How To Grow Eggplants Outdoors. Planting Seedlings, Leaving. Photo

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How To Grow Eggplants Outdoors. Planting Seedlings, Leaving. Photo
How To Grow Eggplants Outdoors. Planting Seedlings, Leaving. Photo
Video: How To Grow Eggplants Outdoors. Planting Seedlings, Leaving. Photo
Video: How to Grow Eggplants - Complete Growing Guide 2023, February
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Eggplants require a sunny, but relatively short day, medium-warm temperatures, without sweltering heat, sufficient moisture, but without flooding the root system. It is rather difficult to provide such conditions in the open ground in most regions of Russia. Therefore, earlier eggplants were grown only in protected ground conditions, where the conditions necessary for this culture were artificially created. With the development of breeding, it became possible to grow eggplants in the open field, not only in the southern regions of Russia and the CIS countries, but also in the middle lane.

How to grow eggplant outdoors
How to grow eggplant outdoors

With the correct use of agrotechnical methods, the beloved "blue" ones will delight gardeners with a harvest even in regions of Russia unfavorable for eggplants, in terms of climatic conditions, including the North-West of the European part: the Leningrad region, certain regions of Siberia and the Urals.

Content:

  • Preparing the eggplant bed
  • Planting seedlings in open ground
  • Outdoor eggplant care
  • Protection of eggplants in the open field from diseases and pests
  • The best varieties and hybrids of eggplant for different regions

Preparing the eggplant bed

The best predecessors of eggplant are early cabbage, legumes, cucumbers, carrots, onions of various types, melons, vegetable marrows, beans. It is impossible (due to the same diseases and pests) to grow eggplants after nightshades (tomatoes, potatoes). The culture needs temporary isolation, that is, returning to the previous place of cultivation no earlier than 3-4-5 years later.

For eggplant, loam or sandy loam soils are optimal. The culture will grow on heavy soils if it is fluffed up by the constant application of fresh manure, agrovermiculite, sand, humus, overexposed sawdust (not coniferous) or other materials that increase the air and water permeability of the soil.

For eggplants, a crop rotation area with good lighting is needed. Shading with tall crops or vegetables on a trellis (cucumbers, beans) is not allowed.

Eggplants with a harvest take out a large amount of nutrients from the field, therefore, the soil for this crop is thoroughly filled with organic and mineral fertilizers.

For the autumn "refueling" use the autumn sowing of green manure and their subsequent seeding or make on 1 sq. m area of ​​6-10 kg of humus, mature compost. Add 200-250 g of wood ash and 50-60 g of nitrophoska.

The soil is dug on a full bayonet of a shovel to remove the hard (for delicate eggplant roots) sole, which is formed with constant shallow digging (15-20 cm). It is more practical to carry out digging in late autumn. Late digging destroys some of the wintering bear nests in the soil.

Spring soil preparation for eggplant

If, due to the prevailing circumstances, the site did not have time to fertilize in the fall, you can sow siderates in the future eggplant bed in the spring.

Or, instead of green manure, add humus with the addition of mineral fertilizers in the same doses as in the fall.

Planting seedlings in open ground in the southern regions is not difficult
Planting seedlings in open ground in the southern regions is not difficult

Planting seedlings in open ground

When to plant eggplant seedlings outdoors?

Planting eggplant seedlings in open ground in the southern regions is not difficult. The soil warmed up by the middle or third decade of May to + 17 … + 18 ° С in the root layer, and the air temperature within + 18 … + 24 ° С creates optimal conditions for young seedlings of seedlings.

Eggplant seedlings can be 65-70 days old. By this period, they will have a well-developed root system - 5-8 developed leaves and 1-2 buds.

In regions with a temperate climate, additional measures are needed to prepare the beds for planting eggplant seedlings. If the soils are cold, then the beds are raised by 30-40 cm with bulk soil. In the fall, it is advisable to lay semi-rotten sod and other materials in the garden bed, which, decomposing, will increase the temperature of the soil.

Eggplants in the middle lane are planted in open ground in the first decade of June, and sometimes later. It is possible to use for planting (unlike other vegetable) seedlings 70-75-80 days old, having at least 3-5-7 developed leaves.

How to plant eggplant seedlings?

So that the plants do not shade each other, it is more practical to use an ordinary planting scheme, placing seedlings in a row after 45-60 cm, and in row spacings after 60-80 cm, depending on the habit of the future bush.

A handful of wood ash and a tablespoon of superphosphate are mixed in holes 10-15-18 cm deep. Seedlings, so as not to damage the delicate brittle roots of eggplant, are planted with a lump of moist soil. The roots in the hole must not break.

Sprinkle the hole with the seedling with soil, easily crush (without effort) and watered with warm (+18.. + 30 ° C) water, you can - with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Watered plantings of eggplants must be mulched with any fine dry mulch (horse peat, 2–3-year-old non-coniferous sawdust, humus, etc.).

Eggplants love bright sunlight, which should not exceed 12 hours in the first month
Eggplants love bright sunlight, which should not exceed 12 hours in the first month

Outdoor eggplant care

Lighting

Eggplants love bright sunlight, the duration of which should not exceed 12 hours in the first month, and later 12-14. At 12-hour daylight hours, eggplants quickly transition to flowering and fruit formation. With a longer daylight hours, they can be limited to the development of vegetative mass without flowering and fruit setting.

Therefore, you always need to have a covering material on hand to restrict the access of light to this culture.

Temperature regime

Eggplants are very demanding on the temperature regime of the soil and air. The soil should be warmed up not lower than + 16 ° С, its optimum temperature ranges from + 17 … + 18 ° С. Air during the day - up to +18.. + 24 ° С and at night within + 15 … + 18 ° С.

Long, cold, drizzling rains have a detrimental effect on the development of eggplants. A decrease in air temperature to + 12 ° C during the flowering period causes the discharge of flowers and ovaries, and a further decrease leads to the death of the culture. Protection against this is irrigation with heated water, temporary shelters.

Watering eggplant

Irrigation is always carried out with warm water heated in the sun (in the south), and in regions with a temperate climate and cold soil, irrigation water is heated up to + 25 … + 30 ° С. Eggplants are watered only at the root. When water hits the leaf surface, the leaves get sick, photosynthesis decreases, the plant stops developing.

The first watering is carried out 10-12 days after planting in open ground. If the weather is dry, hot, then in 7-9 days. The soil should be constantly moist, but not more than 65-70% (the root system of eggplants does not tolerate flooding and high soil moisture).

From the flowering phase and the formation of ovaries, the watering rate is increased by soaking the soil to 15-20 cm of the layer, and watering is carried out once a week (after 5-7 days).

During the growing season, root feeding of eggplants is carried out once every 2-3 weeks
During the growing season, root feeding of eggplants is carried out once every 2-3 weeks

Eggplant feeding

During the growing season, root fertilizing of eggplants is carried out 1 time in 2-3 weeks. Between them, during the period of flowering and the formation of ovaries, the plants are additionally treated by spraying with boric acid, a set of trace elements and other solutions for foliar dressing.

The first feeding of eggplants is carried out 10-12 days after planting seedlings in open ground (reference point: the appearance of a new leaf on a forming bush). Considering that the first month eggplants gain vegetative mass very slowly, feeding is carried out with nitrogen-containing fertilizers - "Kemira", "Crystallin", "Solution", "Effekton" at the rate of 30-40 g / 10 l of water (1.0-1, 5 l under a bush).

If these fertilizers are not available, then an ammophos solution can be added at the rate of 150 g of fertilizer per 10 liters of water.

The second feeding of eggplants after 12-15 days is carried out with a mixture of wood ash, which will replenish the root layer with microelements, and complete fertilization (nitrophoska or nitroammofoska) at the rate of 20-25 g per bush or 40-50 g / sq. m. area.

In the second feeding, you can add, instead of the proposed mixture, an extract from bird droppings. Insist 2-3 kg of bird droppings for 2-3 days in 10 liters of water, strain, dilute in 10-15 liters of warm water and water each bush under the root at the rate of 1.0-1.5 liters.

In the beginning of flowering phase, for feeding eggplants in the open field, it is effective to use nitrophos, diammophos or nitrophos at 35-40 g / sq. m. area and foliar spraying with boric acid solution (dissolve 1 g in 5 liters of hot water, cool and sprinkle the plants).

In the phase of flowering and fruit setting, foliar feeding with microelements or solutions of fermented herbs can be repeated.

With the onset of fruiting eggplants, feeding is carried out with a phosphorus-potassium mixture (superphosphate and potassium sulfate) at the rate of 40-50 g / sq. m. area.

Harvesting of eggplants is multiple and, in order to support fruiting (especially on marginal soils), after the first or second harvest, you can carry out another top dressing with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.

At present, the fertilizer market offers a large selection of nutrients to maintain and increase soil fertility, and, therefore, provide food for vegetable crops (complex, complex, organo-mineral, etc.).

In any case, it is not necessary to overfeed the eggplants by applying high doses of fertilizers, especially nitrogen fertilizers, in the second half of the growing season. Plants will then form a large biomass to the detriment of fruit development.

Weeding eggplant

The soil under the eggplants should always be loose, moist, without soil crust and weeds. Loosening is shallow, so as not to damage the roots, is carried out on the 2nd day after watering, preferably with raking the soil (hilling).

Low-growing and dwarf eggplant varieties do not require bush structuring
Low-growing and dwarf eggplant varieties do not require bush structuring

Bush formation and eggplant pinching

Eggplants do not like unnecessary interference. Therefore, undersized and dwarf varieties do not require structuring the bush. The bush is formed when it reaches 25-30 cm in height.

Late formation of eggplants (removal of large stepchildren with ovaries) severely injures the bush, causes its disease and sometimes leads to death. The bearing (central) stems are examined. Pinch off stepchildren, located in the axils of the leaves, to the first bud. If the plant is poorly developed, then the first bud can also be removed. This technique stimulates the development of the root system and stems, has a positive effect on the formation of flowers and ovaries.

Further, when forming bushes of eggplant, they act differently.

Early, undersized eggplant varieties with a small fruit weight (200-250 g), having 2-5 stems, usually do not structure, they only provide them with proper care.

If the eggplant variety is early or mid-ripening and forms a lot of ovaries, and according to the characteristics of the fruits of average weight (up to 250-400 g), then, regardless of the growing region, up to 20-25% of flowers are cut off. The remaining flowers form larger fruits. If you leave all the flowers, the fruits will be small and there will be many underdeveloped among them.

Tall, branching, large eggplant bushes usually form medium to late varieties, which are grown mainly in the southern regions. Such bushes are formed in 1-2-3 stems and tied to a trellis in several places so that large (up to 450-900 g) fruits do not break off the branches.

On each branch of the shoot, 1 ovary is left, and the rest are removed by pinching (it is better to nevertheless carefully cut them off with a secateurs). With this formation, each bush will have 5-7-8 fruits weighing up to 1 kg. In eggplants, stepchildren grow slowly and the inspection of the bushes can be carried out once every 2 weeks.

Closer to autumn, pinch the tops of the eggplant bushes and remove all the small fruits. They will no longer grow, but they will draw off some of the nutrients for their development.

Before harvesting, eggplants are damaged by diseases and pests throughout the growing season
Before harvesting, eggplants are damaged by diseases and pests throughout the growing season

Protection of eggplants in the open field from diseases and pests

Eggplant is a culture of multiple harvesting. Eggplant fruits are removed in technical ripeness when they reach standard sizes, color, pulp density (determined by pressing the fruit) and other characteristic features. But before harvesting, eggplants are damaged by diseases and pests throughout the growing season.

When cleaning multiple times, the use of chemical protective equipment is prohibited. Therefore, the basis of protection is preventive measures and the use of biological products. Biological products can be used to treat plants from the first days after planting in the field until the very harvest.

Eggplants are a "tasty morsel" for pests, and with the establishment of warm weather, their activity increases sharply. They damage the leaf apparatus, flowers, ovaries, fruits. The greatest harm is caused by aphids, whiteflies, spider mites, thrips, etc.

Biological products "Bitoxibacillin", "Lepidotsid", "Basamil" and others effectively destroy pests.

If the requirements of agricultural technology are violated, plants are often affected by fungal and bacterial rot, viral mosaics. And in this case, the appropriate biological products will help - "Gamair", "Fitosporin", "Planriz", "Alirin-B", "Baktofit". The BTU biocomplex effectively protects plants.

In addition to biological products, you can also use folk methods of protecting plants from pests and diseases.

The best varieties and hybrids of eggplant for different regions

Eggplant "Violet Miracle" F1
Eggplant "Violet Miracle" F1
Eggplant "Fabina" F1
Eggplant "Fabina" F1
Eggplant "Valentina" F1
Eggplant "Valentina" F1

Eggplant varieties and hybrids for regions with short warm summers

The main condition for the successful cultivation of eggplants in an unstable and insufficiently warm climate is the use of zoned varieties with a developed system of adaptation to weather disasters and a quick transition to fruiting.

The following are the varieties and hybrids of eggplants recommended, according to the State Register of the Federal State Budgetary Institution "State Sortcomission" of the Russian Federation, for growing in the open field in regions with short warm summers (North-West, Leningrad Region, Ural, Moscow Region, Siberia).

In the climatic conditions of these regions, early and ultra-early varieties of eggplants and hybrids of the first generation (F1) form fairly high yields. The first harvest of fruits of technical ripeness is obtained in 75-100 days.

Zoned eggplant varieties are resistant to low temperatures, daylight hours, resist a number of diseases well and form a sufficient yield with a fruit weight of 50 to 350 g.

Eggplant "Violet Miracle F1" is not very sensitive to the length of daylight hours. Stunted, does not require the formation of a bush. Early ripe - manages to form a crop of 200 g of fruits in 2-2.5 summer months. It is resistant to diseases and damage by pests, which means that it does not need frequent protective treatments.

Eggplant "Balagur" - ultra-early, the first harvest in technical ripeness is removed in 75-80 days. The fruits are not large in weight, but the harvest is abundant due to the formation of a fruit cluster of 3-7 eggplants weighing from 50 to 130 g. "Balagur" is resistant to rot and tobacco mosaic.

Eggplant "Maksik" F1 - forms miniature bushes up to 60 cm high, which is very convenient if you need temporary shelter from sudden cold snaps in June. The fruits are large enough up to 180-250 g. m can be harvested in 2-3 cuts up to 10 kg of harvest.

Eggplant "Fabina" F1 - one of the earliest. From planting seedlings to harvesting the first fruits, it takes only 40-50 days, which allows you to grow eggplants in open beds even in the northern regions. A low-growing, up to 60 cm, bush needs a significant area, since it is distinguished by an open type of bush. Resistant to fungal diseases and spider mites. The bush is able to ensure the simultaneous development and ripening of 8-9 fruits.

Among other varieties and hybrids of eggplants, eggplants such as "Valentina" F1, "Alekseevsky" have proven themselves well, according to the reviews of gardeners in the northern regions and areas with an unstable climate (return frosts, prolonged cold rains, hot but short summer periods, etc.), "Almaz", "Batayskiy", "Matrosik", "Bagheera" F1, "Bibo" F1 and others.

Eggplant for regions with long warm summers

In the regions of Russia (the Lower Volga region, the Caucasus and the Transcaucasus) and the CIS countries with long warm summers, eggplants are grown both in protected and in open ground.

Almost all low-growing early varieties and hybrids of eggplants, large-bush, tall, medium and late ripening periods form consistently high yields with a good fruit taste: no bitterness, with delicate pulp, pleasant aftertaste, mushroom aroma.

Among the varieties and hybrids of eggplant are resistant to a complex of diseases or individual diseases, cold-resistant. The formation of a high yield of some varieties is accompanied by large fruits up to 800-900-1000 g (very convenient for preparing caviar), others, relatively small-fruited (100-400 g), are used for fermentation, stuffing, cooking various dishes.

For cultivation in warm regions, you can use all the varieties and hybrids described above, among which the gardeners stand out for eggplants "Alekseevsky", "Black Beauty", "Robin Hood", "Bibo" F1, "Violet Miracle" F1, "Fabina" F1, etc.

From the group of average, the most common are the eggplants "Almaz", "Black Moon" F1, "Bagheera" F1, etc. They form a harvest for 115-130 days, unpretentious to growing conditions.

Eggplant "Alekseevsky"
Eggplant "Alekseevsky"
Eggplant "Black beauty"
Eggplant "Black beauty"
Eggplant "Diamond"
Eggplant "Diamond"

Varieties and hybrids of eggplant for the southern regions

For the conditions of the Krasnodar Territory, the Crimea, the south of the Volgograd Region, late-ripening eggplant varieties are ideal. In combination with early and medium varieties and hybrids, eggplant lovers are guaranteed a supply of fresh, tasty and healthy fruits throughout the warm period.

Late-ripening varieties begin to bear fruit in 130-150 days, and the formation of their harvest occurs in August-September. Of late-ripening varieties, we can recommend eggplants "Black Beauty", "Bull's forehead", "Mishutka", "Clorinda" F1, etc.

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