Peking Cabbage - Features Of Cultivation. Photo

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Peking Cabbage - Features Of Cultivation. Photo
Peking Cabbage - Features Of Cultivation. Photo

Video: Peking Cabbage - Features Of Cultivation. Photo

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Video: How to Grow Chinese Cabbage - Napa Cabbage - TIPS Growing Cabbage From Seeds 2023, January
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For the first time, Peking cabbage was introduced into the culture in China, it was a very, very long time ago: according to some data, more than 4000 years ago, according to others, more accurate, more than 5500 years ago. This vegetable is very widely used in cooking, it lends itself well to frying, stewing, cabbage is added to a variety of soups, and consumed raw. From China, Peking cabbage came to Korea, Japan, the countries of Southeast Asia. It is interesting that in Europe they really learned "well" about Peking cabbage only 60 years ago and are now grown in almost every vegetable garden, and of course, on an industrial scale, especially in America. Our article is about the features of growing Chinese cabbage.

Planting Chinese cabbage
Planting Chinese cabbage

Content:

  • Description of Chinese cabbage
  • The use of Chinese cabbage in cooking
  • Features of growing Chinese cabbage
  • What is the best way to grow Chinese cabbage - by seeds or seedlings?
  • How to care for Chinese cabbage?
  • Peking cabbage pests and control
  • Peking cabbage harvesting and storage
  • Peking cabbage varieties

Description of Chinese cabbage

Peking cabbage is a completely unpretentious vegetable crop; during the warm period, it may well endow the grower with not one, but a couple of crops. Another advantage of Chinese cabbage is that it is not so difficult to grow it, and even novice gardeners can usually cope with this.

Caring for Peking cabbage is simple, it is not a capricious culture, it grows very actively, it is well preserved, it has useful properties and good taste.

Peking cabbage looks like a cross between white cabbage and lettuce, but it still belongs to the cabbage family. The head of this cabbage is not elastic, like that of a white cabbage, it is elongated and has quite a lot of oblong and wrinkled light green leaf blades.

The use of Chinese cabbage in cooking

Due to its very pleasant taste, Peking cabbage is often used as a salad plant. The leaves are not only eaten fresh, but also often serve as a simple decoration for dishes, as if emphasizing the taste of cooked food. Peking cabbage contains a large amount of fiber useful for the stomach and intestines, a whole range of minerals and vitamins.

There are a lot of dishes made from Peking cabbage or with its use; whole cookbooks have been published, where Peking cabbage is the main ingredient in each recipe.

Features of growing Chinese cabbage

Peking cabbage, in addition to the advantages described above, has many other things: it is very early ripening, it takes from 45 (early varieties), 60 (mid-season varieties), to 80 (late varieties) days to harvest Peking cabbage.

Peking cabbage also has its own problems: in addition to the enemies, which we will definitely discuss below, this is the tendency to form arrows with flowers, which then give seeds. Even when sowing seeds (not seedlings), cabbage can throw out the arrow and bloom; naturally, in this case, there can be no question of any exquisite taste or presentation.

How to Avoid Peking Cabbage Shooting?

In order for Chinese cabbage to forget about flowering, you should plant seedlings or sow the seeds of this plant at a certain, most appropriate time. Usually Peking cabbage "leaves" in the arrow when the daylight hours are very long; therefore, it is necessary to sow seeds and plant seedlings when the daylight hours are short - this is the very middle of spring, that is, April or mid-summer, closer to the beginning of August.

It seems that the daylight hours during this period are quite long, but believe me, these are the optimal periods for cabbage, and it will not throw out arrows.

What is the best way to grow Chinese cabbage - by seeds or seedlings?

By the way, we mentioned that Peking cabbage can be grown in two ways: by direct sowing of seeds into the ground and through seedlings, that is, having previously grown it indoors, and then planted in the ground. We can immediately say that growing Peking cabbage by sowing seeds in the ground is also a good way, but it is advisable to use it for residents of the southern regions, while residents of central and cooler regions must first take care of growing seedlings. But in this article we will definitely tell you about both methods of growing Chinese cabbage.

Peking cabbage seedlings
Peking cabbage seedlings

Growing Chinese cabbage through seedlings

Let's start by growing through seedlings. What is important and needs to be remembered here? Firstly, seeds for seedlings can be sown twice a year, that is, the first time around mid-March or a couple of days later and the second time around mid-June, but with a shift towards July also for a couple of days.

The second harvest of Peking cabbage (summer) usually keeps better than the first. Remember: the culture is capricious in terms of picking and it is sick for a long time in the planted area, it takes root slowly, so we would advise sowing seeds immediately into peat-humus pots, from which transplanting is not required. The pots decompose in the soil when planted in the ground, thus the root system is not injured, and the seedlings take root faster.

It is better to fill the pots with a mixture of completely rotted organic matter, turf soil, river sand and garden soil in equal proportions with the addition of 500 g of wood ash per 10 kg of substrate. When sowing Chinese cabbage, lightly water the soil and deepen the seed a centimeter, no more. Next - place the seed pots in a room with room temperature (+ 20 … + 22 ° С).

If you want the seeds of Peking cabbage to sprout faster, then before sowing, soak them for a day in gauze soaked in any safe growth regulator - Epin, Heteroauxin and the like, and then place the pots with seeds at the bottom of the box and cover the food box film.

Try not to change the temperature in the room, spray the surface of the soil in pots from a spray bottle, preventing it from drying out. If you do everything correctly, then in four days, and sometimes even earlier, sprouts of Peking cabbage will appear. Immediately after their appearance, the film must be removed, and the containers must be placed on the southern windowsill.

Caring for Peking cabbage seedlings consists in watering (taking into account soil moisture) and providing plants with a daylight hours equal to 12-13 hours, no more. LED lamps are well suited for additional lighting.

After the appearance of four or five well-developed leaves, which is usually observed in Peking cabbage after 25-30 days, the seedlings (after one week of hardening) can be planted on the site.

Hardening is an important stage, it consists in the gradual adaptation of plants to more severe conditions. Great if you have a closed balcony or veranda. When the plants form the appropriate number of leaves, the seedlings can be taken out there for a couple of hours, the next day the time the seedlings stay on the balcony or terrace can be doubled, and so bring this time to a day.

After hardening, it is permissible to plant Peking cabbage on the beds, for this you need to pick up a loose bed, always well lit, without stagnation of irrigation water. When planting, be sure to take into account those crops that grew on this bed earlier, for example, Peking cabbage grows remarkably after onions, garlic, carrots and potatoes, but after crucifers it is bad.

Growing Chinese cabbage without seedlings

To do this, you first need to prepare the soil, however, as in the case of planting seedlings in open ground, dig up shovels with a full bayonet, break up lumps, loosen, after making sure that worthy predecessors occupied the garden bed, or the soil was fallow.

After the beds are placed in a perfectly lit place, devoid of any, even a small shadow, it is necessary to sow the seeds of Peking cabbage in holes or grooves, deepening each centimeter by two, no more. After sowing, it is advisable to water the soil either with a spray bottle or from a watering can, but with a nozzle that has very small holes.

If you sow Peking cabbage in dry weather, then after watering the soil surface, in order to preserve moisture as much as possible, you need to lightly sprinkle it, literally dusting it with wood ash, stove ash or soot. If the weather is cool and there may even be frosts, then the crops should be covered with a transparent film. When sowing seeds in the soil of open ground, the seedlings will have to wait twice as long as when sowing in peat-humus cups.

Seedlings of Chinese cabbage, planted in a garden
Seedlings of Chinese cabbage, planted in a garden

How to care for Chinese cabbage?

So, we found out - Peking cabbage prefers a relatively short day, but loves to grow in a well-lit place, loves the abundance of water in the soil and tolerates, one might even say - loves, coolness. If it is cold outside for summer - from +16 to + 19 ° C, then for Peking cabbage it is just right. The high temperature, when the “burdocks” grow, and the low temperature, when the cabbage does not grow corny, can drastically reduce the yield.

Considering all this, we advise you to immediately stock up on non-woven covering material and hard wire arcs and if it is cold, then cover the plants. Such an impromptu greenhouse can save cabbage from sudden temperature changes, slightly raise the air temperature or lower it slightly - accordingly, the shelter must be installed at night or for the day. In summer periods, characterized by excessive rainfall, such a shelter can save Peking cabbage from rot, because, as we have already said, it loves plenty of moisture, but not its excess.

When caring for Chinese cabbage, loosening the soil, without waiting for the formation of a soil crust, watch out for the timely removal of weeds. It is better to remove them by hand after rain or watering the soil, then they are pulled out with the maximum number of roots.

After removing the weeds, the soil can be mulched, for this a centimeter layer of wood ash, stove ash or stove soot is suitable, but ordinary dry soil can also be used. You can start loosening the soil and mulching about 25-30 days after germination or 15-20 days after planting seedlings.

Her Chinese cabbage simply adores: put a barrel of 300 liters under the drain and paint it black, then the water will warm up in a day, that is, the benefits when watering will turn out to be double. You can water it either every other day, but little by little, about 2-3 liters per square meter, or you can water it once a week, but pouring out a bucket of water for every square meter.

Top dressing of Beijing cabbage

How many times it is necessary to feed Peking cabbage depends directly on the time of planting seedlings or sowing seeds in open ground. If the seedlings of Peking cabbage (or sowing seeds) were planted (carried out) in the spring, then it is better to carry out three dressings; and if in the summer, then two will be enough.

Fertilizers are best applied when dissolved in water. As fertilizers, you can use nitroammophoska (a tablespoon per bucket of water, the rate is 2-3 liters per square meter), or a variety of natural infusions.

For example, you can fertilize plants with a mullein, diluting it ten times, after which, after insisting for a couple of days, you can start watering with this solution - two liters will be enough per square meter. Infusion of bird droppings is suitable, only it needs to be diluted 20 times and let it brew for three days, the consumption rate is the same. Peking cabbage responds well to an infusion of weeds, especially nettle - you need to mow about a kilogram of fresh, young nettle and pour a bucket of water, let it brew for a week, dilute it twice and you can water it, spending five liters of such infusion per square meter.

If you want Chinese cabbage to form a dense ovary, then use an infusion of boric acid. To prepare it, it is necessary to literally dissolve a gram and a half of boric acid in a bucket of water and let it brew for a day, then fill the spray bottle and process the plants directly on the foliage in the evening.

Peking cabbage in the garden
Peking cabbage in the garden

Peking cabbage pests and control

Now let's talk about the worst pests of Chinese cabbage; in our opinion, this is a cruciferous flea and slugs. Since Chinese cabbage is often eaten fresh, and it ripens rather quickly, we would not recommend using pesticides, but we recommend using folk remedies.

First of all, these are:

  • observance of crop rotation (no cruciferous plants should grow in the garden to Peking cabbage);
  • adherence to the landing time, which we wrote about;
  • the use of shelters that will reliably protect from pests;
  • the use of ash (wood or stove) or soot (with any of these compositions, as soon as shoots are formed or immediately after planting seedlings, it is permissible to slightly powder the soil).

Before winter, always dig up the soil on a full bayonet of a shovel without breaking clods, and although the larvae of the pests are very tenacious, most of them will die from frost.

Sometimes even joint planting helps from pests, for example, they often do not touch tender cabbage leaves if cucumbers, tomatoes or onions with garlic grow nearby.

In the most extreme case, at least 25 days before the harvest, it is permissible to use insecticides, only permitted and strictly following the instructions on the package, but we advise you to try first to treat cabbage with biological preparations such as "Bitoxibacillin", sometimes it helps well.

Now about slugs, they also cause considerable harm to Chinese cabbage, literally devouring it. Slugs "work" in the dark and sometimes gardeners do not even understand who could have done this with cabbage.

Slugs can be lime in a variety of ways. One of the simplest is placing planks, pieces of slate, plastic, roofing material on the surface of the soil where Peking cabbage grows. As a rule, after a night feast, slugs seek refuge for themselves, and such elements on the site seem to them a very reliable home. In the morning, you can remove everything you laid out yesterday and collect the slugs that have accumulated under the shelters.

Another option is a wild mixture of wood ash - 250-300 g and hot pepper - about a tablespoon. This composition can be sprinkled on the soil around the Chinese cabbage, before rain or watering, it helps, but then this procedure has to be repeated.

Gardeners also note the effectiveness of the usual "brilliant green", just one bubble is enough for a bucket of water and this amount - for about five square meters of soil.

Peking cabbage harvesting and storage

Peking cabbage is a fairly cold-resistant culture, frosts down to -2 … -3 ° C are absolutely not afraid of it, it continues to grow and develop, as if nothing had happened. Often, gardeners carry out the second harvest in mid-October in the center of Russia and in mid-November in its southern regions.

When sowing or planting Peking cabbage in the spring, you need to harvest the cabbage, focusing on the state of the head: as soon as it becomes dense, and naturally, a period of time typical for this variety passes, then the cabbage can be harvested by cutting.

Peking cabbage for summer sowing or planting is well stored at a humidity of 80-85% and a temperature of + 4 … + 6 ° С. Sometimes it is simply wrapped in plastic wrap and placed in the refrigerator, so it can also be stored for a long time.

Peking cabbage varieties

By the way, since we have already mentioned the varieties, let us very briefly name the novelties of Peking cabbage, the most famous seed producers, and at the same time guide you, dear readers, in terms of its ripening.

So, the early varieties of Peking cabbage are:

  • "Medalist" (agrofirm "Poisk", head weight up to 1.6 kg);
  • "Shanghai" (agrofirm "Aelita", head weight up to 1.3 kg);
  • “Sentyabrina” (agricultural company “SeDeK”, head weight up to 1.1 kg);
  • Miss China (SeDeK agricultural company, head weight up to 1.0 kg);
  • "Spring Beauty" (agricultural company "SeDeK", head weight up to 2.0 kg);
  • "Autumn Jade" (agricultural company "SeDeK", head weight up to 2.9 kg);
  • "Naina" (agricultural company "SeDeK", head weight up to 3.0 kg);
  • "Lyubasha" (agrofirm "Poisk", head weight up to 2.1 kg).

Peking cabbage varieties, medium in terms of ripening:

  • "Harbin" (agricultural firm "Gavrish", head weight up to 1.8 kg);
  • "Aikido" (agricultural firm "Gavrish", head weight up to 2.0 kg);
  • "Orange heart" (agricultural company "SeDeK", head weight up to 1.5 kg);
  • "Granata" (agricultural company "SeDeK", head weight up to 2.3 kg);
  • "Autumn Beauty" (agricultural company "SeDeK", head weight up to 2.4 kg).

And a late variety of Peking cabbage:

"Spring nephrite" (agricultural company "SeDeK", head weight up to 3.0 kg)

Do you grow Chinese cabbage? What sort of? What interesting dishes do you like to cook from it? Share your experience in the comments on the article!

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