Table of contents:
- Sunburn on trees
- Frost breakers
- Hollows in the trees
- Bite treatment
- Treatment of podpryany
- Freezing trees
If in the fall you were overwhelmed by laziness and you did not whitewash the trunks of fruit trees before the first branching on our advice, having cleaned off the old bark, and did not protect the bases of the trunks from rodents, even with spruce branches, then in the spring you may have a very unpleasant surprise at your dacha. In this article, we will look at the possible consequences of winter for the garden: sunburn, cracks, frost holes, hollows and gnaws on trees. What to do with them, how to treat your favorite trees, we will try to tell you now.
- Sunburn on trees
- Frost breakers
- Hollows in the trees
- Bite treatment
- Treatment of podpryany
- Freezing trees
Sunburn on trees
First of all, let's start with the reasons that depend on us indirectly, well, yes, we did not whitewash the trunk and the base of the skeletal branches, but we did not spoil the tree ourselves. It usually starts, no, not in winter, but in spring, when April, like a mischievous little boy, starts to throw out burning sunbeams here and there. But at this time, feeling warmth, the trees begin to feed, their sap flow is activated and at first strange, slightly depressed specks appear on the bark, just where there should be whitewash, especially for trees planted last year and the season before last.
Further, these places opposite begin to swell and the bark, as if by a wave of a magic wand, suddenly curls up along the spot at once exposing the wood, here they are. Well, then what - various completely inedible mushrooms penetrate into the wide open gates, and if it is a stone fruit culture, then abundant gum leakage is observed. These are the most persistent sunburns that form in places of the trunk and skeletal branches that have not been whitewashed since autumn.
How are sunburns treated? We'll have to pick up tools, for example the familiar iron scraper, and very carefully, trying not to damage healthy tissue, remove the dying and dead bark by actually cutting it off.
A sunburn must certainly be cleaned to clean and healthy wood (by the way, this procedure is completely painless for a tree), then wipe what you have done with a clean cloth soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate and just in case treat the wound with 3% Bordeaux liquid. Next, for two or three hours, the wound should be left completely at rest, allowing the treatment to dry, but it is better not to leave it in the open sun, it is better to cover it with a regular newspaper, moisture evaporates well through it, especially when the sun is hot during the day.
When the wound dries up, it can be covered with any, in fact, a tightening composition, well, the simplest is a garden var, and if you love your tree and want its speedy recovery, then the composition can be made more serious.
To do this, you need to take 100 grams of beeswax, 20 g of gasoline for lighters (not nasty things from the tank for a car) and ordinary sulfur, to the state of a powder ground in a mortar, also 100 g. Our wax in full must be melted in a water bath to a liquid state, remove from heat and pour 20 g gasoline there (quite enough), as a result, you get a mixture resembling petroleum jelly. Next, in this petroleum jelly, you need, thoroughly mixing with a toothpick or a stick, add our ground sulfur and move all this into any jar that can be closed and from which you can conveniently take this composition.
One drawback, this composition hardens longer than the garden varnish, according to my estimates, about 15 minutes, but in the same year an even layer of new and living tissue forms and it is not at all necessary to repeat this two or three times, as in the case of garden varnish.
Frostbites usually take a long time to heal, from the moment of detection to complete cure it can take several years. Frost holes are cracks of different lengths and depths. To begin with, with the same clerical knife or scraper, the wound needs to be well cleaned of dead tissue and wipe the surface with 3-4% copper sulfate. Only then can the wound be covered with a mixture of ordinary clay and mullein in equal proportions or with ordinary garden pitch, which of course is less reliable.
In the event that the frost hole is more than 15 cm in length and several centimeters deep, then you will have to act differently - here you should take the thickest wire and tighten the trunk tightly, after placing spacers made of wood under it. Alas, such processes will need to be repeated every spring until a well-tightened scar is formed.
In the immediate vicinity of frostbites, especially in pome crops, new shoots are often formed with their own leaf blades. These shoots must certainly be preserved in order to increase the flow of food into the wound area, but so that the shoots do not grow in height, their tops should be pinched by about a third. As soon as the wounds heal, it is advisable to cut these shoots into a ring, although if they do not interfere, then you can leave them.
If a large frost crack is seen on the apple tree, then in the spring you can try to restore it by grafting with a bridge, connecting the edges with the growth of last year, but this is no more prank and reliability here does not even smell.
Hollows in the trees
The hollow itself does not do much harm, it harms the debris, bacteria, putrefactive microflora and other negative substances that get in there, which, when rotting, ultimately lead to an increase and deepening of the hollow and can even cause the death of the tree.
So, we come to the conclusion that the hollows need to be treated and it is imperative, for this we prepare a composition (something like a filling for a tooth), but first with a sharp knife we scrape everything out of the hollow, cleaning it almost to a shine, so that not a single speck is left in it and be sure to process 5% Bordeaux liquid in the field of all these works.
Next, we prepare a real filling, our grandfathers and grandmothers also made wonderful fillings, consisting of at least 400 grade cement, ordinary drying oil, as well as a solution of potash soap and ground sulfur. Five parts of cement require a part of drying oil, half a part of potash soap and half a part of ground sulfur. From this all, by thick and quick mixing, we make a real solution to the consistency of grandmother's sour cream and pour this solution inside, pushing it with our hands wearing rubber gloves.
The next day, if a dent suddenly forms, the solution is added, but usually, on the contrary, you have to clean it off with a file, achieving an even layer with the surface of the tree. Usually, for 8-10 years, such a seal is definitely enough, but then, alas, it falls out, because the tree grows and you have to repeat everything again, but depending on where it stands, it may never fall out again.
Rodents, often five minutes to install the grid or scatter the poison, the gardener did not have, and now there are bites on the trunk, well if not around, but also nothing particularly good and, most importantly, the lower the worse, if the bites are below the vaccination site, then write in general lost, well, do not do the same funny vaccination with a bridge, well, nonsense, all this is the right word ?!
But since the patient insists, we will describe, although there is a sense in this, at least small, but there is. The meaning is that grafting with a bridge will revive, one might say, a dead tree, and from it in summer or spring you can cut cuttings for grafting (spring) or budding (autumn) and plant already normal seedlings, but this tree, alas, can be uprooted.
So, let's get started, all we need is a copulating knife and the tree itself, oh yes, two strips of plastic film a centimeter wide and ten centimeters long, or, if there is no sense from them, then a garden pitch and a roll of cling film. Strips of film can be cut from any durable bag, the main thing is that the color is white or milky in extreme cases, that is, the film is not warmed up in the sun.
In early spring, usually in May, as soon as the sap flow starts, carefully clean the edges damaged by mice or hares to healthy tissue so that the lesion is visible. All last year's shoots, at the same time, it is better to remove from the tree leaving only a couple, some of them need to be cut into cuttings eight centimeters long or more, in general, they must be longer than the bark area damaged by mice or hares, after that on each shoot as in the usual When copulating, make two wedges, from one part and the other.
Next, these wedges, carefully so as not to break, insert them into the bark located below and above the places damaged by mice or hares, preferably with the cut side facing the trunk. That, in fact, is all. It remains to wrap the bottom and top with foil, and if this cannot be done due to the large thickness of the trunk, then simply cover it with garden pitch, including the biting places too.
As for the number necessary for grafting cuttings with a bridge, it all depends on the thickness of the trunk, there can be two, five, seven, or at least ten, the more chances that the apple tree will survive, the better. Well, for example, the diameter of the gnawed trunk is 4-6 cm, which means that three cuttings will be enough, but if the diameter is more than 12 centimeters, then seven or eight cuttings are already needed.
Further, ideally, after coating with garden varnish, all this is necessary very carefully so that the vaccinations do not shift, wrap with plastic wrap for ten days, no more, after which it must be removed. In fact, five years will pass and the tree will begin to actively develop again, but if you want to get seedlings from this variety, then cut off the feather shoots and graft onto normal dwarf or semi-dwarf modern rootstocks, and just cut this tree down or leave it as a reminder what will happen if you hurry without doing something important.
But that's not all, it turns out that a tree gnawed by mice and hares can be saved in other ways. One is simpler and the other is more complex. Let's start with a simple one - plant a regular stock near the gnawed apple tree, preferably a dwarf one, stepping back 10-15 centimeters, sharpen its crown very sharply with an budding knife and drive it under the bark of the seedling just above the damaged place, so the food will go and the tree should come to life. But at the same time, 70% of the shoots should be removed, otherwise the tree will die, it simply does not have enough nutrients.
Well, and the most interesting option is the engraftment of the cortex, I have never tried it, but they write that there is an effect. If any of you try and you succeed, be sure to write about it in the comments.
To begin with, you need to make a kind of patch, for which you need to take a branch (thicker) from the same tree and use an eyepiece knife to completely remove the entire bark from it (first cut it lengthwise, and then divide the bark by bending it in different directions), so as to fit by the exchange of the area damaged by mice or rats.
After that, you need to clean the very place for engraftment from irregularities and, finally, apply a new bark in exact accordance with the direction of growth of the bark on the bole. There remains the place of the so-called shrinkage, as tightly as possible to tie with plastic tape taking a width corresponding to the size, while capturing the healthy part of the bark of the alignment both along its upper part and along its lower part, and so that it holds at least five centimeters more tightly.
After such behavior, I would say, a rather complicated operation, the tree needs to be put on an increased watering regime and given a double portion of top dressing.
Treatment of podpryany
The root collar, in stone fruit crops, is a vulnerable place and if you deepen it at least a little when planting, then in winters rich in snow and cool springs that do not allow moisture to quickly evaporate can lead to podoprevanie this important place. Young stone fruit trees are especially often affected and if they are planted in an understated place.
Sometimes podoprevanie, like a scratch on the arm, heals by itself, and sometimes the podoprevanie focus is large, quite noticeable. The first sign that the tree is getting sick is the abundance of root growth, and if this is a root growth of the stock, then it's really bad, you can see the tree decided to lay hands on itself and grow a savage instead of a cultivated variety.
Try to make a grafting like a bridge, do not remove this growth, choose the thickest (about eight), sharpen them with an budding knife, like a teacher soaks a pencil lead, and stick it in the spring or summer (July) under the bark above the root collar and fix it with something, even with a simple tape, the main thing is to make it stronger. It is quite possible that the tree can be saved, but it is better to transfer it to another horseshoe in the future, reoculating or re-population.
Well, it happens, but how to understand? To begin with, if the tree is far behind in growth or does not grow at all, just dig up the soil and make an incision on the bark and wood of the root with a knife, if things are bad and everything is black, then it is clear that the roots have died.
What to do with frozen trees? It is not worth throwing away, try to cut them shortly towards the beginning of May, leaving 30% of their wood, but only making sure that the tree does not show signs of life and do not touch those shoots that, at least little by little, come to life. Be sure to cover all sections with garden varnish, or better with acrylic garden paint.
Mulch the trunks of such trees and shrubs with a layer of humus a couple of centimeters, this will enhance the reproduction of the earthworm and keep moisture from rapid evaporation. Remember to loosen and weed the soil near these trees. It is necessary to water the tree extremely carefully, only as the soil dries up, remember that it has no roots yet and it has nothing to absorb moisture with.
A frequent occurrence, especially after harsh winters and if they hoped at random and did not do anything with a thermophilic plant that could be done in the fall. To begin with, wait for the buds to bloom on the shoots and cut those that have not bloomed ruthlessly, covering the sections with acrylic paint.
Further, the usual care, a doubled amount of fertilizer, careful picking of all flowers if it is a fruit plant, and approximately in October, and possibly in November, mandatory water-charging watering capable of wetting the soil to a depth of 35 cm.
It is advisable to add 3-4 kg of well-rotted manure, diluted 1 to 10, to the previously loosened soil even under the crown.