Table of contents:
- 1. Bacterial apple cancer
- 2. Common cancer
- 3. Black cancer
- 4. Cytosporosis of the apple tree
- 5. Moniliosis
- 6. Scab
- 7. Apple Alternaria
- 8. Chlorosis
- How to deal with diseases of apple trees?
Video: 8 Most Common Apple Diseases. Description And Photo
2023 Author: Ava Durham | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 07:13
The apple tree is one of the most beloved fruit trees of most gardeners. But in order to collect a large harvest of apples, you have to work annually. And first of all - to protect apple trees from diseases. In this article, we will consider the most dangerous and common diseases of apple trees: several types of cancer, moniliosis, scab, cytosporosis, ascochitis and brown spot, chlorosis. Perhaps you will never face some of these diseases, but you need to know about them in order to take protective measures in time.
1. Bacterial apple cancer
Bacterial necrosis of the cortex is another name for bacterial cancer. It is found everywhere. Spread by wind, insects and untreated garden tools. Often it gets into the garden with infected seedlings. It is preserved on diseased plants.
The development of the disease begins in the spring: the buds, bark, leaves turn brown on the branches, young shoots turn black, dry out. The affected areas of the bark swell, there are soft swellings or depressed spots with a cherry-purple border. The wood decays with the release of a sour odor (fermented apple juice). The plant dies. In the chronic course of the disease, there is a gradual increase in ulcers with abundant release of gum.
2. Common cancer
Common crayfish, or European crayfish, often appears at the site of frost cracks and other mechanical damage to the tree. It often affects weakened seedlings. The pathogen remains in diseased wood.
Initially, elongated brown spots appear on the bark, which gradually dry out and crack. If you remove the bark, deep ulcers are found under it, the edges of which are raised due to the overgrown callus tissue. The ulcers get bigger and deeper every year. If young trees are affected, then after 2-3 years they may die.
3. Black cancer
Most often, the development of black apple cancer can be found in the fork in the skeletal branches. Depressed brown-red spots appear, which gradually darken and become covered with pycnidia (fruiting bodies of the causative fungus). The affected areas of the bark become like "goose bumps", crack, dry out and flake off in layers. On fruits and leaves, cancer appears as dark spots, resembling black rot. If the stem is affected, the plant completely dies within several years.
Black cancer may appear differently, especially with thickened tree planting. The bark darkens to black, becomes covered with numerous cracks, and easily crumbles.
4. Cytosporosis of the apple tree
The second name of the disease is infectious bark drying. Infection occurs through mechanical damage. The bark of boles and branches becomes brown, dies off. On the affected areas, grayish-brown tubercles are formed - the stroma of the fungus. These areas dry out, wet.
The disease is also called monilial burn. It is caused by several pathogens, which is why it has several manifestations. The first manifests itself in the transient browning and drying of the fruit twigs together with flowers, ovary, leaves, which then do not fall off for a long time. The plant looks like it has been burnt by a flame.
The second manifestation is called monilial or fruit rot, since it already develops on the fruit. Moreover, there are also two types of damage. The first is that rot develops at the site of damage to the fruit by the moth and eventually covers the entire surface of the apple. On the surface of the rot, many grayish sporulation pads of the fungus are formed, which are arranged concentrically. The fruit dries up, mummifies and remains on the tree, becoming a place for infection.
The second type of lesion manifests itself with late infestation of fruits in the garden or already during the preparation of the harvested crop for transportation. It is expressed in the darkening of the fruit: the surface of the apple gradually turns black (to a bluish-black hue), acquires a characteristic shine, smoothness, leatheriness. The flesh of the affected fruit is brown, soft, spongy with a sweet-wine flavor. In this case, sporulation may not be, because of which the infection does not spread further.
The disease most often manifests itself on the leaves and fruits of the apple tree, which spoils their presentation. Hibernates on plant debris.
During spring and early summer infection, large dark green, velvety spots appear on the upper side of the leaf blade. The affected leaf prematurely loses color and falls off. With repeated re-infection, the spots are small, almost invisible.
On fruits, scab appears as ugly black cracking spots of various sizes and shapes. Rarely, but affected young shoots can also be found.
7. Apple Alternaria
More often it appears on foliage in the form of rounded brown spots with dark edging, which gradually increase and merge. With a high degree of damage, branches may dry out. The development of spots is observed on the fruits, but more often the infection develops inside the apples, in the core. Often scab and Alternaria are found on an apple tree at the same time.
Chlorosis can be caused by a number of completely different reasons: lack or excess of moisture, the appearance of frost cracks, the dying off of the bark, the appearance of stem or root rot, necrosis, and virus damage. However, chlorosis is most often associated with a lack of nutrient supply to young shoots (iron, zinc, sulfur, calcium, magnesium, potassium) due to the influence of external conditions. It manifests itself in a uniform lightening of the leaf tissues between the veins or together with them.
How to deal with diseases of apple trees?
Most of the listed diseases affect weakened plants (therefore, often when examining a tree, not one, but several diseases are found at once) and they "love" dense plantings. Infections are mainly spread from tree to tree by insects, carried by the wind, and also on working tools (pruning shears, saws). They penetrate the tissues of trees through mechanical damage. Fungal bacteria and spores overwinter in diseased tissues and infected plant debris.
Based on this, it becomes clear why when growing an apple tree, however, like other crops, it is so important to follow the rules of agricultural technology - to plant plants at an optimal distance, process frost holes and cuts in time, remove plant debris from under trees, remove and destroy mummified fruits, and if necessary, apply chemical control measures.
If bacterial, common, black cancer, cytosporosis are found in the garden, an annual early spring treatment of trees with a Bordeaux mixture or its substitute preparations - "HOM", "Abiga-Peak", etc. is necessary. And also - removal of diseased branches, cleaning the affected areas and disinfection wounds with 1% copper sulfate, treatment of sections with special oil paint. Burning cut infected plant parts.
For the prevention of monniliosis, spraying with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture with repeated treatments up to 3 times is suitable, as well as: "Topsin M", "HOM", "Topaz", "Horus", "Zircon", "Fitosporin-M", "Abiga-Peak", "Gamair", "But" using according to the instructions.
To combat scab, spraying with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture before flowering with repetition after flowering, or with Alirin-B, Abiga-Peak, Gamair, Zato, Kamerton, Impact, etc. is suitable. …
Against Alternaria - spraying before and after flowering with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture or its substitutes - "But", "Skor", "Horus".
In order to counter chlorosis, it is important to understand what causes it. If this is non-infectious chlorosis, you need to feed the apple tree with fertilizer with the missing element. If the cause is a disease, it is necessary to fight against it.
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