Growing Seedlings Of Tomato, Pepper And Eggplant

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Growing Seedlings Of Tomato, Pepper And Eggplant
Growing Seedlings Of Tomato, Pepper And Eggplant
Video: Growing Seedlings Of Tomato, Pepper And Eggplant
Video: Starting The Tomato, Pepper, & Eggplant Seeds 2018 2023, February
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When to sow tomatoes, peppers and eggplants

To correctly determine the sowing time of crops of the Solanaceae family, one must proceed from the conditions in which they will be grown and the time of planting. From the planned moment of planting, it is necessary to count back 60-70 days for pepper and eggplant, and about 40-45 days for tomato, plus 3-7 days for germination. So, if the plants are planned for planting in early May, then the optimal sowing time for pepper and eggplant is late February-early March, and for tomato mid-late March.

Seedling tomato
Seedling tomato

How to sow correctly

For sowing Solanaceae, the so-called "fat" soils rich in organic matter are used. It is most convenient to use ready-made soils intended for growing seedlings of vegetable crops or special soils for Solanaceae. Containers for seedlings must necessarily have drainage holes so that excess moisture does not stagnate and can freely flow out. While filling the pots and cassettes, the soil is poured flush, since after watering it will settle slightly. Before sowing, the soil should be well shed, but the water should not stand, otherwise the seeds may not sprout. But it is better to sprinkle the seeds with slightly dried, loose soil. The sowing depth for pepper, tomato and eggplant is small - about 1.5 cm. When sowing too shallow, the cotyledons come to the surface with a seed coat, which can be carefully removed by spraying the plants with a spray bottle.If the sowing depth is too deep, seedlings appear longer. If sowing in a box, the distance between the seeds should be about 1-1.5 cm so that the plants do not shade each other.

When shoots appear

After sowing, containers with seedlings are covered with foil and placed in a warm place. The optimum temperature for the emergence of tomato seedlings is about 24-26 ° C, pepper and eggplant - about 26-28 ° C. Tomato emerges from 3 to 5 days, but sprouts of pepper and eggplant can be waited longer - up to 10 days. At the optimum temperature, seedlings can be obtained in 5 days, when the temperature drops to 20-22 ° C - in 10-14 days, and at temperatures below 17 ° C - in almost three weeks. The film is removed as soon as the first shoots appear, even if they are single and these are just loops. If you wait for all the shoots to appear, then the plants that emerged first will stretch out.

Picking

The second concern of a gardener-gardener when growing seedlings of nightshade crops is picking. First of all, it is necessary for a tomato. A pick stimulates the development of a powerful, branched root system. This happens as a result of the inevitable injury to the root tip when the seedlings are removed from the ground, which stimulates further branching. Tomato picking is started in the phase of 1-2 true leaves. It should be remembered that cotyledons, the first oblong leaves to appear on the surface, are not considered to be leaves. The first leaf is a real tomato leaf with stakes. It is precisely when he appears that they are preparing for a dive.

Immediately before the dive, the seedlings shed abundantly - this way it will be easier to extract them from the soil. It is most convenient to remove seedlings from the ground with a mild knife. For further growth, a container measuring 6 * 6 cm or 8 * 8 cm is enough for a tomato.

Before picking, the substrate must be prepared. Disinfection is one of the important stages, especially if self-prepared soils are used for growing seedlings. In this case, the soil must be prepared in advance, 2-3 days in advance, by spilling it first with water and then with Pharmayod's solution (10 ml / 1 l of water). After processing the soil with Pharmayod, you need to wait 2-3 days and only after that start picking. It is convenient to use specialized soils for tomatoes, peppers and eggplants or for seedlings of vegetable crops, such as "Bogatyr" and "Biopit". Ready soils do not require preliminary preparation, lime application, have an optimal particle size and contain all the necessary nutrients for the proper development of seedlings.

Primer Professional Biopit
Primer Professional Biopit
Soil for tomatoes, peppers and eggplants
Soil for tomatoes, peppers and eggplants
Universal soil for seedlings
Universal soil for seedlings

During the pick, you can correct the disadvantages of the seedlings. Seedlings without a growth point are immediately discarded - they are clearly visible, their cotyledons are darker and coarser, real leaves do not grow. If the seedlings are elongated, then during the dive they are placed almost lying, at an angle, so that the soil is almost at the level of the cotyledons. An important point during a pick is to prevent the formation of air pockets in the ground in the root zone. Because of this, the plants may not take root. Therefore, it is imperative to press down on the soil after you have placed the seedling in the soil. The easiest way to check if there is space near the roots is to gently pull on the seedling. If you cannot get it, everything is done correctly, but if the seedling is easily pulled out, it means that there was no contact of the roots with the soil and it is necessary to cut it out again.After picking, it is advisable to lightly water the plants.

Tomato seedlings easily tolerate a pick and quickly take root. The situation with the pick of pepper and eggplant is a little different. If in the case of a tomato everything is unambiguous - a pick is needed, then when growing seedlings of pepper and eggplant there are two ways - with and without a pick. Pepper and eggplant are much more difficult to tolerate a pick, so they are often recommended to be sown immediately to a permanent place. However, if this is not possible, it should be borne in mind that when growing seedlings with a pick, the seedling period increases by about 2 weeks. If in the case of a tomato with a dive it is possible to be late, having cut it with 3-4 leaves, then in the case of pepper and eggplant it is better not to tighten it, since older seedlings tolerate a dive worse.

Seedling care

As soon as the plants take root, you can start feeding. You can feed the seedlings every 7-10 days using a solution of humic fertilizers "Bogatyr". For feeding, 2 caps of fertilizer are dissolved in one liter of water. Depending on the container in which the seedlings grow, watering and feeding one plant takes from 150 to 400 ml. If the plants start to stretch, then it is worth limiting watering, lowering the temperature and placing the plants at a greater distance, if the area allows. By the time of planting, tomato plants should have, depending on the variety, 5-9 leaves and a formed flower cluster, pepper and eggplant plants should have 8-10 leaves and first buds. Before transportation and planting, seedlings are not watered for 2-3 days. So the plants become less fragile and practically do not break. By the time the seedlings are disembarked,roots completely entwine a clod of earth. In order to easily reach the plant before planting, just put your palm on the pot, so that the plant is between your fingers, gently turn it over and lightly tap the bottom of the pot. If the seedlings were grown in cassettes, it is enough to move the clod up with your finger through the hole at the bottom of the cell.

Organomineral fertilizers
Organomineral fertilizers

Disease and pest control

As soon as spring comes into its own, the sun warms up, pests wake up. Most often they enter seedlings through open windows during airing. Most often, spider mites, thrips and aphids can be found on seedlings. For pest control at home, you can use drugs of biological origin - Fitoverm, Bitoxibacillin; to combat bacterial drugs, Phytolavin, Gamair are used, fungal diseases - Fitosporin-M, Phytobacterin, Baktofit, Alirin-B, Glyokladin, to combat viral diseases - Farmayod.

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