consistency, delicious in taste, with a pleasant aftertaste. Resistant to pests, fusarium and viruses.

Eggplant "Violet Miracle" F1 - a hybrid not susceptible to the duration of daylight hours throughout the growing season. Early maturing, undersized. Possesses complex resistance to diseases and pests. The yield is average. Fruits weighing up to 200 g, elongated like a spindle, the peel is dark purple in color, shiny. The pulp is medium density, without bitterness. Used for any kind of processing, including fermentation.

Dear Reader! You are offered an article based on your own many years of experience in growing eggplants in greenhouses. Supplement it with your experience in the comments, we will be glad to communicate.

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